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WITNESS(4)	       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual		    WITNESS(4)

NAME
     witness --	lock validation	facility

SYNOPSIS
     options WITNESS
     options WITNESS_KDB
     options WITNESS_SKIPSPIN

DESCRIPTION
     The witness module	keeps track of the locks acquired and released by each
     thread.  It also keeps track of the order in which	locks are acquired
     with respect to each other.  Each time a lock is acquired,	witness	uses
     these two lists to	verify that a lock is not being	acquired in the	wrong
     order.  If	a lock order violation is detected, then a message is output
     to	the kernel console detailing the locks involved	and the	locations in
     question.	Witness	can also be configured to drop into the	kernel debug-
     ger when an order violation occurs.

     The witness code also checks various other	conditions such	as verifying
     that one does not recurse on a non-recursive lock.	 For sleep locks,
     witness verifies that a new process would not be switched to when a lock
     is	released or a lock is blocked on during	an acquire while any spin
     locks are held.  If any of	these checks fail, then	the kernel will	panic.

     The flag that controls whether or not the kernel debugger is entered when
     a lock order violation is detected	can be set in a	variety	of ways.  By
     default, the flag is off, but if the WITNESS_KDB kernel option is speci-
     fied, then	the flag will default to on.  It can also be set from the
     loader(8) via the debug.witness.kdb environment variable or after the
     kernel has	booted via the debug.witness.kdb sysctl.  If the flag is set
     to	zero, then the debugger	will not be entered.  If the flag is non-zero,
     then the debugger will be entered.

     The witness code can also be configured to	skip all checks	on spin
     mutexes.  By default, this	flag defaults to off, but it can be turned on
     by	specifying the WITNESS_SKIPSPIN	kernel option.	The flag can also be
     set via the loader(8) environment variable	debug.witness.skipspin.	 If
     the variable is set to a non-zero value, then spin	mutexes	are skipped.
     Once the kernel has booted, the status of this flag can be	examined but
     not set via the read-only sysctl debug.witness.skipspin.

     The sysctl	debug.witness.watch specifies the level	of witness involvement
     in	the system.  A value of	1 specifies that witness is enabled.  A	value
     of	0 specifies that witness is disabled, but that can be enabled again.
     This will maintain	a small	amount of overhead in the system.  A value of
     -1	specifies that witness is disabled permanently and that	cannot be
     enabled again.  The sysctl	debug.witness.watch can	be set via loader(8).

     The witness code also provides two	extra ddb(4) commands if both witness
     and ddb(4)	are compiled into the kernel:

     show locks
     Outputs the list of locks held by the current thread to the kernel	con-
     sole along	with the filename and line number at which each	lock was last
     acquired by this thread.

     show witness
     Dump the current order list to the	kernel console.	 The code first	dis-
     plays the lock order tree for all of the sleep locks.  Then it displays
     the lock order tree for all of the	spin locks.  Finally, it displays a
     list of locks that	have not yet been acquired.

SEE ALSO
     ddb(4), loader(8),	sysctl(8), mutex(9)

HISTORY
     The witness code first appeared in	BSD/OS 5.0 and was imported from there
     into FreeBSD 5.0.

BUGS
     The witness code currently	does not handle	recursion of shared sx(9)
     locks properly.

FreeBSD	9.2		       February	18, 2001		   FreeBSD 9.2

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | BUGS

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