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VINUM(4)	       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual		      VINUM(4)

NAME
     vinum -- Logical Volume Manager

SYNOPSIS
     device vinum

DESCRIPTION
     vinum is a	logical	volume manager inspired	by, but	not derived from, the
     Veritas Volume Manager.  It provides the following	features:

     +o	 It provides device-independent	logical	disks, called volumes.	Vol-
	 umes are not restricted to the	size of	any disk on the	system.

     +o	 The volumes consist of	one or more plexes, each of which contain the
	 entire	address	space of a volume.  This represents an implementation
	 of RAID-1 (mirroring).	 Multiple plexes can also be used for:

	 +o   Increased read throughput.	 vinum will read data from the least
	     active disk, so if	a volume has plexes on multiple	disks, more
	     data can be read in parallel.  vinum reads	data from only one
	     plex, but it writes data to all plexes.

	 +o   Increased reliability.  By	storing	plexes on different disks,
	     data will remain available	even if	one of the plexes becomes
	     unavailable.  In comparison with a	RAID-5 plex (see below), using
	     multiple plexes requires more storage space, but gives better
	     performance, particularly in the case of a	drive failure.

	 +o   Additional	plexes can be used for on-line data reorganization.
	     By	attaching an additional	plex and subsequently detaching	one of
	     the older plexes, data can	be moved on-line without compromising
	     access.

	 +o   An	additional plex	can be used to obtain a	consistent dump	of a
	     file system.  By attaching	an additional plex and detaching at a
	     specific time, the	detached plex becomes an accurate snapshot of
	     the file system at	the time of detachment.

     +o	 Each plex consists of one or more logical disk	slices,	called
	 subdisks.  Subdisks are defined as a contiguous block of physical
	 disk storage.	A plex may consist of any reasonable number of sub-
	 disks (in other words,	the real limit is not the number, but other
	 factors, such as memory and performance, associated with maintaining
	 a large number	of subdisks).

     +o	 A number of mappings between subdisks and plexes are available:

	 +o   Concatenated plexes consist of one	or more	subdisks, each of
	     which is mapped to	a contiguous part of the plex address space.

	 +o   Striped plexes consist of two or more subdisks of equal size.
	     The file address space is mapped in stripes, integral fractions
	     of	the subdisk size.  Consecutive plex address space is mapped to
	     stripes in	each subdisk in	turn.  The subdisks of a striped plex
	     must all be the same size.

	 +o   RAID-5 plexes require at least three equal-sized subdisks.	 They
	     resemble striped plexes, except that in each stripe, one subdisk
	     stores parity information.	 This subdisk changes in each stripe:
	     in	the first stripe, it is	the first subdisk, in the second it is
	     the second	subdisk, etc.  In the event of a single	disk failure,
	     vinum will	recover	the data based on the information stored on
	     the remaining subdisks.  This mapping is particularly suited to
	     read-intensive access.  The subdisks of a RAID-5 plex must	all be
	     the same size.

     +o	 Drives	are the	lowest level of	the storage hierarchy.	They represent
	 disk special devices.

     +o	 vinum offers automatic	startup.  Unlike UNIX file systems, vinum vol-
	 umes contain all the configuration information	needed to ensure that
	 they are started correctly when the subsystem is enabled.  This is
	 also a	significant advantage over the Veritastm File System.  This
	 feature regards the presence of the volumes.  It does not mean	that
	 the volumes will be mounted automatically, since the standard startup
	 procedures with /etc/fstab perform this function.

KERNEL CONFIGURATION
     vinum is currently	supplied as a KLD module, and does not require config-
     uration.  As with other KLDs, it is absolutely necessary to match the KLD
     to	the version of the operating system.  Failure to do so will cause
     vinum to issue an error message and terminate.

     It	is possible to configure vinum in the kernel, but this is not recom-
     mended.  To do so,	add this line to the kernel configuration file:

	   device vinum

   Debug Options
     The current version of vinum, both	the kernel module and the user program
     gvinum(8),	include	significant debugging support.	It is not recommended
     to	remove this support at the moment, but if you do you must remove it
     from both the kernel and the user components.  To do this,	edit the files
     /usr/src/sbin/vinum/Makefile and /usr/src/sys/modules/vinum/Makefile and
     edit the CFLAGS variable to remove	the -DVINUMDEBUG option.  If you have
     configured	vinum into the kernel, either specify the line

	   options VINUMDEBUG

     in	the kernel configuration file or remove	the -DVINUMDEBUG option	from
     /usr/src/sbin/vinum/Makefile as described above.

     If	the VINUMDEBUG variables do not	match, gvinum(8) will fail with	a mes-
     sage explaining the problem and what to do	to correct it.

   Other Options
     options VINUM_AUTOSTART

     Make vinum	automatically scan all available disks at attach time.	This
     is	a deprecated way that is primarily intended for	environments that do
     not want to rely on kernel	environment variables set by loader(8).

     vinum was previously available in two versions: a freely available	ver-
     sion which	did not	contain	RAID-5 functionality, and a full version
     including RAID-5 functionality, which was available only from Cybernet
     Systems Inc.  The present version of vinum	includes the RAID-5 function-
     ality.

RUNNING	VINUM
     vinum is part of the base FreeBSD system.	It does	not require installa-
     tion.  To start it, start the gvinum(8) program, which will load the KLD
     if	it is not already present.  Before using vinum,	it must	be configured.
     See gvinum(8) for information on how to create a vinum configuration.

     Normally, you start a configured version of vinum at boot time.  Set the
     variable start_vinum in /etc/rc.conf to ``YES'' to	start vinum at boot
     time.  (See rc.conf(5) for	more details.)

     If	vinum is loaded	as a KLD (the recommended way),	the vinum stop command
     will unload it (see gvinum(8)).  You can also do this with	the
     kldunload(8) command.

     The KLD can only be unloaded when idle, in	other words when no volumes
     are mounted and no	other instances	of the gvinum(8) program are active.
     Unloading the KLD does not	harm the data in the volumes.

   Configuring and Starting Objects
     Use the gvinum(8) utility to configure and	start vinum objects.

AUTOMATIC STARTUP
     The vinum subsystem can be	automatically started at attach	time.  There
     are two kernel environment	variables that can be set in loader.conf(5) to
     accomplish	this.

	   vinum.autostart  If this variable is	set (to	any value), the	attach
			    function will attempt to scan all available	disks
			    for	valid vinum configuration records.  This is
			    the	preferred way if automatic startup is desired.

			    Example:
				  vinum.autostart="YES"

	   vinum.drives	    Alternatively, this	variable can enumerate a list
			    of disk devices to scan for	configuration records.
			    Note that only the ``bare''	device names need to
			    be given, since vinum will automatically scan all
			    possible slices and	partitions.

			    Example:
				  vinum.drives="da0 da1"

     If	automatic startup is used, it is not necessary to set the start_vinum
     variable of rc.conf(5).  Note that	if vinum is to supply to the volume
     for the root file system, it is necessary to start	the subsystem early.
     This can be achieved by specifying

	   vinum_load="YES"

     in	loader.conf(5).

IOCTL CALLS
     ioctl(2) calls are	intended for the use of	the gvinum(8) configuration
     program only.  They are described in the header file
     /sys/dev/vinum/vinumio.h.

   Disk	Labels
     Conventional disk special devices have a disk label in the	second sector
     of	the device.  See disklabel(5) for more details.	 This disk label
     describes the layout of the partitions within the device.	vinum does not
     subdivide volumes,	so volumes do not contain a physical disk label.  For
     convenience, vinum	implements the ioctl calls DIOCGDINFO (get disk
     label), DIOCGPART (get partition information), DIOCWDINFO (write parti-
     tion information) and DIOCSDINFO (set partition information).  DIOCGDINFO
     and DIOCGPART refer to an internal	representation of the disk label which
     is	not present on the volume.  As a result, the -r	option of
     disklabel(8), which reads the ``raw disk'', will fail.

     In	general, disklabel(8) serves no	useful purpose on a vinum volume.  If
     you run it, it will show you three	partitions, `a', `b' and `c', all the
     same except for the fstype, for example:

     3 partitions:
     #	      size   offset    fstype	[fsize bsize bps/cpg]
       a:     2048	  0    4.2BSD	  1024	8192	 0   # (Cyl.	0 - 0)
       b:     2048	  0	 swap			     # (Cyl.	0 - 0)
       c:     2048	  0    unused	     0	   0	     # (Cyl.	0 - 0)

     vinum ignores the DIOCWDINFO and DIOCSDINFO ioctls, since there is	noth-
     ing to change.  As	a result, any attempt to modify	the disk label will be
     silently ignored.

MAKING FILE SYSTEMS
     Since vinum volumes do not	contain	partitions, the	names do not need to
     conform to	the standard rules for naming disk partitions.	For a physical
     disk partition, the last letter of	the device name	specifies the parti-
     tion identifier (a	to h).	vinum volumes need not conform to this conven-
     tion, but if they do not, newfs(8)	will complain that it cannot determine
     the partition.  To	solve this problem, use	the -v flag to newfs(8).  For
     example, if you have a volume concat, use the following command to	create
     a UFS file	system on it:

	   newfs -v /dev/vinum/concat

OBJECT NAMING
     vinum assigns default names to plexes and subdisks, although they may be
     overridden.  We do	not recommend overriding the default names.  Experi-
     ence with the Veritastm volume manager, which allows arbitrary naming of
     objects, has shown	that this flexibility does not bring a significant
     advantage,	and it can cause confusion.

     Names may contain any non-blank character,	but it is recommended to
     restrict them to letters, digits and the underscore characters.  The
     names of volumes, plexes and subdisks may be up to	64 characters long,
     and the names of drives may up to 32 characters long.  When choosing vol-
     ume and plex names, bear in mind that automatically generated plex	and
     subdisk names are longer than the name from which they are	derived.

     +o	 When vinum creates or deletes objects,	it creates a directory
	 /dev/vinum, in	which it makes device entries for each volume it
	 finds.	 It also creates subdirectories, /dev/vinum/plex and
	 /dev/vinum/sd,	in which it stores device entries for plexes and sub-
	 disks.	 In addition, it creates two more directories, /dev/vinum/vol
	 and /dev/vinum/drive, in which	it stores hierarchical information for
	 volumes and drives.

     +o	 In addition, vinum creates three super-devices, /dev/vinum/control,
	 /dev/vinum/Control and	/dev/vinum/controld.  /dev/vinum/control is
	 used by gvinum(8) when	it has been compiled without the VINUMDEBUG
	 option, /dev/vinum/Control is used by gvinum(8) when it has been com-
	 piled with the	VINUMDEBUG option, and /dev/vinum/controld is used by
	 the vinum daemon.  The	two control devices for	gvinum(8) are used to
	 synchronize the debug status of kernel	and user modules.

     +o	 Unlike	UNIX drives, vinum volumes are not subdivided into partitions,
	 and thus do not contain a disk	label.	Unfortunately, this confuses a
	 number	of utilities, notably newfs(8),	which normally tries to	inter-
	 pret the last letter of a vinum volume	name as	a partition identi-
	 fier.	If you use a volume name which does not	end in the letters `a'
	 to `c', you must use the -v flag to newfs(8) in order to tell it to
	 ignore	this convention.

     +o	 Plexes	do not need to be assigned explicit names.  By default,	a plex
	 name is the name of the volume	followed by the	letters	.p and the
	 number	of the plex.  For example, the plexes of volume	vol3 are
	 called	vol3.p0, vol3.p1 and so	on.  These names can be	overridden,
	 but it	is not recommended.

     +o	 Like plexes, subdisks are assigned names automatically, and explicit
	 naming	is discouraged.	 A subdisk name	is the name of the plex	fol-
	 lowed by the letters .s and a number identifying the subdisk.	For
	 example, the subdisks of plex vol3.p0 are called vol3.p0.s0,
	 vol3.p0.s1 and	so on.

     +o	 By contrast, drives must be named.  This makes	it possible to move a
	 drive to a different location and still recognize it automatically.
	 Drive names may be up to 32 characters	long.

   Example
     Assume the	vinum objects described	in the section CONFIGURATION FILE in
     gvinum(8).	 The directory /dev/vinum looks	like:

	   # ls	-lR /dev/vinum
	   total 5
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25,   2 Mar 30 16:08 concat
	   brwx------  1 root  wheel   25, 0x40000000 Mar 30 16:08 control
	   brwx------  1 root  wheel   25, 0x40000001 Mar 30 16:08 controld
	   drwxrwxrwx  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 drive
	   drwxrwxrwx  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 plex
	   drwxrwxrwx  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 rvol
	   drwxrwxrwx  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 sd
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25,   3 Mar 30 16:08 strcon
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25,   1 Mar 30 16:08 stripe
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25,   0 Mar 30 16:08 tinyvol
	   drwxrwxrwx  7 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 vol
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25,   4 Mar 30 16:08 vol5

	   /dev/vinum/drive:
	   total 0
	   brw-r-----  1 root  operator	   4,  15 Oct 21 16:51 drive2
	   brw-r-----  1 root  operator	   4,  31 Oct 21 16:51 drive4

	   /dev/vinum/plex:
	   total 0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10000002 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10010002 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p1
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10000003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10010003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p1
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10000001 Mar 30 16:08 stripe.p0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10000000 Mar 30 16:08 tinyvol.p0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10000004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10010004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p1

	   /dev/vinum/sd:
	   total 0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20000002 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p0.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20100002 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p0.s1
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20010002 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p1.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20000003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p0.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20100003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p0.s1
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20010003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p1.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20110003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p1.s1
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20000001 Mar 30 16:08 stripe.p0.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20100001 Mar 30 16:08 stripe.p0.s1
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20000000 Mar 30 16:08 tinyvol.p0.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20100000 Mar 30 16:08 tinyvol.p0.s1
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20000004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p0.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20100004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p0.s1
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20010004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p1.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20110004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p1.s1

	   /dev/vinum/vol:
	   total 5
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25,   2 Mar 30 16:08 concat
	   drwxr-xr-x  4 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 concat.plex
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25,   3 Mar 30 16:08 strcon
	   drwxr-xr-x  4 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.plex
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25,   1 Mar 30 16:08 stripe
	   drwxr-xr-x  3 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 stripe.plex
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25,   0 Mar 30 16:08 tinyvol
	   drwxr-xr-x  3 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 tinyvol.plex
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25,   4 Mar 30 16:08 vol5
	   drwxr-xr-x  4 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.plex

	   /dev/vinum/vol/concat.plex:
	   total 2
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10000002 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p0
	   drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p0.sd
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10010002 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p1
	   drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p1.sd

	   /dev/vinum/vol/concat.plex/concat.p0.sd:
	   total 0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20000002 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p0.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20100002 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p0.s1

	   /dev/vinum/vol/concat.plex/concat.p1.sd:
	   total 0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20010002 Mar 30 16:08 concat.p1.s0

	   /dev/vinum/vol/strcon.plex:
	   total 2
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10000003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p0
	   drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p0.sd
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10010003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p1
	   drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p1.sd

	   /dev/vinum/vol/strcon.plex/strcon.p0.sd:
	   total 0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20000003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p0.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20100003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p0.s1

	   /dev/vinum/vol/strcon.plex/strcon.p1.sd:
	   total 0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20010003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p1.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20110003 Mar 30 16:08 strcon.p1.s1

	   /dev/vinum/vol/stripe.plex:
	   total 1
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10000001 Mar 30 16:08 stripe.p0
	   drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 stripe.p0.sd

	   /dev/vinum/vol/stripe.plex/stripe.p0.sd:
	   total 0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20000001 Mar 30 16:08 stripe.p0.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20100001 Mar 30 16:08 stripe.p0.s1

	   /dev/vinum/vol/tinyvol.plex:
	   total 1
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10000000 Mar 30 16:08 tinyvol.p0
	   drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 tinyvol.p0.sd

	   /dev/vinum/vol/tinyvol.plex/tinyvol.p0.sd:
	   total 0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20000000 Mar 30 16:08 tinyvol.p0.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20100000 Mar 30 16:08 tinyvol.p0.s1

	   /dev/vinum/vol/vol5.plex:
	   total 2
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10000004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p0
	   drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p0.sd
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x10010004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p1
	   drwxr-xr-x  2 root  wheel	   512 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p1.sd

	   /dev/vinum/vol/vol5.plex/vol5.p0.sd:
	   total 0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20000004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p0.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20100004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p0.s1

	   /dev/vinum/vol/vol5.plex/vol5.p1.sd:
	   total 0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20010004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p1.s0
	   brwxr-xr--  1 root  wheel   25, 0x20110004 Mar 30 16:08 vol5.p1.s1

     In	the case of unattached plexes and subdisks, the	naming is reversed.
     Subdisks are named	after the disk on which	they are located, and plexes
     are named after the subdisk.  This	mapping	is still to be determined.

   Object States
     Each vinum	object has a state associated with it.	vinum uses this	state
     to	determine the handling of the object.

   Volume States
     Volumes may have the following states:

     down	     The volume	is completely inaccessible.

     up		     The volume	is up and at least partially functional.  Not
		     all plexes	may be available.

   Plex	States
     Plexes may	have the following states:

     referenced	     A plex entry which	has been referenced as part of a vol-
		     ume, but which is currently not known.

     faulty	     A plex which has gone completely down because of I/O
		     errors.

     down	     A plex which has been taken down by the administrator.

     initializing    A plex which is being initialized.

     The remaining states represent plexes which are at	least partially	up.

     corrupt	     A plex entry which	is at least partially up.  Not all
		     subdisks are available, and an inconsistency has
		     occurred.	If no other plex is uncorrupted, the volume is
		     no	longer consistent.

     degraded	     A RAID-5 plex entry which is accessible, but one subdisk
		     is	down, requiring	recovery for many I/O requests.

     flaky	     A plex which is really up,	but which has a	reborn subdisk
		     which we do not completely	trust, and which we do not
		     want to read if we	can avoid it.

     up		     A plex entry which	is completely up.  All subdisks	are
		     up.

   Subdisk States
     Subdisks can have the following states:

     empty	     A subdisk entry which has been created completely.	 All
		     fields are	correct, and the disk has been updated,	but
		     the on the	disk is	not valid.

     referenced	     A subdisk entry which has been referenced as part of a
		     plex, but which is	currently not known.

     initializing    A subdisk entry which has been created completely and
		     which is currently	being initialized.

     The following states represent invalid data.

     obsolete	     A subdisk entry which has been created completely.	 All
		     fields are	correct, the config on disk has	been updated,
		     and the data was valid, but since then the	drive has been
		     taken down, and as	a result updates have been missed.

     stale	     A subdisk entry which has been created completely.	 All
		     fields are	correct, the disk has been updated, and	the
		     data was valid, but since then the	drive has been crashed
		     and updates have been lost.

     The following states represent valid, inaccessible	data.

     crashed	     A subdisk entry which has been created completely.	 All
		     fields are	correct, the disk has been updated, and	the
		     data was valid, but since then the	drive has gone down.
		     No	attempt	has been made to write to the subdisk since
		     the crash,	so the data is valid.

     down	     A subdisk entry which was up, which contained valid data,
		     and which was taken down by the administrator.  The data
		     is	valid.

     reviving	     The subdisk is currently in the process of	being revived.
		     We	can write but not read.

     The following states represent accessible subdisks	with valid data.

     reborn	     A subdisk entry which has been created completely.	 All
		     fields are	correct, the disk has been updated, and	the
		     data was valid, but since then the	drive has gone down
		     and up again.  No updates were lost, but it is possible
		     that the subdisk has been damaged.	 We will not read from
		     this subdisk if we	have a choice.	If this	is the only
		     subdisk which covers this address space in	the plex, we
		     set its state to up under these circumstances, so this
		     status implies that there is another subdisk to fulfill
		     the request.

     up		     A subdisk entry which has been created completely.	 All
		     fields are	correct, the disk has been updated, and	the
		     data is valid.

   Drive States
     Drives can	have the following states:

     referenced	     At	least one subdisk refers to the	drive, but it is not
		     currently accessible to the system.  No device name is
		     known.

     down	     The drive is not accessible.

     up		     The drive is up and running.

SEE ALSO
     disklabel(5), loader.conf(5), disklabel(8), gvinum(8), loader(8),
     newfs(8)

HISTORY
     vinum first appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.  The RAID-5 component	of vinum was
     developed by Cybernet Inc.	(http://www.cybernet.com/), for	its NetMAX
     product.

AUTHORS
     Greg Lehey	<grog@lemis.com>.

BUGS
     vinum is a	new product.  Bugs can be expected.  The configuration mecha-
     nism is not yet fully functional.	If you have difficulties, please look
     at	the section DEBUGGING PROBLEMS WITH VINUM before reporting problems.

     Kernels with the vinum device appear to work, but are not supported.  If
     you have trouble with this	configuration, please first replace the	kernel
     with a non-vinum kernel and test with the KLD module.

     Detection of differences between the version of the kernel	and the	KLD is
     not yet implemented.

     The RAID-5	functionality is new in	FreeBSD	3.3.  Some problems have been
     reported with vinum in combination	with soft updates, but these are not
     reproducible on all systems.  If you are planning to use vinum in a pro-
     duction environment, please test carefully.

DEBUGGING PROBLEMS WITH	VINUM
     Solving problems with vinum can be	a difficult affair.  This section sug-
     gests some	approaches.

   Configuration problems
     It	is relatively easy (too	easy) to run into problems with	the vinum con-
     figuration.  If you do, the first thing you should	do is stop configura-
     tion updates:

	   vinum setdaemon 4

     This will stop updates and	any further corruption of the on-disk configu-
     ration.

     Next, look	at the on-disk configuration, using a Bourne-style shell:

     rm	-f log
     for i in /dev/da0s1h /dev/da1s1h /dev/da2s1h /dev/da3s1h; do
       (dd if=$i skip=8	count=6|tr -d '\000-\011\200-\377'; echo) >> log
     done

     The names of the devices are the names of all vinum slices.  The file log
     should then contain something like	this:

     IN	VINOpanic.lemis.comdrive1}6E7~^K6T^Yfoovolume obj state	up
     volume src	state up
     volume raid state down
     volume r state down
     volume foo	state up
     plex name obj.p0 state corrupt org	concat vol obj
     plex name obj.p1 state corrupt org	striped	128b vol obj
     plex name src.p0 state corrupt org	striped	128b vol src
     plex name src.p1 state up org concat vol src
     plex name raid.p0 state faulty org	disorg vol raid
     plex name r.p0 state faulty org disorg vol	r
     plex name foo.p0 state up org concat vol foo
     plex name foo.p1 state faulty org concat vol foo
     sd	name obj.p0.s0 drive drive2 plex obj.p0	state reborn len 409600b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
     sd	name obj.p0.s1 drive drive4 plex obj.p0	state up len 409600b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 409600b
     sd	name obj.p1.s0 drive drive1 plex obj.p1	state up len 204800b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 0b
     sd	name obj.p1.s1 drive drive2 plex obj.p1	state reborn len 204800b driveoffset 409865b plexoffset	128b
     sd	name obj.p1.s2 drive drive3 plex obj.p1	state up len 204800b driveoffset 265b plexoffset 256b
     sd	name obj.p1.s3 drive drive4 plex obj.p1	state up len 204800b driveoffset 409865b plexoffset 384b

     The first line contains the vinum label and must start with the text ``IN
     VINO''.  It also contains the name	of the system.	The exact definition
     is	contained in /usr/src/sys/dev/vinum/vinumvar.h.	 The saved configura-
     tion starts in the	middle of the line with	the text ``volume obj state
     up'' and starts in	sector 9 of the	disk.  The rest	of the output shows
     the remainder of the on-disk configuration.  It may be necessary to
     increase the count	argument of dd(1) in order to see the complete config-
     uration.

     The configuration on all disks should be the same.	 If this is not	the
     case, please report the problem with the exact contents of	the file log.
     There is probably little that can be done to recover the on-disk configu-
     ration, but if you	keep a copy of the files used to create	the objects,
     you should	be able	to re-create them.  The	create command does not	change
     the subdisk data, so this will not	cause data corruption.	You may	need
     to	use the	resetconfig command if you have	this kind of trouble.

   Kernel Panics
     In	order to analyse a panic which you suspect comes from vinum you	will
     need to build a debug kernel.  See	the online handbook at
     /usr/share/doc/en/books/developers-handbook/kerneldebug.html (if
     installed)	or
     http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers--
     handbook/kerneldebug.html for more	details	of how to do this.

     Perform the following steps to analyse a vinum problem:

     1.	  Copy the following files to the directory in which you will be per-
	  forming the analysis,	typically /var/crash:

	  +o   /usr/src/sys/modules/vinum/.gdbinit.crash,
	  +o   /usr/src/sys/modules/vinum/.gdbinit.kernel,
	  +o   /usr/src/sys/modules/vinum/.gdbinit.serial,
	  +o   /usr/src/sys/modules/vinum/.gdbinit.vinum	and
	  +o   /usr/src/sys/modules/vinum/.gdbinit.vinum.paths

     2.	  Make sure that you build the vinum module with debugging informa-
	  tion.	 The standard Makefile builds a	module with debugging symbols
	  by default.  If the version of vinum in /boot/kernel does not	con-
	  tain symbols,	you will not get an error message, but the stack trace
	  will not show	the symbols.  Check the	module before starting gdb(1):

	  $ file /boot/kernel/vinum.ko
	  /boot/kernel/vinum.ko: ELF 32-bit LSB	shared object, Intel 80386,
	    version 1 (FreeBSD), not stripped

	  If the output	shows that /boot/kernel/vinum.ko is stripped, you will
	  have to find a version which is not.	Usually	this will be either in
	  /usr/obj/sys/modules/vinum/vinum.ko (if you have built vinum with a
	  ``make world'') or /usr/src/sys/modules/vinum/vinum.ko (if you have
	  built	vinum in this directory).  Modify the file
	  .gdbinit.vinum.paths accordingly.

     3.	  Either take a	dump or	use remote serial gdb(1) to analyse the	prob-
	  lem.	To analyse a dump, say /var/crash/vmcore.5, link
	  /var/crash/.gdbinit.crash to /var/crash/.gdbinit and enter:

		cd /var/crash
		gdb -k kernel.debug vmcore.5

	  This example assumes that you	have installed the correct debug ker-
	  nel at /var/crash/kernel.debug.  If not, substitute the correct name
	  of the debug kernel.

	  To perform remote serial debugging, link /var/crash/.gdbinit.serial
	  to /var/crash/.gdbinit and enter

		cd /var/crash
		gdb -k kernel.debug

	  In this case,	the .gdbinit file performs the functions necessary to
	  establish connection.	 The remote machine must already be in debug
	  mode:	enter the kernel debugger and select gdb (see ddb(4) for more
	  details).  The serial	.gdbinit file expects the serial connection to
	  run at 38400 bits per	second;	if you run at a	different speed, edit
	  the file accordingly (look for the remotebaud	specification).

	  The following	example	shows a	remote debugging session using the
	  debug	command	of gvinum(8):

	  GDB 4.16 (i386-unknown-freebsd), Copyright 1996 Free Software	Foundation, Inc.
	  Debugger (msg=0xf1093174 "vinum debug") at ../../i386/i386/db_interface.c:318
	  318		      in_Debugger = 0;
	  #1  0xf108d9bc in vinumioctl (dev=0x40001900,	cmd=0xc008464b,	data=0xf6dedee0	"",
	      flag=0x3,	p=0xf68b7940) at
	      /usr/src/sys/modules/Vinum/../../dev/Vinum/vinumioctl.c:102
	  102		  Debugger ("vinum debug");
	  (kgdb) bt
	  #0  Debugger (msg=0xf0f661ac "vinum debug") at ../../i386/i386/db_interface.c:318
	  #1  0xf0f60a7c in vinumioctl (dev=0x40001900,	cmd=0xc008464b,	data=0xf6923ed0	"",
		flag=0x3, p=0xf688e6c0)	at
		/usr/src/sys/modules/vinum/../../dev/vinum/vinumioctl.c:109
	  #2  0xf01833b7 in spec_ioctl (ap=0xf6923e0c) at ../../miscfs/specfs/spec_vnops.c:424
	  #3  0xf0182cc9 in spec_vnoperate (ap=0xf6923e0c) at ../../miscfs/specfs/spec_vnops.c:129
	  #4  0xf01eb3c1 in ufs_vnoperatespec (ap=0xf6923e0c) at ../../ufs/ufs/ufs_vnops.c:2312
	  #5  0xf017dbb1 in vn_ioctl (fp=0xf1007ec0, com=0xc008464b, data=0xf6923ed0 "",
		p=0xf688e6c0) at vnode_if.h:395
	  #6  0xf015dce0 in ioctl (p=0xf688e6c0, uap=0xf6923f84) at ../../kern/sys_generic.c:473
	  #7  0xf0214c0b in syscall (frame={tf_es = 0x27, tf_ds	= 0x27,	tf_edi = 0xefbfcff8,
		tf_esi = 0x1, tf_ebp = 0xefbfcf90, tf_isp = 0xf6923fd4,	tf_ebx = 0x2,
		tf_edx = 0x804b614, tf_ecx = 0x8085d10,	tf_eax = 0x36, tf_trapno = 0x7,
		tf_err = 0x2, tf_eip = 0x8060a34, tf_cs	= 0x1f,	tf_eflags = 0x286,
		tf_esp = 0xefbfcf78, tf_ss = 0x27}) at ../../i386/i386/trap.c:1100
	  #8  0xf020a1fc in Xint0x80_syscall ()
	  #9  0x804832d	in ?? ()
	  #10 0x80482ad	in ?? ()
	  #11 0x80480e9	in ?? ()

	  When entering	from the debugger, it is important that	the source of
	  frame	1 (listed by the .gdbinit file at the top of the example) con-
	  tains	the text ``Debugger ("vinum debug");''.

	  This is an indication	that the address specifications	are correct.
	  If you get some other	output,	your symbols and the kernel module are
	  out of sync, and the trace will be meaningless.

     For an initial investigation, the most important information is the out-
     put of the	bt (backtrace) command above.

   Reporting Problems with Vinum
     If	you find any bugs in vinum, please report them to Greg Lehey
     <grog@lemis.com>.	Supply the following information:

     +o	 The output of the vinum list command (see gvinum(8)).

     +o	 Any messages printed in /var/log/messages.  All such messages will be
	 identified by the text	``vinum'' at the beginning.

     +o	 If you	have a panic, a	stack trace as described above.

FreeBSD	9.2			 May 16, 2002			   FreeBSD 9.2

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | KERNEL CONFIGURATION | RUNNING VINUM | AUTOMATIC STARTUP | IOCTL CALLS | MAKING FILE SYSTEMS | OBJECT NAMING | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS | BUGS | DEBUGGING PROBLEMS WITH VINUM

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