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TWM(1)									TWM(1)

NAME
       twm - Tab Window	Manager	for the	X Window System

SYNTAX
       twm [ -display dpy ] [ -s ] [ -f	initfile ] [ -v	]

DESCRIPTION
       Twm  is	a  window manager for the X Window System.  It provides	title-
       bars, shaped windows, several forms of  icon  management,  user-defined
       macro  functions,  click-to-type	and pointer-driven keyboard focus, and
       user-specified key and pointer button bindings.

       This program is usually	started	 by  the  user's  session  manager  or
       startup	script.	  When	used from xdm(1) or xinit(1) without a session
       manager,	twm is frequently executed  in	the  foreground	 as  the  last
       client.	When run this way, exiting twm causes the session to be	termi-
       nated (i.e., logged out).

       By default, application windows are surrounded by a  ``frame''  with  a
       titlebar	at the top and a special border	around the window.  The	title-
       bar contains the	window's name, a rectangle that	is lit when the	window
       is  receiving  keyboard	input, and function boxes known	as ``titlebut-
       tons'' at the left and right edges of the titlebar.

       Pressing	pointer	Button1	(usually the left-most button  unless  it  has
       been  changed  with  xmodmap) on	a titlebutton will invoke the function
       associated with the button.  In	the  default  interface,  windows  are
       iconified  by  clicking	(pressing  and then immediately	releasing) the
       left titlebutton	(which looks like a  Dot).   Conversely,  windows  are
       deiconified  by	clicking  in  the associated icon or entry in the icon
       manager (see description	of the variable	 ShowIconManager  and  of  the
       function	f.showiconmgr).

       Windows	are resized by pressing	the right titlebutton (which resembles
       a group of nested squares), dragging the	pointer	over edge that	is  to
       be  moved,  and releasing the pointer when the outline of the window is
       the desired size.  Similarly, windows are  moved	 by  pressing  in  the
       title  or  highlight region, dragging a window outline to the new loca-
       tion, and then releasing	when the outline is in the  desired  position.
       Just  clicking in the title or highlight	region raises the window with-
       out moving it.

       When new	windows	are created, twm will  honor  any  size	 and  location
       information  requested  by  the user (usually through -geometry command
       line argument or	resources for the  individual  applications).	Other-
       wise,  an outline of the	window's default size, its titlebar, and lines
       dividing	the window into	a 3x3 grid that	track  the  pointer  are  dis-
       played.	 Clicking pointer Button1 will position	the window at the cur-
       rent position and give it the default size.  Pressing  pointer  Button2
       (usually	 the middle pointer button) and	dragging the outline will give
       the window its current position but allow the sides to  be  resized  as
       described  above.   Clicking pointer Button3 (usually the right pointer
       button) will give the window its	current	position but attempt  to  make
       it long enough to touch the bottom the screen.

OPTIONS
       Twm accepts the following command line options:

       -display	dpy
	       This option specifies the X server to use.

       -s      This  option  indicates that only the default screen (as	speci-
	       fied by -display	or by the DISPLAY environment variable)	should
	       be managed.  By default,	twm will attempt to manage all screens
	       on the display.

       -f filename
	       This option specifies the name of the startup file to use.   By
	       default,	 twm  will look	in the user's home directory for files
	       named .twmrc.num	(where num is a	screen number) or .twmrc.

       -v      This option indicates that  twm	should	print  error  messages
	       whenever	 an unexpected X Error event is	received.  This	can be
	       useful when debugging applications but can  be  distracting  in
	       regular use.

CUSTOMIZATION
       Much  of	twm's appearance and behavior can be controlled	by providing a
       startup file in one of the following locations (searched	in  order  for
       each screen being managed when twm begins):

       $HOME/.twmrc.screennumber
	       The  screennumber  is a small positive number (e.g. 0, 1, etc.)
	       representing the	screen number (e.g. the	 last  number  in  the
	       DISPLAY	environment  variable  host:displaynum.screennum) that
	       would be	used to	contact	that screen of the display.   This  is
	       intended	for displays with multiple screens of differing	visual
	       types.

       $HOME/.twmrc
	       This is the usual name for an individual	user's startup file.

       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc
	       If neither of the preceding files are found, twm	will  look  in
	       this  file for a	default	configuration.	This is	often tailored
	       by the site administrator to provide convenient menus or	famil-
	       iar bindings for	novice users.

       If  no  startup	files  are  found,  twm	will use the built-in defaults
       described above.	 The only resource used	by twm is bitmapFilePath for a
       colon-separated	list  of directories to	search when looking for	bitmap
       files  (for  more  information,	see  the  Athena  Widgets  manual  and
       xrdb(1)).

       Twm  startup files are logically	broken up into three types of specifi-
       cations:	 Variables, Bindings, Menus.  The Variables section must  come
       first  and  is  used  to	 describe  the	fonts, colors, cursors,	border
       widths, icon and	window placement, highlighting,	autoraising, layout of
       titles, warping,	use of the icon	manager.  The Bindings section usually
       comes second and	is used	to specify the functions that should be	to  be
       invoked	when  keyboard	and  pointer  buttons  are pressed in windows,
       icons, titles, and frames.  The Menus section  gives  any  user-defined
       menus  (containing functions to be invoked or commands to be executed).

       Variable	names and keywords are case-insensitive.  Strings must be sur-
       rounded	by  double  quote characters (e.g. "blue") and are case-sensi-
       tive.  A	pound sign (#) outside of a string causes the remainder	of the
       line in which the character appears to be treated as a comment.

VARIABLES
       Many of the aspects of twm's user interface are controlled by variables
       that may	be set in the user's startup file.  Some of  the  options  are
       enabled	or  disabled  simply  by the presence of a particular keyword.
       Other options require keywords, numbers,	strings, or lists  of  all  of
       these.

       Lists  are surrounded by	braces and are usually separated by whitespace
       or a newline.  For example:

	    AutoRaise {	"emacs"	"XTerm"	"Xmh" }

       or

	    AutoRaise
	    {
		 "emacs"
		 "XTerm"
		 "Xmh"
	    }

       When a variable containing a list of strings  representing  windows  is
       searched	(e.g. to determine whether or not to enable autoraise as shown
       above), a string	must be	an exact, case-sensitive match to the window's
       name  (given  by	 the  WM_NAME window property),	resource name or class
       name (both given	by the WM_CLASS	window property).  The preceding exam-
       ple  would  enable  autoraise on	windows	named ``emacs''	as well	as any
       xterm (since they are of	class ``XTerm'') or xmh	windows	(which are  of
       class ``Xmh'').

       String  arguments  that	are interpreted	as filenames (see the Pixmaps,
       Cursors,	and IconDirectory below) will  prepend	the  user's  directory
       (specified  by the HOME environment variable) if	the first character is
       a tilde (~).  If, instead, the first character is a colon (:), the name
       is  assumed  to	refer  to one of the internal bitmaps that are used to
       create the default titlebars symbols:  :xlogo or	:delete	(both refer to
       the  X  logo),  :dot  or	:iconify (both refer to	the dot), :resize (the
       nested squares used by the resize button), :menu	(a page	 with  lines),
       and :question (the question mark	used for non-existent bitmap files).

       The  following  variables  may be specified at the top of a twm startup
       file.  Lists of Window name prefix strings are indicated	 by  win-list.
       Optional	arguments are shown in square brackets:

       AutoRaise { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that should automati-
	       cally be	raised whenever	the pointer enters the	window.	  This
	       action  can  be interactively enabled or	disabled on individual
	       windows using the function f.autoraise.

       AutoRelativeResize
	       This variable indicates that dragging out a window size (either
	       when  initially	sizing the window with pointer Button2 or when
	       resizing	it) should not wait until the pointer has crossed  the
	       window edges.  Instead, moving the pointer automatically	causes
	       the nearest edge	or edges to move by  the  same	amount.	  This
	       allows  the resizing of windows that extend off the edge	of the
	       screen.	If the pointer is in the center	of the window,	or  if
	       the  resize  is begun by	pressing a titlebutton,	twm will still
	       wait for	the pointer to cross a window edge (to	prevent	 acci-
	       dents).	This option is particularly useful for people who like
	       the press-drag-release method of	sweeping out window sizes.

       BorderColor string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This variable specifies the default color of the	border	to  be
	       placed  around all non-iconified	windows, and may only be given
	       within a	Color, Grayscale or  Monochrome	 list.	 The  optional
	       wincolorlist  specifies	a  list	of window and color name pairs
	       for specifying particular border	colors for different types  of
	       windows.	 For example:

		    BorderColor	"gray50"
		    {
			 "XTerm"   "red"
			 "xmh"	   "green"
		    }

	       The default is "black".

       BorderTileBackground string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This  variable  specifies  the  default background color	in the
	       gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only	if NoHighlight
	       hasn't  been  set),  and	 may  only  be	given  within a	Color,
	       Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist	allows
	       per-window colors to be specified.  The default	is "white".

       BorderTileForeground string [{ wincolorlist }]
	       This  variable  specifies  the  default foreground color	in the
	       gray pattern used in unhighlighted borders (only	if NoHighlight
	       hasn't  been  set),  and	 may  only  be	given  within a	Color,
	       Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The optional wincolorlist	allows
	       per-window colors to be specified.  The default is "black".

       BorderWidth pixels
	       This  variable specifies	the width in pixels of the border sur-
	       rounding	all client window frames if ClientBorderWidth has  not
	       been specified.	This value is also used	to set the border size
	       of windows created by twm (such	as  the	 icon  manager).   The
	       default is 2.

       ButtonIndent pixels
	       This variable specifies the amount by which titlebuttons	should
	       be indented on all sides.  Positive values cause	the buttons to
	       be smaller than the window text and highlight area so that they
	       stand out.  Setting this	and the	 TitleButtonBorderWidth	 vari-
	       ables  to 0 makes titlebuttons be as tall and wide as possible.
	       The default is 1.

       ClientBorderWidth
	       This variable indicates that border width of a  window's	 frame
	       should be set to	the initial border width of the	window,	rather
	       than to the value of BorderWidth.

       Color { colors-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of color assignments to be  made
	       if  the default display is capable of displaying	more than sim-
	       ple black and white.  The colors-list is	made up	of the follow-
	       ing   color  variables  and  their  values:  DefaultBackground,
	       DefaultForeground, MenuBackground,  MenuForeground,  MenuTitle-
	       Background,  MenuTitleForeground,  MenuShadowColor, MenuBorder-
	       Color, PointerForeground, and PointerBackground.	 The following
	       color  variables	 may  also be given a list of window and color
	       name pairs to allow per-window colors to	be specified (see Bor-
	       derColor	 for details): BorderColor, IconManagerHighlight, Bor-
	       derTitleBackground,   BorderTitleForeground,   TitleBackground,
	       TitleForeground,	 IconBackground,  IconForeground,  IconBorder-
	       Color, IconManagerBackground, and  IconManagerForeground.   For
	       example:

		    Color
		    {
			 MenuBackground	     "gray50"
			 MenuForeground	     "blue"
			 BorderColor		  "red"	{ "XTerm" "yellow" }
			 TitleForeground	  "yellow"
			 TitleBackground	  "blue"
		    }

	       All  of	these  color  variables	 may also be specified for the
	       Monochrome variable, allowing the same initialization  file  to
	       be used on both color and monochrome displays.

       ConstrainedMoveTime milliseconds
	       This  variable  specifies  the  length  of  time	between	button
	       clicks needed to	begin a	constrained  move  operation.	Double
	       clicking	 within	 this amount of	time when invoking f.move will
	       cause the window	to be moved only in a horizontal  or  vertical
	       direction.   Setting  this  value to 0 will disable constrained
	       moves.  The default is 400 milliseconds.

       Cursors { cursor-list }
	       This variable specifies the glyphs that twm should use for var-
	       ious  pointer  cursors.	Each cursor may	be defined either from
	       the cursor font or from two bitmap files.  Shapes from the cur-
	       sor font	may be specified directly as:

			 cursorname	"string"

	       where  cursorname  is one of the	cursor names listed below, and
	       string  is  the	name  of  a  glyph  as	found  in   the	  file
	       /usr/X11R6/include/X11/cursorfont.h  (without  the ``XC_'' pre-
	       fix).  If the cursor is to be defined from  bitmap  files,  the
	       following syntax	is used	instead:

			 cursorname	"image"	  "mask"

	       The  image and mask strings specify the names of	files contain-
	       ing the glyph image and mask in	bitmap(1)  form.   The	bitmap
	       files are located in the	same manner as icon bitmap files.  The
	       following example shows the default cursor definitions:

		    Cursors
		    {
			 Frame		"top_left_arrow"
			 Title		"top_left_arrow"
			 Icon	   "top_left_arrow"
			 IconMgr   "top_left_arrow"
			 Move	   "fleur"
			 Resize		"fleur"
			 Menu	   "sb_left_arrow"
			 Button		"hand2"
			 Wait	   "watch"
			 Select		"dot"
			 Destroy   "pirate"
		    }

       DecorateTransients
	       This variable indicates that transient windows (those  contain-
	       ing  a  WM_TRANSIENT_FOR	 property)  should have	titlebars.  By
	       default,	transients are not reparented.

       DefaultBackground string
	       This variable specifies the background color  to	 be  used  for
	       sizing and information windows.	The default is "white".

       DefaultForeground string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  foreground color	to be used for
	       sizing and information windows.	The default is "black".

       DontIconifyByUnmapping {	win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that  should  not  be
	       iconified  by simply unmapping the window (as would be the case
	       if IconifyByUnmapping had been set).  This is  frequently  used
	       to  force  some windows to be treated as	icons while other win-
	       dows are	handled	by the icon manager.

       DontMoveOff
	       This variable indicates that windows should not be  allowed  to
	       be  moved off the screen.  It can be overridden by the f.force-
	       move function.

       DontSqueezeTitle	[{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that titlebars should not  be  squeezed
	       to  their  minimum  size	as described under SqueezeTitle	below.
	       If the optional window list is  supplied,  only	those  windows
	       will be prevented from being squeezed.

       ForceIcons
	       This  variable  indicates  that	icon  pixmaps specified	in the
	       Icons variable should override any client-supplied pixmaps.

       FramePadding pixels
	       This variable specifies the distance between the	titlebar deco-
	       rations	(the  button  and  text)  and  the  window frame.  The
	       default is 2 pixels.

       Grayscale { colors }
	       This variable specifies a list of color assignments that	should
	       be  made	if the screen has a GrayScale default visual.  See the
	       description of Colors.

       IconBackground string [{	win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the background color of icons, and  may
	       only  be	 specified  inside of a	Color, Grayscale or Monochrome
	       list.  The optional win-list is a list of window	names and col-
	       ors  so	that per-window	colors may be specified.  See the Bor-
	       derColor	variable for a complete	description of	the  win-list.
	       The default is "white".

       IconBorderColor string [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  specifies the color of the border used for icon
	       windows,	and may	only be	specified inside of a Color, Grayscale
	       or  Monochrome list.  The optional win-list is a	list of	window
	       names and colors	so that	per-window colors  may	be  specified.
	       See  the	BorderColor variable for a complete description	of the
	       win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconBorderWidth pixels
	       This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border  sur-
	       rounding	icon windows.  The default is 2.

       IconMaxWidth pixels
	       This variable specifies the maximum width in pixels of the icon
	       window.	The default is 1024.

       IconDirectory string
	       This variable specifies the directory that should  be  searched
	       if  if  a bitmap	file cannot be found in	any of the directories
	       in the bitmapFilePath resource.

       IconFont	string
	       This variable specifies the font	to be  used  to	 display  icon
	       names within icons.  The	default	is "variable".

       IconForeground string [{	win-list }]
	       This  variable  specifies  the foreground color to be used when
	       displaying icons, and may only be specified inside of a	Color,
	       Grayscale  or Monochrome	list.  The optional win-list is	a list
	       of window names and colors so that  per-window  colors  may  be
	       specified.    See  the  BorderColor  variable  for  a  complete
	       description of the win-list.  The default is "black".

       IconifyByUnmapping [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that windows  should  be	 iconified  by
	       being  unmapped	without	trying to map any icons.  This assumes
	       that the	user will remap	the window through the	icon  manager,
	       the f.warpto function, or the TwmWindows	menu.  If the optional
	       win-list	is provided, only those	windows	will be	 iconified  by
	       simply unmapping.  Windows that have both this and the IconMan-
	       agerDontShow options set	may not	be accessible if no binding to
	       the TwmWindows menu is set in the user's	startup	file.

       IconManagerBackground string [{ win-list	}]
	       This  variable  specifies  the background color to use for icon
	       manager entries,	and may	only be	specified inside of  a	Color,
	       Grayscale  or Monochrome	list.  The optional win-list is	a list
	       of window names and colors so that  per-window  colors  may  be
	       specified.    See  the  BorderColor  variable  for  a  complete
	       description of the win-list.  The default is "white".

       IconManagerDontShow [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that the	icon manager should  not  dis-
	       play  any  windows.   If	 the  optional win-list	is given, only
	       those windows will not be displayed.  This variable is used  to
	       prevent	windows	 that  are rarely iconified (such as xclock or
	       xload) from taking up space in the icon manager.

       IconManagerFont string
	       This variable specifies the font	to  be	used  when  displaying
	       icon manager entries.  The default is "variable".

       IconManagerForeground string [{ win-list	}]
	       This  variable  specifies  the foreground color to be used when
	       displaying icon manager entries,	 and  may  only	 be  specified
	       inside  of a Color, Grayscale or	Monochrome list.  The optional
	       win-list	is a list of window names and colors so	that  per-win-
	       dow  colors may be specified.  See the BorderColor variable for
	       a  complete  description	 of  the  win-list.   The  default  is
	       "black".

       IconManagerGeometry string [ columns ]
	       This  variable  specifies the geometry of the icon manager win-
	       dow.  The string	argument is  standard  geometry	 specification
	       that  indicates the initial full	size of	the icon manager.  The
	       icon manager window is then  broken  into  columns  pieces  and
	       scaled  according to the	number of entries in the icon manager.
	       Extra entries are wrapped to form additional rows.  The default
	       number of columns is 1.

       IconManagerHighlight string [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable specifies	the border color to be used when high-
	       lighting	the icon manager entry that currently has  the	focus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color, Grayscale or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The optional win-list is a	list of	 window	 names
	       and colors so that per-window colors may	be specified.  See the
	       BorderColor variable for	a complete  description	 of  the  win-
	       list.  The default is "black".

       IconManagers { iconmgr-list }
	       This  variable  specifies  a  list  of icon managers to create.
	       Each item in the	iconmgr-list has the following format:

			 "winname" ["iconname"]	  "geometry" columns

	       where winname is	the name of the	windows	 that  should  be  put
	       into  this icon manager,	iconname is the	name of	that icon man-
	       ager window's icon, geometry is a standard geometry  specifica-
	       tion, and columns is the	number of columns in this icon manager
	       as described in IconManagerGeometry.  For example:

		    IconManagers
		    {
			 "XTerm"   "=300x5+800+5" 5
			 "myhost"  "=400x5+100+5" 2
		    }

	       Clients whose name or class is ``XTerm''	 will  have  an	 entry
	       created	in the ``XTerm'' icon manager.	Clients	whose name was
	       ``myhost'' would	be put into the	``myhost'' icon	manager.

       IconManagerShow { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows that should appear in
	       the  icon  manager.  When used in conjunction with the IconMan-
	       agerDontShow variable, only the windows in this	list  will  be
	       shown in	the icon manager.

       IconRegion geomstring vgrav hgrav gridwidth gridheight
	       This  variable  specifies  an  area on the root window in which
	       icons are placed	if no specific icon location  is  provided  by
	       the  client.   The  geomstring  is a quoted string containing a
	       standard	geometry specification.	 If more than  one  IconRegion
	       lines  are  given,  icons  will be put into the succeeding icon
	       regions when the	first is full.	The vgrav argument  should  be
	       either  North  or  South	 and  control  and  is used to control
	       whether icons are first filled in from the top or bottom	of the
	       icon  region.   Similarly,  the hgrav argument should be	either
	       East or West and	is used	to control  whether  icons  should  be
	       filled  in from left from the right.  Icons are laid out	within
	       the region in a grid with cells gridwidth pixels	wide and grid-
	       height pixels high.

       Icons { win-list	}
	       This  variable  specifies a list	of window names	and the	bitmap
	       filenames that should be	used as	their icons.  For example:

		    Icons
		    {
			 "XTerm"   "xterm.icon"
			 "xfd"		"xfd_icon"
		    }

	       Windows that match ``XTerm'' and	 would	not  be	 iconified  by
	       unmapping,  and	would  try  to use the icon bitmap in the file
	       ``xterm.icon''.	If ForceIcons is specified, this  bitmap  will
	       be used even if the client has requested	its own	icon pixmap.

       InterpolateMenuColors
	       This variable indicates that menu entry colors should be	inter-
	       polated between entry specified colors.	In the example below:

		    Menu "mymenu"
		    {
			 "Title"	("black":"red")		 f.title
			 "entry1"		  f.nop
			 "entry2"		  f.nop
			 "entry3"  ("white":"green")   f.nop
			 "entry4"		  f.nop
			 "entry5"  ("red":"white")	    f.nop
		    }

	       the foreground colors for ``entry1''  and  ``entry2''  will  be
	       interpolated between black and white, and the background	colors
	       between	red  and  green.   Similarly,	the   foreground   for
	       ``entry4''  will	 be  half-way  between	white and red, and the
	       background will be half-way between green and white.

       MakeTitle { win-list }
	       This variable specifies a list of windows on which  a  titlebar
	       should be placed	and is used to request titles on specific win-
	       dows when NoTitle has been set.

       MaxWindowSize string
	       This variable specifies a  geometry  in	which  the  width  and
	       height give the maximum size for	a given	window.	 This is typi-
	       cally used to restrict windows to the size of the screen.   The
	       default	width  is 32767	- screen width.	 The default height is
	       32767 - screen height.

       MenuBackground string
	       This variable specifies the background color  used  for	menus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color or Monochrome list.
	       The default is "white".

       MenuBorderColor string
	       This variable specifies the color of the	menu  border  and  can
	       only  be	 specified  inside of a	Color, Grayscale or Monochrome
	       list.  The default is "black".

       MenuBorderWidth pixels
	       This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border  sur-
	       rounding	menu windows.  The default is 2.

       MenuFont	string
	       This  variable specifies	the font to use	when displaying	menus.
	       The default is "variable".

       MenuForeground string
	       This variable specifies the foreground color  used  for	menus,
	       and can only be specified inside	of a Color, Grayscale or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuShadowColor string
	       This variable specifies the color of the	 shadow	 behind	 pull-
	       down  menus  and	 can  only  be	specified  inside  of a	Color,
	       Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is "black".

       MenuTitleBackground string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  background  color  for  f.title
	       entries	in menus, and can only be specified inside of a	Color,
	       Grayscale or Monochrome list.  The default is "white".

       MenuTitleForeground string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  foreground  color  for  f.title
	       entries in menus	and can	only be	specified inside of a Color or
	       Monochrome list.	 The default is	"black".

       Monochrome { colors }
	       This variable specifies a list of color assignments that	should
	       be made if the screen has a depth of 1.	See the	description of
	       Colors.

       MoveDelta pixels
	       This variable specifies the number of pixels the	 pointer  must
	       move  before  the f.move	function starts	working.  Also see the
	       f.deltastop function.  The default is zero pixels.

       NoBackingStore
	       This variable indicates that twm's  menus  should  not  request
	       backing	store  to minimize repainting of menus.	 This is typi-
	       cally used with servers that can	repaint	faster than  they  can
	       handle backing store.

       NoCaseSensitive
	       This  variable indicates	that case should be ignored when sort-
	       ing icon	names in an icon manager.  This	 option	 is  typically
	       used  with  applications	 that  capitalize  the first letter of
	       their icon name.

       NoDefaults
	       This variable indicates that twm	should not supply the  default
	       titlebuttons  and bindings.  This option	should only be used if
	       the startup file	contains a completely new set of bindings  and
	       definitions.

       NoGrabServer
	       This  variable  indicates  that	twm should not grab the	server
	       when popping up menus and moving	opaque windows.

       NoHighlight [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that borders should not be  highlighted
	       to track	the location of	the pointer.  If the optional win-list
	       is given, highlighting will only	be disabled for	those windows.
	       When the	border is highlighted, it will be drawn	in the current
	       BorderColor.  When the border is	not highlighted,  it  will  be
	       stippled	 with a	gray pattern using the current BorderTileFore-
	       ground and BorderTileBackground colors.

       NoIconManagers
	       This variable indicates that no icon manager should be created.

       NoMenuShadows
	       This variable indicates that menus should not have drop shadows
	       drawn behind them.  This	is typically used with slower  servers
	       since  it  speeds  up menu drawing at the expense of making the
	       menu slightly harder to read.

       NoRaiseOnDeiconify
	       This variable  indicates	 that  windows	that  are  deiconified
	       should not be raised.

       NoRaiseOnMove
	       This  variable indicates	that windows should not	be raised when
	       moved.  This is typically used to allow windows to slide	under-
	       neath each other.

       NoRaiseOnResize
	       This  variable indicates	that windows should not	be raised when
	       resized.	 This is typically used	to allow windows to be resized
	       underneath each other.

       NoRaiseOnWarp
	       This  variable indicates	that windows should not	be raised when
	       the pointer is warped into them with the	f.warpto function.  If
	       this option is set, warping to an occluded window may result in
	       the pointer ending up  in  the  occluding  window  instead  the
	       desired	 window	  (which   causes   unexpected	behavior  with
	       f.warpring).

       NoSaveUnders
	       This variable indicates that menus  should  not	request	 save-
	       unders  to minimize window repainting following menu selection.
	       It is typically used with displays that can repaint faster than
	       they can	handle save-unders.

       NoStackMode [{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates that client window requests to	change
	       stacking	order should be	ignored.  If the optional win-list  is
	       given, only requests on those windows will be ignored.  This is
	       typically used to prevent applications from  relentlessly  pop-
	       ping themselves to the front of the window stack.

       NoTitle [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that windows should not have titlebars.
	       If the optional win-list	is given, only those windows will  not
	       have  titlebars.	  MakeTitle  may  be  used with	this option to
	       force titlebars to be put on specific windows.

       NoTitleFocus
	       This variable indicates that twm	should not set keyboard	 input
	       focus  to each window as	it is entered.	Normally, twm sets the
	       focus so	that focus and key events from the titlebar  and  icon
	       managers	 are  delivered	to the application.  If	the pointer is
	       moved quickly and twm is	slow to	respond, input can be directed
	       to the old window instead of the	new.  This option is typically
	       used to prevent this ``input lag'' and to work around  bugs  in
	       older applications that have problems with focus	events.

       NoTitleHighlight	[{ win-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates that the highlight area of the	title-
	       bar, which is used to indicate the window  that	currently  has
	       the input focus,	should not be displayed.  If the optional win-
	       list is given, only  those  windows  will  not  have  highlight
	       areas.	This  and  the SqueezeTitle options can	be set to sub-
	       stantially reduce the amount of screen space required by	title-
	       bars.

       OpaqueMove
	       This  variable  indicates that the f.move function should actu-
	       ally move the window instead of just an	outline	 so  that  the
	       user  can immediately see what the window will look like	in the
	       new position.  This option is typically used on	fast  displays
	       (particularly if	NoGrabServer is	set).

       Pixmaps { pixmaps }
	       This  variable  specifies  a  list  of  pixmaps that define the
	       appearance of various images.  Each entry is a keyword indicat-
	       ing  the	pixmap to set, followed	by a string giving the name of
	       the bitmap file.	 The following pixmaps may be specified:

		    Pixmaps
		    {
			 TitleHighlight	"gray1"
		    }

	       The default for TitleHighlight is to use	an even	 stipple  pat-
	       tern.

       Priority	priority
	       This  variable  sets  twm's  priority.	priority  should be an
	       unquoted, signed	number	(e.g.  999).   This  variable  has  an
	       effect only if the server supports the SYNC extension.

       RandomPlacement
	       This variable indicates that windows with no specified geometry
	       should be placed	in a pseudo-random location instead of	having
	       the user	drag out an outline.

       ResizeFont string
	       This  variable  specifies the font to be	used for in the	dimen-
	       sions window when resizing windows.  The	default	is "fixed".

       RestartPreviousState
	       This variable indicates that twm	 should	 attempt  to  use  the
	       WM_STATE	 property  on  client  windows	to  tell which windows
	       should be iconified and which should be left visible.  This  is
	       typically  used	to try to regenerate the state that the	screen
	       was in before the previous window manager was shutdown.

       SaveColor { colors-list }
	       This variable indicates a  list	of  color  assignments	to  be
	       stored  as pixel	values in the root window property _MIT_PRIOR-
	       ITY_COLORS.  Clients may	elect to preserve  these  values  when
	       installing their	own colormap.  Note that use of	this mechanism
	       is a way	an for application to avoid the	"technicolor" problem,
	       whereby useful screen objects such as window borders and	title-
	       bars disappear when a programs custom colors are	 installed  by
	       the window manager.  For	example:

		    SaveColor
		    {
			    BorderColor
			    TitleBackground
			    TitleForeground
			    "red"
			    "green"
			    "blue"
		    }

	       This  would place on the	root window 3 pixel values for borders
	       and titlebars, as well as the three color  strings,  all	 taken
	       from the	default	colormap.

       ShowIconManager
	       This  variable indicates	that the icon manager window should be
	       displayed when twm is started.  It can  always  be  brought  up
	       using the f.showiconmgr function.

       SortIconManager
	       This variable indicates that entries in the icon	manager	should
	       be sorted alphabetically	rather than by	simply	appending  new
	       windows to the end.

       SqueezeTitle [{ squeeze-list }]
	       This  variable  indicates  that	twm  should attempt to use the
	       SHAPE extension to make titlebars occupy	only  as  much	screen
	       space  as  they	need, rather than extending all	the way	across
	       the top of the window.  The optional squeeze-list may  be  used
	       to  control the location	of the squeezed	titlebar along the top
	       of the window.  It contains entries of the form:

			 "name"		justification  num  denom

	       where name is a window name, justification is either left, cen-
	       ter, or right, and num and denom	are numbers specifying a ratio
	       giving the relative position about which	the titlebar is	justi-
	       fied.   The ratio is measured from left to right	if the numera-
	       tor is positive,	and right to left if negative.	A  denominator
	       of 0 indicates that the numerator should	be measured in pixels.
	       For convenience,	the ratio 0/0 is the same as  1/2  for	center
	       and -1/1	for right.  For	example:

		    SqueezeTitle
		    {
			 "XTerm"   left	     0	  0
			 "xterm1"  left	     1	  3
			 "xterm2"  left	     2	  3
			 "oclock"  center	  0    0
			 "emacs"   right	  0    0
		    }

	       The  DontSqueezeTitle list can be used to turn off squeezing on
	       certain titles.

       StartIconified [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that client windows should initially be
	       left as icons until explicitly deiconified by the user.	If the
	       optional	win-list is given, only	those windows will be  started
	       iconic.	 This  is  useful  for programs	that do	not support an
	       -iconic command line option or resource.

       TitleBackground string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the background color used in titlebars,
	       and may only be specified inside	of a Color, Grayscale or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The optional win-list is a	list of	 window	 names
	       and  colors  so	that  per-window colors	may be specified.  The
	       default is "white".

       TitleButtonBorderWidth pixels
	       This variable specifies the width in pixels of the border  sur-
	       rounding	 titlebuttons.	 This  is  typically set to 0 to allow
	       titlebuttons to take up as much space as	possible  and  to  not
	       have a border.  The default is 1.

       TitleFont string
	       This variable specifies the font	to be used for displaying win-
	       dow names in titlebars.	The default is "variable".

       TitleForeground string [{ win-list }]
	       This variable specifies the foreground color used in titlebars,
	       and may only be specified inside	of a Color, Grayscale or Mono-
	       chrome list.  The optional win-list is a	list of	 window	 names
	       and  colors  so	that  per-window colors	may be specified.  The
	       default is "black".

       TitleIndent pixels
	       This variable specifies the amount by which window name	should
	       be indented on the left.	 The default is	0.

       TitlePadding pixels
	       This  variable  specifies the distance between the various but-
	       tons, text, and highlight areas in the titlebar.	  The  default
	       is 8 pixels.

       UnknownIcon string
	       This  variable  specifies  the  filename	of a bitmap file to be
	       used as the default icon.  This bitmap will be used as the icon
	       of  all clients which do	not provide an icon bitmap and are not
	       listed in the Icons list.

       UsePPosition string
	       This variable specifies whether or not twm  should  honor  pro-
	       gram-requested  locations  (given  by the PPosition flag	in the
	       WM_NORMAL_HINTS property) in the	absence	 of  a	user-specified
	       position.   The	argument  string may have one of three values:
	       "off" (the default) indicating that twm should ignore the  pro-
	       gram-supplied  position,	 "on"  indicating  that	 the  position
	       should be used, and "non-zero"  indicating  that	 the  position
	       should  used  if	 it is other than (0,0).  The latter option is
	       for working around a bug	in older toolkits.

       WarpCursor [{ win-list }]
	       This variable indicates that the	pointer	should be warped  into
	       windows when they are deiconified.  If the optional win-list is
	       given, the pointer will only be warped when those  windows  are
	       deiconified.

       WindowRing { win-list }
	       This  variable  specifies  a  list  of  windows along which the
	       f.warpring function cycles.

       WarpUnmapped
	       This variable  indicates	 that  the  f.warpto  function	should
	       deiconify  any  iconified windows it encounters.	 This is typi-
	       cally used to make a key	binding	that  will  pop	 a  particular
	       window  (such  as  xmh),	no matter where	it is.	The default is
	       for f.warpto to ignore iconified	windows.

       XorValue	number
	       This variable specifies the value to use	 when  drawing	window
	       outlines	 for  moving  and  resizing.   This should be set to a
	       value that will result in a variety of of distinguishable  col-
	       ors  when exclusive-or'ed with the contents of the user's typi-
	       cal screen.  Setting  this  variable  to	 1  often  gives  nice
	       results	if  adjacent  colors  in the default colormap are dis-
	       tinct.  By default, twm will attempt to cause  temporary	 lines
	       to  appear  at the opposite end of the colormap from the	graph-
	       ics.

       Zoom [ count ]
	       This variable indicates that outlines suggesting	movement of  a
	       window  to  and	from  its  iconified state should be displayed
	       whenever	a window is iconified or  deiconified.	 The  optional
	       count  argument	specifies  the number of outlines to be	drawn.
	       The default count is 8.

       The following variables must be set after the fonts have	been assigned,
       so it is	usually	best to	put them at the	end of the variables or	begin-
       ning of the bindings sections:

       DefaultFunction function
	       This variable specifies the function to be executed when	a  key
	       or  button  event is received for which no binding is provided.
	       This is typically bound to f.nop, f.beep, or a menu  containing
	       window operations.

       WindowFunction function
	       This  variable  specifies the function to execute when a	window
	       is selected from	the TwmWindows menu.  If this variable is  not
	       set, the	window will be deiconified and raised.

BINDINGS
       After  the  desired  variables have been	set, functions may be attached
       titlebuttons and	key and	pointer	buttons.  Titlebuttons	may  be	 added
       from  the  left	or right side and appear in the	titlebar from left-to-
       right according to the order in which  they  are	 specified.   Key  and
       pointer button bindings may be given in any order.

       Titlebuttons  specifications must include the name of the pixmap	to use
       in the button box and the function to be	invoked	when a pointer	button
       is pressed within them:

	    LeftTitleButton "bitmapname"  = function

       or

	    RightTitleButton "bitmapname" = function

       The  bitmapname	may  refer  to one of the  built-in bitmaps (which are
       scaled to match TitleFont) by using the appropriate colon-prefixed name
       described above.

       Key and pointer button specifications must give the modifiers that must
       be pressed, over	which parts of the screen the  pointer	must  be,  and
       what  function  is to be	invoked.  Keys are given as strings containing
       the appropriate keysym name; buttons are	given  as  the	keywords  But-
       ton1-Button5:

	    "FP1"	   = modlist : context : function
	    Button1   =	modlist	: context : function

       The  modlist  is	 any combination of the	modifier names shift, control,
       lock, meta, mod1, mod2, mod3, mod4, or mod5 (which may  be  abbreviated
       as  s, c, l, m, m1, m2, m3, m4, m5, respectively) separated by a	verti-
       cal bar (|).  Similarly,	the context  is	 any  combination  of  window,
       title,  icon, root, frame, iconmgr, their first letters (iconmgr	abbre-
       viation is m), or all, separated	by a vertical bar.   The  function  is
       any  of	the  f.	  keywords  described below.  For example, the default
       startup file contains the following bindings:

	    Button1   =	   : root	  : f.menu "TwmWindows"
	    Button1   =	m  : window | icon     : f.function "move-or-lower"
	    Button2   =	m  : window | icon     : f.iconify
	    Button3   =	m  : window | icon     : f.function "move-or-raise"
	    Button1   =	   : title	  : f.function "move-or-raise"
	    Button2   =	   : title	  : f.raiselower
	    Button1   =	   : icon	  : f.function "move-or-iconify"
	    Button2   =	   : icon	  : f.iconify
	    Button1   =	   : iconmgr : f.iconify
	    Button2   =	   : iconmgr : f.iconify

       A user who wanted to be able to manipulate windows  from	 the  keyboard
       could use the following bindings:

	    "F1" =    :	all	     : f.iconify
	    "F2" =    :	all	     : f.raiselower
	    "F3" =    :	all	     : f.warpring "next"
	    "F4" =    :	all	     : f.warpto	"xmh"
	    "F5" =    :	all	     : f.warpto	"emacs"
	    "F6" =    :	all	     : f.colormap "next"
	    "F7" =    :	all	     : f.colormap "default"
	    "F20"     =	   : all	  : f.warptoscreen "next"
	    "Left"    =	m  : all	  : f.backiconmgr
	    "Right"   =	m | s	: all	       : f.forwiconmgr
	    "Up" = m  :	all	     : f.upiconmgr
	    "Down"    =	m | s	: all	       : f.downiconmgr

       Twm  provides many more window manipulation primitives than can be con-
       veniently stored	in a titlebar, menu, or	set of key bindings.  Although
       a  small	 set of	defaults are supplied (unless the NoDefaults is	speci-
       fied), most users will want to have their most common operations	 bound
       to  key and button strokes.  To do this,	twm associates names with each
       of the primitives and  provides	user-defined  functions	 for  building
       higher  level  primitives  and  menus for interactively selecting among
       groups of functions.

       User-defined functions contain the name by which	they are referenced in
       calls  to  f.function  and  a  list of other functions to execute.  For
       example:

	    Function "move-or-lower" { f.move f.deltastop f.lower }
	    Function "move-or-raise" { f.move f.deltastop f.raise }
	    Function "move-or-iconify"	  { f.move f.deltastop f.iconify }
	    Function "restore-colormap"	  { f.colormap "default" f.lower }

       The function name must be used in f.function exactly as it  appears  in
       the function specification.

       In  the	descriptions  below, if	the function is	said to	operate	on the
       selected	window,	but is invoked from a root menu, the  cursor  will  be
       changed	to  the	 Select	cursor and the next window to receive a	button
       press will be chosen:

       ! string
	       This is an abbreviation for f.exec string.

       f.autoraise
	       This function toggles whether or	not  the  selected  window  is
	       raised whenever entered by the pointer.	See the	description of
	       the variable AutoRaise.

       f.backiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the previous column  in  the
	       current icon manager, wrapping back to the previous row if nec-
	       essary.

       f.beep  This function sounds the	keyboard bell.

       f.bottomzoom
	       This function  is  similar  to  the  f.fullzoom	function,  but
	       resizes	the window to fill only	the bottom half	of the screen.

       f.changelabel
	       This function enters a mode where the user is able to change  a
	       window  or an icon title. It grabs the keyboard and ignores all
	       other events, so	the only way to	exit  from  this  mode	is  to
	       press Enter (confirm a new title) or Escape (restore the	origi-
	       nal title) keys.

       f.circledown
	       This function lowers the	top-most window	that occludes  another
	       window.

       f.circleup
	       This function raises the	bottom-most window that	is occluded by
	       another window.

       f.colormap string
	       This function rotates the colormaps (obtained from the  WM_COL-
	       ORMAP_WINDOWS  property	on  the	 window) that twm will display
	       when the	pointer	is in this window.  The	 argument  string  may
	       have   one   of	the  following	values:	 "next",  "prev",  and
	       "default".  It should  be  noted	 here  that  in	 general,  the
	       installed  colormap is determined by keyboard focus.  A pointer
	       driven keyboard focus will  install  a  private	colormap  upon
	       entry  of  the  window owning the colormap.  Using the click to
	       type model, private colormaps will not be installed  until  the
	       user presses a mouse button on the target window.

       f.deiconify
	       This  function  deiconifies the selected	window.	 If the	window
	       is not an icon, this function does nothing.

       f.delete
	       This  function  sends  the  WM_DELETE_WINDOW  message  to   the
	       selected	 window	 if  the  client  application has requested it
	       through the WM_PROTOCOLS	window property.  The  application  is
	       supposed	 to  respond  to the message by	removing the indicated
	       window.	If the window has not requested	WM_DELETE_WINDOW  mes-
	       sages,  the keyboard bell will be rung indicating that the user
	       should choose an	alternative method.  Note this is very differ-
	       ent from	f.destroy.  The	intent here is to delete a single win-
	       dow,  not necessarily the entire	application.

       f.deltastop
	       This function allows a user-defined function to be  aborted  if
	       the pointer has been moved more than MoveDelta pixels.  See the
	       example definition given	for Function  "move-or-raise"  at  the
	       beginning of the	section.

       f.destroy
	       This  function instructs	the X server to	close the display con-
	       nection of the client that created the selected	window.	  This
	       should  only be used as a last resort for shutting down runaway
	       clients.	 See also f.delete.

       f.downiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the next row in the  current
	       icon  manger,  wrapping	to the beginning of the	next column if
	       necessary.

       f.exec string
	       This function passes the	argument string	to /bin/sh for	execu-
	       tion.   In  multiscreen	mode,  if string starts	a new X	client
	       without giving a	display	argument, the client  will  appear  on
	       the screen from which this function was invoked.

       f.focus This  function  toggles the keyboard focus of the server	to the
	       selected	window,	changing the focus rule	from pointer-driven if
	       necessary.   If	the  selected window already was focused, this
	       function	executes an f.unfocus.

       f.forcemove
	       This function is	like f.move except that	it ignores  the	 Dont-
	       MoveOff variable.

       f.forwiconmgr
	       This  function warps the	pointer	to the next column in the cur-
	       rent icon manager, wrapping to the beginning of the next	row if
	       necessary.

       f.fullzoom
	       This  function  resizes the selected window to the full size of
	       the display or else restores the	original size  if  the	window
	       was already zoomed.

       f.function string
	       This  function executes the user-defined	function whose name is
	       specified by the	argument string.

       f.hbzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.bottomzoom.

       f.hideiconmgr
	       This function unmaps the	current	icon manager.

       f.horizoom
	       This variable is	similar	to the f.zoom function except that the
	       selected	window is resized to the full width of the display.

       f.htzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.topzoom.

       f.hzoom This function is	a synonym for f.horizoom.

       f.iconify
	       This  function  iconifies or deiconifies	the selected window or
	       icon, respectively.

       f.identify
	       This function displays a	summary	of the name  and  geometry  of
	       the  selected  window.	If the server supports the SYNC	exten-
	       sion, the priority of the client	owning the window is also dis-
	       played.	 Clicking  the pointer or pressing a key in the	window
	       will dismiss it.

       f.lefticonmgr
	       This function similar to	 f.backiconmgr	except	that  wrapping
	       does not	change rows.

       f.leftzoom
	       This  variable  is  similar  to	the  f.bottomzoom function but
	       causes the selected window is only resized to the left half  of
	       the display.

       f.lower This function lowers the	selected window.

       f.menu string
	       This  function  invokes	the  menu  specified  by  the argument
	       astring.	 If a string starts  with  a  $-symbols,  it  will  be
	       expanded	 as  an	 environment  variable.	 Cascaded menus	may be
	       built by	nesting	calls to f.menu.

       f.move  This function drags an outline of the selected window  (or  the
	       window  itself  if  the	OpaqueMove  variable is	set) until the
	       invoking	pointer	button is released.   Double  clicking	within
	       the  number  of milliseconds given by ConstrainedMoveTime warps
	       the pointer to the center of the	window and constrains the move
	       to  be  either  horizontal  or vertical depending on which grid
	       line is crossed.	 To abort a move, press	another	button	before
	       releasing the first button.

       f.nexticonmgr
	       This  function  warps the pointer to the	next icon manager con-
	       taining any windows on the current or any succeeding screen.

       f.nop   This function does nothing  and	is  typically  used  with  the
	       DefaultFunction	or  WindowFunction  variables  or to introduce
	       blank lines in menus.

       f.previconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the  previous	 icon  manager
	       containing any windows on the current or	preceding screens.

       f.priority string
	       This  function  sets  the  priority  of	the  client owning the
	       selected	window to the numeric value of	the  argument  string,
	       which  should  be a signed integer in double quotes (e.g. "999"
	       ).  This	function has an	effect only if the server supports the
	       SYNC extension.

       f.quit  This  function  causes  twm to restore the window's borders and
	       exit.  If twm is	the first client invoked from xdm,  this  will
	       result in a server reset.

       f.raise This function raises the	selected window.

       f.raiselower
	       This  function  raises  the  selected  window to	the top	of the
	       stacking	order if it is occluded	by any windows,	otherwise  the
	       window will be lowered.

       f.refresh
	       This function causes all	windows	to be refreshed.

       f.resize
	       This  function  displays	 an  outline  of  the selected window.
	       Crossing	a border (or setting  AutoRelativeResize)  will	 cause
	       the  outline  to	begin to rubber	band until the invoking	button
	       is released.  To	abort a	resize,	press  another	button	before
	       releasing the first button.

       f.restart
	       This function kills and restarts	twm.

       f.startwm string
	       This  function  kills twm and starts another window manager, as
	       specified by string.

       f.righticonmgr
	       This function is	similar	to f.nexticonmgr except	that  wrapping
	       does not	change rows.

       f.rightzoom
	       This  variable  is  similar to the f.bottomzoom function	except
	       that the	selected window	is only	resized	to the right  half  of
	       the display.

       f.saveyourself
	       This  function  sends a WM_SAVEYOURSELF message to the selected
	       window if it has	requested the message in its WM_PROTOCOLS win-
	       dow property.  Clients that accept this message are supposed to
	       checkpoint all state associated with the	window and update  the
	       WM_COMMAND property as specified	in the ICCCM.  If the selected
	       window has not selected for this	 message,  the	keyboard  bell
	       will be rung.

       f.showiconmgr
	       This function maps the current icon manager.

       f.sorticonmgr
	       This  function  sorts  the  entries in the current icon manager
	       alphabetically.	See the	variable SortIconManager.

       f.title This function provides a	centered, unselectable item in a  menu
	       definition.  It should not be used in any other context.

       f.topzoom
	       This  variable  is  similar to the f.bottomzoom function	except
	       that the	selected window	is only	resized	to the top half	of the
	       display.

       f.unfocus
	       This  function  resets  the focus back to pointer-driven.  This
	       should be used when a focused window is no longer desired.

       f.upiconmgr
	       This function warps the pointer to the previous row in the cur-
	       rent  icon manager, wrapping to the last	row in the same	column
	       if necessary.

       f.vlzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.leftzoom.

       f.vrzoom
	       This function is	a synonym for f.rightzoom.

       f.totalzoom
	       This function resizes the selected window to the	full  size  of
	       the  display  or	 else restores the original size if the	window
	       was already zoomed.  Zoomed window covers the whole area	 of  a
	       screen, without even window manager decoration.

       f.warpring string
	       This  function warps the	pointer	to the next or previous	window
	       (as indicated by	the argument string, which may	be  "next"  or
	       "prev") specified in the	WindowRing variable.

       f.warpto	string
	       This  function warps the	pointer	to the window which has	a name
	       or class	that matches string.  If the window is	iconified,  it
	       will be deiconified if the variable WarpUnmapped	is set or else
	       ignored.

       f.warptoiconmgr string
	       This function warps the pointer to the icon manager entry asso-
	       ciated  with the	window containing the pointer in the icon man-
	       ager specified by the argument  string.	 If  string  is	 empty
	       (i.e. ""), the current icon manager is chosen.

       f.warptoscreen string
	       This  function warps the	pointer	to the screen specified	by the
	       argument	string.	 String	may be a number	(e.g. "0" or "1"), the
	       word  "next"  (indicating  the  current screen plus 1, skipping
	       over any	unmanaged screens), the	word  "back"  (indicating  the
	       current	screen	minus 1, skipping over any unmanaged screens),
	       or the word "prev" (indicating the last screen visited.

       f.winrefresh
	       This function is	similar	to the f.refresh function except  that
	       only the	selected window	is refreshed.

       f.zoom  This  function  is  similar  to the f.fullzoom function,	except
	       that the	only the height	of the selected	window is changed.

MENUS
       Functions may be	grouped	and interactively selected using pop-up	 (when
       bound  to a pointer button) or pull-down	(when associated with a	title-
       button) menus.  Each menu specification contains	the name of  the  menu
       as  it  will  be	referred to by f.menu, optional	default	foreground and
       background colors, the list of item names and the functions they	should
       invoke,	and  optional  foreground and background colors	for individual
       items:

	    Menu "menuname" [ ("deffore":"defback") ]
	    {
		 string1   [ ("fore1":"backn")]	    function1
		 string2   [ ("fore2":"backn")]	    function2
		      .
		      .
		      .
		 stringN   [ ("foreN":"backN")]	    functionN
	    }

       The menuname is case-sensitive.	The optional deffore and defback argu-
       ments specify the foreground and	background colors used on a color dis-
       play to highlight menu entries.	The string portion of each menu	 entry
       will  be	the text which will appear in the menu.	 The optional fore and
       back arguments specify the foreground and background colors of the menu
       entry  when the pointer is not in the entry.  These colors will only be
       used on a color display.	 The default is	to use the colors specified by
       the  MenuForeground and MenuBackground variables.  The function portion
       of the menu entry is one	of the functions, including  any  user-defined
       functions, or additional	menus.

       There  is  a  special menu named	TwmWindows which contains the names of
       all of the client and twm-supplied windows.  Selecting  an  entry  will
       cause the WindowFunction	to be executed on that window.	If WindowFunc-
       tion hasn't been	set, the window	will be	deiconified and	raised.

ICONS
       Twm supports several different ways of manipulating iconified  windows.
       The  common  pixmap-and-text style may be laid out by hand or automati-
       cally arranged as described by the IconRegion variable.	In addition, a
       terse grid of icon names, called	an icon	manager, provides a more effi-
       cient use of screen space as well as the	ability	to navigate among win-
       dows from the keyboard.

       An icon manager is a window that	contains names of selected or all win-
       dows currently on the display.  In addition to the window name, a small
       button  using  the default iconify symbol will be displayed to the left
       of the name when	the window is iconified.  By default, clicking	on  an
       entry  in  the  icon manager performs f.iconify.	 To change the actions
       taken in	the icon manager, use the the iconmgr context when  specifying
       button and keyboard bindings.

       Moving the pointer into the icon	manager	also directs keyboard focus to
       the indicated window (setting the focus explicitly or else sending syn-
       thetic events NoTitleFocus is set).  Using the f.upiconmgr, f.downicon-
       mgr f.lefticonmgr, and f.righticonmgr functions,	the input focus	can be
       changed between windows directly	from the keyboard.

BUGS
       The resource manager should have	been used instead of all of the	window
       lists.

       The IconRegion variable should take a list.

       Double clicking very fast to get	the  constrained  move	function  will
       sometimes  cause	 the  window  to  move,	even though the	pointer	is not
       moved.

       If IconifyByUnmapping is	on and	windows	 are  listed  in  IconManager-
       DontShow	 but  not  in DontIconifyByUnmapping, they may be lost if they
       are iconified and no bindings to	f.menu "TwmWindows"  or	 f.warpto  are
       setup.

FILES
       $HOME/.twmrc._screen number_
       $HOME/.twmrc
       /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/twm/system.twmrc

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       DISPLAY This  variable  is used to determine which X server to use.  It
	       is also set during f.exec so  that  programs  come  up  on  the
	       proper screen.

       HOME    This variable is	used as	the prefix for files that begin	with a
	       tilde and for locating the twm startup file.

SEE ALSO
       X(7), Xserver(1), xdm(1), xrdb(1)

AUTHORS
       Tom LaStrange, Solbourne	Computer; Jim Fulton, MIT X Consortium;	 Steve
       Pitschke,  Stardent  Computer;  Keith  Packard,	MIT X Consortium; Dave
       Sternlicht, MIT X Consortium; Dave Payne, Apple Computer.

XFree86				 Version 4.7.0				TWM(1)

NAME | SYNTAX | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | CUSTOMIZATION | VARIABLES | BINDINGS | MENUS | ICONS | BUGS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS

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