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TUN(4)		       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			TUN(4)

NAME
     tun -- tunnel software network interface

SYNOPSIS
     pseudo-device tun

DESCRIPTION
     The tun interface is a software loopback mechanism	that can be loosely
     described as the network interface	analog of the pty(4), that is, tun
     does for network interfaces what the pty(4) driver	does for terminals.

     The tun driver, like the pty(4) driver, provides two interfaces: an
     interface like the	usual facility it is simulating	(a network interface
     in	the case of tun, or a terminal for pty(4)), and	a character-special
     device ``control''	interface.

     The network interfaces are	named ``tun0'',	``tun1'', etc, as many as were
     made by MAKEDEV(8).  Each one supports the	usual network-interface
     ioctl(2)s,	such as	SIOCSIFADDR and	SIOCSIFNETMASK,	and thus can be	used
     with ifconfig(8) like any other interface.	 At boot time, they are
     POINTOPOINT interfaces, but this can be changed; see the description of
     the control device, below.	 When the system chooses to transmit a packet
     on	the network interface, the packet can be read from the control device
     (it appears as ``input'' there); writing a	packet to the control device
     generates an input	packet on the network interface, as if the (non-exis-
     tent) hardware had	just received it.

     The tunnel	device,	normally /dev/tunN, is exclusive-open (it cannot be
     opened if it is already open) and is restricted to	the super-user.	 A
     read(2) call will return an error (EHOSTDOWN) if the interface is not
     ``ready'' (which means that the control device is open and	the inter-
     face's address has	been set).

     Once the interface	is ready, read(2) will return a	packet if one is
     available;	if not,	it will	either block until one is or return
     EWOULDBLOCK, depending on whether non-blocking I/O	has been enabled.  If
     the packet	is longer than is allowed for in the buffer passed to read(2),
     the extra data will be silently dropped.

     Packets can be optionally prepended with the destination address as pre-
     sented to the network interface output routine, tunoutput().  The desti-
     nation address is in struct sockaddr format.  The actual length of	the
     prepended address is in the member	sa_len.	 The packet data follows imme-
     diately.

     A write(2)	call passes a packet in	to be ``received'' on the pseudo-
     interface.	 Each write(2) call supplies exactly one packet; the packet
     length is taken from the amount of	data provided to write(2).  Writes
     will not block; if	the packet cannot be accepted for a transient reason
     (e.g., no buffer space available),	it is silently dropped;	if the reason
     is	not transient (e.g., packet too	large),	an error is returned.  If
     ``link-layer mode'' is on (see TUNSLMODE below), the actual packet	data
     must be preceded by a struct sockaddr.  The driver	currently only
     inspects the sa_family field.

     The following ioctl(2) calls are supported	(defined in <net/if_tun.h>):

     TUNSDEBUG	 The argument should be	a pointer to an	int; this sets the
		 internal debugging variable to	that value.  What, if any-
		 thing,	this variable controls is not documented here; see the
		 source	code.

     TUNGDEBUG	 The argument should be	a pointer to an	int; this stores the
		 internal debugging variable's value into it.

     TUNSIFINFO	 The argument should be	a pointer to an	struct tuninfo and
		 allows	setting	the MTU, the type, and the baudrate of the
		 tunnel	device.	 The struct tuninfo is declared	in
		 <net/if_tun.h>.

     TUNGIFINFO	 The argument should be	a pointer to an	struct tuninfo,	where
		 the current MTU, type,	and baudrate will be stored.

     TUNSIFMODE	 The argument should be	a pointer to an	int; its value must be
		 either	IFF_POINTOPOINT	or IFF_BROADCAST.  The type of the
		 corresponding ``tunN''	interface is set to the	supplied type.
		 If the	value is anything else,	an EINVAL error	occurs.	 The
		 interface must	be down	at the time; if	it is up, an EBUSY
		 error occurs.

     TUNSLMODE	 The argument should be	a pointer to an	int; a non-zero	value
		 turns on ``link-layer'' mode, causing packets read from the
		 tunnel	device to be prepended with network destination
		 address.

     TUNSIFPID	 Will set the pid owning the tunnel device to the current
		 process's pid.

     TUNSIFHEAD	 The argument should be	a pointer to an	int; a non-zero	value
		 turns off ``link-layer'' mode,	and enables ``multi-af'' mode,
		 where every packet is preceded	with a four byte address fam-
		 ily.

     TUNGIFHEAD	 The argument should be	a pointer to an	int; this stores one
		 if the	device is in ``multi-af'' mode,	and zero otherwise in
		 it.

     FIONBIO	 Turn non-blocking I/O for reads off or	on, according as the
		 argument int's	value is or isn't zero.	 (Writes are always
		 non-blocking.)

     FIOASYNC	 Turn asynchronous I/O for reads (i.e.,	generation of SIGIO
		 when data is available	to be read) off	or on, according as
		 the argument int's value is or	isn't zero.

     FIONREAD	 If any	packets	are queued to be read, store the size of the
		 first one into	the argument int; otherwise, store zero.

     TIOCSPGRP	 Set the process group to receive SIGIO	signals, when asyn-
		 chronous I/O is enabled, to the argument int value.

     TIOCGPGRP	 Retrieve the process group value for SIGIO signals into the
		 argument int value.

     The control device	also supports select(2)	for read; selecting for	write
     is	pointless, and always succeeds,	since writes are always	non-blocking.

     On	the last close of the data device, by default, the interface is
     brought down (as if with ifconfig tunN down).  All	queued packets are
     thrown away.  If the interface is up when the data	device is not open
     output packets are	always thrown away rather than letting them pile up.

SEE ALSO
     inet(4), intro(4)

AUTHORS
     This manual page was originally obtained from NetBSD.

FreeBSD	9.2			March 10, 1996			   FreeBSD 9.2

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS

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