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TOP(1)			      Linux User's Manual			TOP(1)

NAME
       top - display Linux tasks

SYNOPSIS
       top -hv | -bcHisS -d delay -n iterations	-p pid [, pid ...]

       The traditional switches	'-' and	whitespace are optional.

DESCRIPTION
       The  top	program	provides a dynamic real-time view of a running system.
       It can display system summary information as well as a  list  of	 tasks
       currently  being	managed	by the Linux kernel.  The types	of system sum-
       mary information	shown and the types, order  and	 size  of  information
       displayed  for  tasks  are all user configurable	and that configuration
       can be made persistent across restarts.

       The program provides a limited interactive interface for	process	manip-
       ulation as well as a much more extensive	interface for personal config-
       uration	--  encompassing every aspect of its operation.	 And while top
       is  referred to throughout this document, you are free to name the pro-
       gram anything you wish.	That new name, possibly	an alias, will then be
       reflected on top's display and used when	reading	and writing a configu-
       ration file.

OVERVIEW
   Documentation
       The remaining Table of Contents
	   1. COMMAND-LINE Options
	   2. FIELDS / Columns
	      a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields
	      b. SELECTING and ORDERING	Columns
	   3. INTERACTIVE Commands
	      a. GLOBAL	Commands
	      b. SUMMARY Area Commands
	      c. TASK Area Commands
	      d. COLOR Mapping
	   4. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY	Mode
	      a. WINDOWS Overview
	      b. COMMANDS for Windows
	   5. FILES
	      a. SYSTEM	Configuration File
	      b. PERSONAL Configuration	File
	   6. STUPID TRICKS Sampler
	      a. Kernel	Magic
	      b. Bouncing Windows
	      c. The Big Bird Window
	   7. BUGS, 8. HISTORY Former top, 9. AUTHOR, 10. SEE ALSO

   Operation
       When operating top, the two most	important keys are help	('h'  or  '?')
       and  quit  ('q')	 key.	Alternatively, you could simply	use the	tradi-
       tional interrupt	key ('^C') when	you're done.

       When you	start top for the first	time, you'll  be  presented  with  the
       traditional  screen  elements: 1) Summary Area; 2) Message/Prompt Line;
       3) Columns Header; 4) Task Area.	 There will, however, be some  differ-
       ences when compared to the former top.

       Highlighting
	  Summary_Area:	There is no highlighting for load/uptime and only val-
	  ues are highlighted for other	elements.

	  Task_Area: Tasks running (or ready to	run) will be highlighted,  and
	  bold is only one way of emphasizing such processes.

       Content/Labels
	  Summary_Area:	The program name is shown, perhaps a symlink or	alias.
	  The Cpu(s) state label hints at  other  possibilities.   The	memory
	  stats	use a lower case 'k'.

	  Columns_Header: Will show a new field	and some changed labels.  More
	  new fields will be found as you customize your top.

       Note: the width of top's	display	will  be  limited  to  512  positions.
       Displaying  all	fields	requires  a  minimum  of  160 characters.  The
       remaining width could be	used for the 'Command' column.

   Startup Defaults
       The following startup defaults assume no	configuration  file,  thus  no
       user customizations.  Even so, items shown with an asterisk ('*') could
       be overridden through the command-line.

	   Global_defaults
	      'A' - Alt	display	     Off (full-screen)
	    * 'd' - Delay time	     3.0 seconds
	      'I' - Irix mode	     On	 (no, 'solaris'	smp)
	    * 'p' - PID	monitoring   Off
	    * 's' - Secure mode	     Off (unsecured)
	      'B' - Bold disable     Off
	   Summary_Area_defaults
	      'l' - Load Avg/Uptime  On	 (thus program name)
	      't' - Task/Cpu states  On	 (1+1 lines, see '1')
	      'm' - Mem/Swap usage   On	 (2 lines worth)
	      '1' - Single Cpu	     On	 (thus 1 line if smp)
	   Task_Area_defaults
	      'b' - Bold hilite	     On	 (not 'reverse')
	    * 'c' - Command line     Off (name,	not cmdline)
	    * 'H' - Threads	     Off (show all threads)
	    * 'i' - Idle tasks	     On	 (show all tasks)
	      'R' - Reverse sort     On	 (pids high-to-low)
	    * 'S' - Cumulative time  Off (no, dead children)
	      'x' - Column hilite    Off (no, sort field)
	      'y' - Row	hilite	     On	 (yes, running tasks)
	      'z' - color/mono	     Off (no, colors)

1. COMMAND-LINE	Options
       The command-line	syntax for top consists	of:

	    -hv	| -bcHisS -d delay -n iterations -p pid	[,pid...]

       The typically mandatory switches	('-') and  even	 whitespace  are  com-
       pletely optional.

       -b : Batch mode operation
	    Starts top in 'Batch mode',	which could be useful for sending out-
	    put	from top to other programs or to a file.  In  this  mode,  top
	    will  not  accept input and	runs until the iterations limit	you've
	    set	with the '-n' command-line option or until killed.

       -c : Command line/Program name toggle
	    Starts top with the	last remembered	'c' state reversed.  Thus,  if
	    top	was displaying command lines, now that field will show program
	    names, and visa versa.  See	the 'c'	interactive command for	 addi-
	    tional information.

       -d : Delay time interval	as:  -d	ss.tt (seconds.tenths)
	    Specifies the delay	between	screen updates,	and overrides the cor-
	    responding value in	 one's	personal  configuration	 file  or  the
	    startup  default.	Later  this can	be changed with	the 'd'	or 's'
	    interactive	commands.

	    Fractional seconds are honored,  but  a  negative  number  is  not
	    allowed.   In  all	cases, however,	such changes are prohibited if
	    top	is running in 'Secure mode', except for	root (unless  the  's'
	    command-line  option  was  used).	For  additional	information on
	    'Secure mode' see topic 5a.	SYSTEM Configuration File.

       -h : Help
	    Show library version and the usage prompt, then quit.

       -H : Threads toggle
	    Starts top with the	last remembered	'H' state reversed.  When this
	    toggle  is	On,  all individual threads will be displayed.	Other-
	    wise, top displays a summation of all threads in a process.

       -i : Idle Processes toggle
	    Starts top with the	last remembered	'i' state reversed.  When this
	    toggle  is	Off,  tasks that are idled or zombied will not be dis-
	    played.

       -n : Number of iterations limit as:  -n number
	    Specifies the maximum number of iterations,	or frames, top	should
	    produce before ending.

       -u : Monitor by user as:	 -u somebody
	    Monitor only processes with	an effective UID or user name matching
	    that given.

       -U : Monitor by user as:	 -U somebody
	    Monitor only processes with	a  UID	or  user  name	matching  that
	    given.   This matches real,	effective, saved, and filesystem UIDs.

       -p : Monitor PIDs as:  -pN1 -pN2	...  or	 -pN1, N2 [,...]
	    Monitor only processes with	specified process  IDs.	  This	option
	    can	 be given up to	20 times, or you can provide a comma delimited
	    list with up to 20 pids.  Co-mingling both approaches  is  permit-
	    ted.

	    This is a command-line option only.	 And should you	wish to	return
	    to normal operation, it is not necessary to	quit and  and  restart
	    top	 --  just issue	the '='	interactive command.

       -s : Secure mode	operation
	    Starts  top	 with secure mode forced, even for root.  This mode is
	    far	better controlled through the system configuration  file  (see
	    topic 5. FILES).

       -S : Cumulative time mode toggle
	    Starts  top	 with  the  last  remembered 'S' state reversed.  When
	    'Cumulative	mode' is On, each process is listed with the cpu  time
	    that  it and its dead children have	used.  See the 'S' interactive
	    command for	additional information regarding this mode.

       -v : Version
	    Show library version and the usage prompt, then quit.

2. FIELDS / Columns
   2a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields
       Listed below are	top's available	fields.	 They  are  always  associated
       with  the  letter shown,	regardless of the position you may have	estab-
       lished for them with the	'o' (Order fields) interactive command.

       Any field is selectable as the sort field, and you control whether they
       are  sorted  high-to-low	or low-to-high.	 For additional	information on
       sort provisions see topic 3c. TASK Area Commands.

       a: PID  --  Process Id
	  The task's unique process ID,	which periodically wraps, though never
	  restarting at	zero.

       b: PPID	--  Parent Process Pid
	  The process ID of a task's parent.

       c: RUSER	 --  Real User Name
	  The real user	name of	the task's owner.

       d: UID  --  User	Id
	  The effective	user ID	of the task's owner.

       e: USER	--  User Name
	  The effective	user name of the task's	owner.

       f: GROUP	 --  Group Name
	  The effective	group name of the task's owner.

       g: TTY  --  Controlling Tty
	  The  name  of	 the controlling terminal.  This is usually the	device
	  (serial port,	pty, etc.) from	which the  process  was	 started,  and
	  which	 it  uses  for	input  or output.  However, a task need	not be
	  associated with a terminal, in which case you'll see '?'  displayed.

       h: PR  --  Priority
	  The priority of the task.

       i: NI  --  Nice value
	  The nice value of the	task.  A negative nice value means higher pri-
	  ority, whereas a positive nice value means lower priority.  Zero  in
	  this field simply means priority will	not be adjusted	in determining
	  a task's dispatchability.

       j: P  --	 Last used CPU (SMP)
	  A number representing	the last used processor.  In a true SMP	 envi-
	  ronment  this	 will likely change frequently since the kernel	inten-
	  tionally uses	weak affinity.	Also, the very act of running top  may
	  break	 this  weak  affinity  and cause more processes	to change CPUs
	  more often (because of the extra demand for cpu time).

       k: %CPU	--  CPU	usage
	  The task's share of the elapsed  CPU	time  since  the  last	screen
	  update,  expressed as	a percentage of	total CPU time.	 In a true SMP
	  environment, if 'Irix	mode' is Off, top  will	 operate  in  'Solaris
	  mode'	 where	a task's cpu usage will	be divided by the total	number
	  of CPUs.  You	toggle 'Irix/Solaris' modes with the  'I'  interactive
	  command.

       l: TIME	--  CPU	Time
	  Total	CPU time the task has used since it started.  When 'Cumulative
	  mode'	is On, each process is listed with the cpu time	 that  it  and
	  its  dead children has used.	You toggle 'Cumulative mode' with 'S',
	  which	is a command-line option and an	interactive command.  See  the
	  'S'  interactive  command  for additional information	regarding this
	  mode.

       m: TIME+	 --  CPU Time, hundredths
	  The same as 'TIME', but reflecting  more  granularity	 through  hun-
	  dredths of a second.

       n: %MEM	--  Memory usage (RES)
	  A task's currently used share	of available physical memory.

       o: VIRT	--  Virtual Image (kb)
	  The  total  amount  of virtual memory	used by	the task.  It includes
	  all code, data and  shared  libraries	 plus  pages  that  have  been
	  swapped out.

	  VIRT = SWAP +	RES.

       p: SWAP	--  Swapped size (kb)
	  The swapped out portion of a task's total virtual memory image.

       q: RES  --  Resident size (kb)
	  The non-swapped physical memory a task has used.

	  RES =	CODE + DATA.

       r: CODE	--  Code size (kb)
	  The amount of	physical memory	devoted	to executable code, also known
	  as the 'text resident	set' size or TRS.

       s: DATA	--  Data+Stack size (kb)
	  The amount of	physical memory	devoted	to other than executable code,
	  also known as	the 'data resident set'	size or	DRS.

       t: SHR  --  Shared Mem size (kb)
	  The amount of	shared memory used by a	task.  It simply reflects mem-
	  ory that could be potentially	shared with other processes.

       u: nFLT	--  Page Fault count
	  The number of	major page faults that have occurred for  a  task.   A
	  page fault occurs when a process attempts to read from or write to a
	  virtual page that is not currently present in	its address space.   A
	  major	page fault is when disk	access is involved in making that page
	  available.

       v: nDRT	--  Dirty Pages	count
	  The number of	pages that have	been modified  since  they  were  last
	  written  to  disk.   Dirty  pages must be written to disk before the
	  corresponding	physical memory	location can be	used  for  some	 other
	  virtual page.

       w: S  --	 Process Status
	  The status of	the task which can be one of:
	     'D' = uninterruptible sleep
	     'R' = running
	     'S' = sleeping
	     'T' = traced or stopped
	     'Z' = zombie

	  Tasks	 shown as running should be more properly thought of as	'ready
	  to run'  --  their task_struct is simply represented	on  the	 Linux
	  run-queue.   Even  without  a	true SMP machine, you may see numerous
	  tasks	in this	state depending	 on  top's  delay  interval  and  nice
	  value.

       x: Command  --  Command line or Program name
	  Display  the	command	 line  used to start a task or the name	of the
	  associated program.  You toggle between command line and  name  with
	  'c', which is	both a command-line option and an interactive command.

	  When you've chosen to	display	command	 lines,	 processes  without  a
	  command  line	(like kernel threads) will be shown with only the pro-
	  gram name in parentheses, as in this example:
		( mdrecoveryd )

	  Either form of display is subject to potential  truncation  if  it's
	  too  long  to	fit in this field's current width.  That width depends
	  upon other fields selected,  their  order  and  the  current	screen
	  width.

	  Note:	The 'Command' field/column is unique, in that it is not	fixed-
	  width.  When displayed, this column will be allocated	all  remaining
	  screen  width	 (up to	the maximum 512	characters) to provide for the
	  potential growth of program names into command lines.

       y: WCHAN	 --  Sleeping in Function
	  Depending on the availability	of the kernel link map ('System.map'),
	  this	field will show	the name or the	address	of the kernel function
	  in which the task is currently sleeping.  Running tasks will display
	  a dash ('-') in this column.

	  Note:	 By  displaying	 this  field,  top's  own  working set will be
	  increased by over 700Kb.  Your only means of reducing	that  overhead
	  will be to stop and restart top.

       z: Flags	 --  Task Flags
	  This column represents the task's current scheduling flags which are
	  expressed in hexadecimal notation and	with zeros suppressed.	 These
	  flags	 are  officially  documented  in <linux/sched.h>.  Less	formal
	  documentation	can also be found on the 'Fields  select'  and	'Order
	  fields' screens.

   2b. SELECTING and ORDERING Columns
       After  pressing	the  interactive  commands  'f'	(Fields	select)	or 'o'
       (Order fields) you will be shown	a screen containing the	current	fields
       string followed by names	and descriptions for all fields.

       Here  is	 a  sample  fields string from one of top's four windows/field
       groups and an explanation of the	conventions used:

       -  Sample fields	string:
	     ANOPQRSTUVXbcdefgjlmyzWHIK

       -  The order of displayed fields	corresponds to the order of  the  let-
	  ters in that string.

       -  If the letter	is upper case the corresponding	field itself will then
	  be shown as part of the  task	 display  (screen  width  permitting).
	  This	will also be indicated by a leading asterisk ('*'), as in this
	  excerpt:
	      ...
	      *	K: %CPU	      =	CPU usage
		l: TIME	      =	CPU Time
		m: TIME+      =	CPU Time, hundredths
	      *	N: %MEM	      =	Memory usage (RES)
	      *	O: VIRT	      =	Virtual	Image (kb)
	      ...

       Fields select screen  --	 the 'f' interactive command
	  You toggle the display of a field by simply pressing the correspond-
	  ing letter.

       Order fields screen  --	the 'o'	interactive command
	  You  move  a	field  to the left by pressing the corresponding upper
	  case letter and to the right with the	lower case letter.

3. INTERACTIVE Commands
       Listed below is a brief index of	commands within	categories.  Some com-
       mands  appear  more  than  once	 --   their  meaning or	scope may vary
       depending on the	context	in which they are issued.

	 3a. GLOBAL_Commands
	       <Ret/Sp>	?, =, A, B, d, G, h, I,	k, q, r, s, W, Z
	 3b. SUMMARY_Area_Commands
	       l, m, t,	1
	 3c. TASK_Area_Commands
	       Appearance:  b, x, y, z
	       Content:	    c, f, H, o,	S, u
	       Size:	    #, i, n
	       Sorting:	    <, >, F, O,	R
	 3d. COLOR_Mapping
	       <Ret>, a, B, b, H, M, q,	S, T, w, z, 0 -	7
	 4b. COMMANDS_for_Windows
	       -, _, =,	+, A, a, G, g, w

   3a. GLOBAL Commands
       The  global  interactive	 commands  are	always	 available   in	  both
       full-screen  mode  and  alternate-display mode.	However, some of these
       interactive commands are	not available when running in 'Secure mode'.

       If you wish to know in  advance	whether	 or  not  your	top  has  been
       secured,	 simply	ask for	help and view the system summary on the	second
       line.

	 <Enter> or <Space> :Refresh_Display
	      These commands do	nothing, they are  simply  ignored.   However,
	      they  will  awaken  top  and  following receipt of any input the
	      entire display will be repainted.

	      Use either of these keys if you have a large delay interval  and
	      wish to see current status,

	 '?' or	'h' :Help
	      There  are  two help levels available.  The first	will provide a
	      reminder of all the  basic  interactive  commands.   If  top  is
	      secured, that screen will	be abbreviated.

	      Typing  'h' or '?' on that help screen will take you to help for
	      those interactive	commands applicable to alternate-display mode.

	 '=' :Exit_Task_Limits
	      Removes  restrictions  on	 which	tasks are shown.  This command
	      will reverse any 'i' (idle tasks)	and 'n'	(max  tasks)  commands
	      that  might  be active.  It also provides	for an 'exit' from PID
	      monitoring.  See the '-p'	command-line option for	 a  discussion
	      of PID monitoring.

	      When  operating  in  alternate-display  mode  this command has a
	      slightly broader meaning.

	 'A' :Alternate_Display_Mode_toggle
	      This command will	switch between	full-screen  mode  and	alter-
	      nate-display  mode.  See topic 4.	ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Mode and the
	      'G' interactive command for insight into 'current'  windows  and
	      field groups.

	 'B' :Bold_Disable/Enable_toggle
	      This  command will influence use of the 'bold' terminfo capabil-
	      ity and alters both the summary area and task area for the 'cur-
	      rent'  window.  While it is intended primarily for use with dumb
	      terminals, it can	be applied anytime.

	      Note: When this toggle is	On and top is operating	in  monochrome
	      mode,  the  entire  display  will	 appear	as normal text.	 Thus,
	      unless the 'x' and/or 'y'	toggles	are using reverse  for	empha-
	      sis, there will be no visual confirmation	that they are even on.

       * 'd' or	's' :Change_Delay_Time_interval
	      You will be prompted  to	enter  the  delay  time,  in  seconds,
	      between display updates.

	      Fractional  seconds  are	honored,  but a	negative number	is not
	      allowed.	Entering 0 causes (nearly) continuous updates, with an
	      unsatisfactory  display as the system and	tty driver try to keep
	      up with top's demands.  The delay	 value	is  inversely  propor-
	      tional to	system loading,	so set it with care.

	      If  at  any time you wish	to know	the current delay time,	simply
	      ask for help and view the	system summary on the second line.

	 'G' :Choose_Another_Window/Field_Group
	      You will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 designat-
	      ing  the	window/field  group which should be made the 'current'
	      window.  You will	soon grow comfortable with  these  4  windows,
	      especially after experimenting with alternate-display mode.

	 'I' :Irix/Solaris_Mode_toggle
	      When operating in	'Solaris mode' ('I' toggled Off), a task's cpu
	      usage will be divided by the total number	of CPUs.  After	 issu-
	      ing  this	 command,  you'll be informed of the new state of this
	      toggle.

	 'u' :select a user
	      You will be prompted for	a  UID	or  username.  Only  processes
	      belonging	 to  the  selected user	will be	displayed. This	option
	      matches on the effective UID.

	 'U' :select a user
	      You will be prompted for	a  UID	or  username.  Only  processes
	      belonging	 to  the  selected user	will be	displayed. This	option
	      matches on the real, effective, saved, and filesystem UID.

       * 'k' :Kill_a_task
	      You will be prompted for a PID and then the signal to send.  The
	      default  signal,	as  reflected in the prompt, is	SIGTERM.  How-
	      ever, you	can send any signal, via number	or name.

	      If you wish to abort the kill process, do	one of	the  following
	      depending	on your	progress:
		 1) at the pid prompt, just press <Enter>
		 2) at the signal prompt, type 0

	 'q' :Quit

       * 'r' :Renice_a_Task
	      You will be prompted for a PID and then the value	to nice	it to.
	      Entering a positive value	will cause a process to	lose priority.
	      Conversely,  a  negative value will cause	a process to be	viewed
	      more favorably by	the kernel.

	 'W' :Write_the_Configuration_File
	      This will	save all of your options and toggles plus the  current
	      display  mode  and  delay	 time.	 By  issuing this command just
	      before quitting top, you will be able restart later  in  exactly
	      that same	state.

	 'Z' :Change_Color_Mapping
	      This key will take you to	a separate screen where	you can	change
	      the colors for the 'current' window, or for  all	windows.   For
	      details  regarding  this interactive command see topic 3d. COLOR
	      Mapping.

       *  The commands shown with an  asterisk	('*')  are  not	 available  in
	  'Secure mode', nor will they be shown	on the level-1 help screen.

   3b. SUMMARY Area Commands
       The  summary  area  interactive	commands  are always available in both
       full-screen mode	and alternate-display mode.  They affect the beginning
       lines  of  your display and will	determine the position of messages and
       prompts.

       These commands always impact just  the  'current'  window/field	group.
       See topic 4. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Mode and the 'G' interactive command for
       insight into 'current' windows and field	groups.

	 'l' :Toggle_Load_Average/Uptime  --  On/Off
	      This is also the line containing the program name	 (possibly  an
	      alias)  when operating in	full-screen mode or the	'current' win-
	      dow name when operating in alternate-display mode.

	 'm' :Toggle_Memory/Swap_Usage	--  On/Off
	      This command affects two summary area lines.

	 't' :Toggle_Task/Cpu_States  --  On/Off
	      This command affects from	2 to many summary area lines,  depend-
	      ing  on  the  state  of the '1' toggle and whether or not	top is
	      running under true SMP.

	 '1' :Toggle_Single/Separate_Cpu_States	 --  On/Off
	      This command affects how the 't' command's Cpu States portion is
	      shown.   Although	 this  toggle  exists  primarily to serve mas-
	      sively-parallel SMP machines, it is not restricted to solely SMP
	      environments.

	      When you see 'Cpu(s):' in	the summary area, the '1' toggle is On
	      and all cpu information is gathered in a	single	line.	Other-
	      wise, each cpu is	displayed separately as: 'Cpu0,	Cpu1, ...'

       Note:  If  the entire summary area has been toggled Off for any window,
       you would be left with just the message line.  In that  way,  you  will
       have  maximized	available  task	 rows but (temporarily)	sacrificed the
       program name in full-screen mode	or the 'current' window	name  when  in
       alternate-display mode.

   3c. TASK Area Commands
       The  task area interactive commands are always available	in full-screen
       mode.

       The task	area  interactive  commands  are  never	 available  in	alter-
       nate-display  mode if the 'current' window's task display has been tog-
       gled Off	(see topic 4. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY	Mode).

       APPEARANCE of task window
	 The following commands	will also be influenced	by the	state  of  the
	 global	'B' (bold disable) toggle.

	 'b' :Bold/Reverse_toggle
	      This  command  will  impact how the 'x' and 'y' toggles are dis-
	      played.  Further,	it will	only be	available when at least	one of
	      those toggles is On.

	 'x' :Column_Highlight_toggle
	      Changes  highlighting  for the current sort field.  You probably
	      don't need a constant visual reminder of the sort	field and  top
	      hopes  that  you	always run with	'column	highlight' Off,	due to
	      the cost in path-length.

	      If you forget which field	is being sorted	this command can serve
	      as a quick visual	reminder.

	 'y' :Row_Highlight_toggle
	      Changes	highlighting  for  "running"  tasks.   For  additional
	      insight into this	task state,  see  topic	 2a.  DESCRIPTIONS  of
	      Fields, Process Status.

	      Use  of this provision provides important	insight	into your sys-
	      tem's health.  The only costs  will  be  a  few  additional  tty
	      escape sequences.

	 'z' :Color/Monochrome_toggle
	      Switches	the  'current'	window	between	 your  last used color
	      scheme and the older form	of black-on-white  or  white-on-black.
	      This  command will alter both the	summary	area and task area but
	      does not affect the state	of the 'x', 'y'	or 'b' toggles.

       CONTENT of task window
	 'c' :Command_Line/Program_Name_toggle
	      This command will	be honored whether or not the 'Command'	column
	      is  currently visible.  Later, should that field come into view,
	      the change you applied will be seen.

	 'f' and 'o' :Fields_select or Order_fields
	      These keys display separate screens where	you can	 change	 which
	      fields  are  displayed and their order.  For additional informa-
	      tion on these interactive	commands see topic 2b.	SELECTING  and
	      ORDERING Columns.

	 'H' :Threads_toggle
	      When  this  toggle  is  On,  all individual threads will be dis-
	      played.  Otherwise, top displays a summation of all threads in a
	      process.

	 'S' :Cumulative_Time_Mode_toggle
	      When  'Cumulative	 mode'	is On, each process is listed with the
	      cpu time that it and its dead children have used.

	      When Off,	programs that  fork  into  many	 separate  tasks  will
	      appear less demanding.  For programs like	'init' or a shell this
	      is appropriate but for  others,  like  compilers,	 perhaps  not.
	      Experiment with two task windows sharing the same	sort field but
	      with different 'S' states	and see	which representation you  pre-
	      fer.

	      After  issuing this command, you'll be informed of the new state
	      of this toggle.  If you wish to know in advance whether  or  not
	      'Cumulative mode'	is in effect, simply ask for help and view the
	      window summary on	the second line.

	 'u' :Show_Specific_User_Only
	      You will be prompted to enter the	name of	the user  to  display.
	      Thereafter,  in that task	window only matching User ID's will be
	      shown, or	possibly no tasks will be shown.

	      Later, if	you wish to monitor all	 tasks	again,	re-issue  this
	      command  but just	press <Enter> at the prompt, without providing
	      a	name.

       SIZE of task window
	 'i' :Idle_Processes_toggle
	      Displays all tasks or just active	tasks.	When  this  toggle  is
	      Off, idled or zombied processes will not be displayed.

	      If  this	command	 is  applied  to the last task display when in
	      alternate-display	mode, then it will  not	 affect	 the  window's
	      size, as all prior task displays will have already been painted.

	 'n' or	'#' :Set_Maximum_Tasks
	      You will be prompted to enter the	number of  tasks  to  display.
	      The  lessor  of  your  number  and available screen rows will be
	      used.

	      When used	in alternate-display mode, this	is  the	 command  that
	      gives  you precise control over the size of each currently visi-
	      ble task display,	except for the very last.  It will not	affect
	      the  last	 window's  size,  as all prior task displays will have
	      already been painted.

	      Note: If you wish	to increase the	size of	the last visible  task
	      display when in alternate-display	mode, simply decrease the size
	      of the task display(s) above it.

       SORTING of task window
	 For compatibility, this top supports most  of	the  former  top  sort
	 keys.	 Since	this is	primarily a service to former top users, these
	 commands do not appear	on any help screen.
	    command   sorted field		    supported
	      A		start time (non-display)      No
	      M		%MEM			      Yes
	      N		PID			      Yes
	      P		%CPU			      Yes
	      T		TIME+			      Yes

	 Before	using any of the following sort	provisions, top	suggests  that
	 you temporarily turn on column	highlighting using the 'x' interactive
	 command.  That	will help ensure  that	the  actual  sort  environment
	 matches your intent.

	 The following interactive commands will only be honored when the cur-
	 rent sort field is visible.  The sort	field  might  not  be  visible
	 because:
	      1) there is insufficient Screen Width
	      2) the 'f' interactive command turned it Off

	 '<' :Move_Sort_Field_Left
	      Moves  the sort column to	the left unless	the current sort field
	      is the first field being displayed.

	 '>' :Move_Sort_Field_Right
	      Moves the	sort column to the right unless	the current sort field
	      is the last field	being displayed.

	 The  following	interactive commands will always be honored whether or
	 not the current sort field is visible.

	 'F' or	'O' :Select_Sort_Field
	      These keys display a separate screen where you can change	 which
	      field is used as the sort	column.

	      If a field is selected which was not previously being displayed,
	      it will be forced	On when	you return to the top  display.	  How-
	      ever,  depending	upon  your  screen width and the order of your
	      fields, this sort	field may not be displayable.

	      This interactive command can be a	convenient way to simply  ver-
	      ify  the	current	sort field, when running top with column high-
	      lighting turned Off.

	 'R' :Reverse/Normal_Sort_Field_toggle
	      Using this interactive command you can alternate	between	 high-
	      to-low and low-to-high sorts.

	 Note:	Field  sorting	uses internal values, not those	in column dis-
	 play.	Thus, the TTY and WCHAN	fields will violate strict ASCII  col-
	 lating	sequence.

   3d. COLOR Mapping
       When  you issue the 'Z' interactive command, you	will be	presented with
       a separate screen.  That	screen can be used to  change  the  colors  in
       just  the  'current'  window or in all four windows before returning to
       the top display.

       Available interactive commands
	   4 upper case	letters	to select a target
	   8 numbers to	select a color
	   normal toggles available
	       'B'	 :bold disable/enable
	       'b'	 :running tasks	"bold"/reverse
	       'z'	 :color/mono
	   other commands available
	       'a'/'w'	 :apply, then go to next/prior
	       <Enter>	 :apply	and exit
	       'q'	 :abandon current changes and exit

       If your use 'a' or 'w' to cycle the  targeted  window,  you  will  have
       applied	the color scheme that was displayed when you left that window.
       You can,	of course, easily return to any	window and  reapply  different
       colors or turn colors Off completely with the 'z' toggle.

       The  Color Mapping screen can also be used to change the	'current' win-
       dow/field group in either full-screen mode or  alternate-display	 mode.
       Whatever	was targeted when 'q' or <Enter> was pressed will be made cur-
       rent as you return to the top display.

4. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Mode
   4a. WINDOWS Overview
       Field Groups/Windows:
	      In full-screen mode there	is a single window represented by  the
	      entire  screen.  That single window can still be changed to dis-
	      play 1 of	4 different field groups (see the 'G' interactive com-
	      mand,  repeated below).  Each of the 4 field groups has a	unique
	      separately configurable summary area and	its  own  configurable
	      task area.

	      In  alternate-display  mode, those 4 underlying field groups can
	      now be made visible simultaneously, or can be turned  Off	 indi-
	      vidually at your command.

	      The  summary  area will always exist, even if it's only the mes-
	      sage line.  At any given time only one summary area can be  dis-
	      played.	However,  depending  on	 your commands,	there could be
	      from zero	to four	separate task displays	currently  showing  on
	      the screen.

       Current Window:
	      The  'current'  window is	the window associated with the summary
	      area and the window to which task	related	 commands  are	always
	      directed.	  Since	 in  alternate-display mode you	can toggle the
	      task display Off,	some commands  might  be  restricted  for  the
	      'current'	window.

	      A	 further  complication	arises when you	have toggled the first
	      summary area line	Off.  With the loss of the  window  name  (the
	      'l'  toggled  line),  you'll  not	easily know what window	is the
	      'current'	window.

   4b. COMMANDS	for Windows
	 '-' and '_' :Show/Hide_Window(s)_toggles
	      The '-' key turns	the 'current' window's	task  display  On  and
	      Off.  When On, that task area will show a	minimum	of the columns
	      header you've established	with the 'f'  and  'o'	commands.   It
	      will  also  reflect  any	other task area	options/toggles	you've
	      applied yielding zero or more tasks.

	      The '_' key does the same	 for  all  task	 displays.   In	 other
	      words, it	switches between the currently visible task display(s)
	      and any task display(s) you had toggled Off.  If all 4 task dis-
	      plays are	currently visible, this	interactive command will leave
	      the summary area as the only display element.

       * '=' and '+' :Equalize_(re-balance)_Window(s)
	      The '=' key forces the 'current' window's	 task  display	to  be
	      visible.	 It  also  reverses  any 'i' (idle tasks) and 'n' (max
	      tasks) commands that might be active.

	      The '+' key does the same	for all	windows.  The four  task  dis-
	      plays  will  reappear,  evenly  balanced.	  They	will also have
	      retained any customizations you had previously  applied,	except
	      for the 'i' (idle	tasks) and 'n' (max tasks) commands.

       * 'A' :Alternate_Display_Mode_toggle
	      This  command  will  switch  between full-screen mode and	alter-
	      nate-display mode.

	      The first	time you issue this command, all  four	task  displays
	      will  be	shown.	Thereafter when	you switch modes, you will see
	      only the task display(s) you've chosen to	make visible.

       * 'a' and 'w' :Next_Window_Forward/Backward
	      This will	change the 'current' window, which in turn changes the
	      window to	which commands are directed.  These keys act in	a cir-
	      cular fashion so you can	reach  any  desired  'current'	window
	      using either key.

	      Assuming	the  window  name is visible (you have not toggled 'l'
	      Off), whenever  the  'current'  window  name  loses  its	empha-
	      sis/color,  that's  a  reminder the task display is Off and many
	      commands will be restricted.

       * 'G' :Choose_Another_Window/Field_Group
	      You will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 designat-
	      ing  the	window/field  group which should be made the 'current'
	      window.

	      In full-screen mode, this	command	 is  necessary	to  alter  the
	      'current'	 window.   In  alternate-display  mode,	it is simply a
	      less convenient alternative to the 'a' and 'w' commands.

	 'g' :Change_Window/Field_Group_Name
	      You will be prompted for a new name to be	applied	to  the	 'cur-
	      rent' window.  It	does not require that the window name be visi-
	      ble (the 'l' toggle to be	On).

       *  The interactive commands shown  with	an  asterisk  ('*')  have  use
	  beyond alternate-display mode.
	      '=', 'A',	'G'  are always	available
	      'a', 'w'	     act the same when color mapping

5. FILES
   5a. SYSTEM Configuration File
       The  presence  of  this file will influence which version of the	'help'
       screen is shown to an ordinary user.  More importantly, it  will	 limit
       what  ordinary  users are allowed to do when top	is running.  They will
       not be able to issue the	following commands.
	  k	    Kill a task
	  r	    Renice a task
	  d or s    Change delay/sleep interval

       The system configuration	file is	not created by top.  Rather, you  cre-
       ate  this  file	manually and place it in the /etc directory.  Its name
       must be 'toprc' and must	have no	leading	'.' (period).	It  must  have
       only two	lines.

       Here is an example of the contents of /etc/toprc:
	  s	    # line 1: 'secure' mode switch
	  5.0	    # line 2: 'delay'  interval	in seconds

   5b. PERSONAL	Configuration File
       This  file  is written as '$HOME/.your-name-4-top' + 'rc'.  Use the 'W'
       interactive command to create it	or update it.

       Here is the general layout:
	  global    # line 1: the program name/alias notation
	    "	    # line 2: id,altscr,irixps,delay,curwin
	  per ea    # line a: winname,fieldscur
	  window    # line b: winflags,sortindx,maxtasks
	    "	    # line c: summclr,msgsclr,headclr,taskclr

       If the $HOME variable is	not present, top will try to  write  the  per-
       sonal  configuration  file to the current directory, subject to permis-
       sions.

6. STUPID TRICKS Sampler
       Many of these 'tricks' work best	when you give top a scheduling	boost.
       So  plan	 on starting him with a	nice value of -10, assuming you've got
       the authority.

   6a. Kernel Magic
       For these stupid	tricks,	top needs full-screen mode.

       -*-  The	 user  interface,  through  prompts  and  help,	 intentionally
	    implies  that the delay interval is	limited	to tenths of a second.
	    However, you're free to set	any desired delay.  If you want	to see
	    Linux  at his scheduling best, try a delay of .09 seconds or less.

	    For	this experiment, under x-windows open an  xterm	 and  maximize
	    it.	 Then do the following:
	      .	provide	a scheduling boost and tiny delay via:
		  nice -n -10 top -d.09
	      .	keep sorted column highlighting	Off to minimize
		path length
	      .	turn On	reverse	row highlighting for emphasis
	      .	try various sort columns (TIME/MEM work	well),
		and normal or reverse sorts to bring the most
		active processes into view

	    What  you'll  see is a very	busy Linux doing what he's always done
	    for	you, but there was no program available	to illustrate this.

       -*-  Under an xterm using 'white-on-black' colors,  try	setting	 top's
	    task  color	 to black and be sure that task	highlighting is	set to
	    bold, not reverse.	Then set the delay interval to around .3  sec-
	    onds.

	    After  bringing  the  most active processes	into view, what	you'll
	    see	are the	ghostly	images of just the currently running tasks.

       -*-  Delete the existing	rcfile,	or create a new	symlink.   Start  this
	    new	 version  then type 'T'	(a secret key, see topic 3c. TASK Area
	    Commands, Sorting) followed	by 'W' and 'q'.	 Finally, restart  the
	    program with -d0 (zero delay).

	    Your display will be refreshed at three times the rate of the for-
	    mer	top, a 300% speed advantage.  As top climbs the	 TIME  ladder,
	    be	as  patient as you can while speculating on whether or not top
	    will ever reach the	top.

   6b. Bouncing	Windows
       For these stupid	tricks,	top needs alternate-display mode.

       -*-  With 3 or 4	task displays visible, pick any	window other than  the
	    last  and turn idle	processes Off.	Depending on where you applied
	    'i', sometimes several task	displays are  bouncing	and  sometimes
	    it's like an accordion, as top tries his best to allocate space.

       -*-  Set	 each  window's	summary	lines differently: one with no memory;
	    another with no states; maybe one with nothing at  all,  just  the
	    message  line.  Then hold down 'a' or 'w' and watch	a variation on
	    bouncing windows  --  hopping windows.

       -*-  Display all	4 windows and for each,	in turn, set idle processes to
	    Off.  You've just entered the "extreme bounce" zone.

   6c. The Big Bird Window
       This stupid trick also requires alternate-display mode.

       -*-  Display  all  4  windows and make sure that	1:Def is the 'current'
	    window.  Then, keep	increasing window size until the all the other
	    task displays are "pushed out of the nest".

	    When they've all been displaced, toggle between all	visible/invis-
	    ible windows.  Then	ponder this:
	       is top fibbing or telling honestly your imposed truth?

7. BUGS
       Send bug	reports	to:
	  Albert D. Cahalan, <albert@users.sf.net>

8. HISTORY Former top
       The  original  top  was	written	 by  Roger  Binns,  based  on	Branko
       Lankester's <lankeste@fwi.uva.nl> ps program.

       Robert  Nation  <nation@rocket.sanders.lockheed.com> adapted it for the
       proc file system.

       Helmut Geyer  <Helmut.Geyer@iwr.uni-heidelberg.de>  added  support  for
       configurable fields.

       Plus many other individuals contributed over the	years.

9. AUTHOR
       This entirely new and enhanced replacement was written by:
	  Jim /	James C. Warner, <warnerjc@worldnet.att.net>

       With invaluable help from:
	  Albert D. Cahalan, <albert@users.sf.net>
	  Craig	Small, <csmall@small.dropbear.id.au>

10. SEE	ALSO
       free(1),	ps(1), uptime(1), atop(1), slabtop(1), vmstat(8), w(1).

Linux				September 2002				TOP(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OVERVIEW | 1. COMMAND-LINE Options | 2. FIELDS / Columns | 3. INTERACTIVE Commands | 4. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Mode | 5. FILES | 6. STUPID TRICKS Sampler | 7. BUGS | 8. HISTORY Former top | 9. AUTHOR | 10. SEE ALSO

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