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TAIL(1)				      FSF			       TAIL(1)

NAME
       tail - output the last part of files

SYNOPSIS
       tail [OPTION]...	[FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       Print  the  last	 10  lines of each FILE	to standard output.  With more
       than one	FILE, precede each with	a header giving	the file  name.	  With
       no FILE,	or when	FILE is	-, read	standard input.

       Mandatory  arguments  to	 long  options are mandatory for short options
       too.

       --retry
	      keep trying to open a file even if it is inaccessible when  tail
	      starts  or  if it	becomes	inaccessible later -- useful only with
	      -f

       -c, --bytes=N
	      output the last N	bytes

       -f, --follow[={name|descriptor}]
	      output appended data as the file grows; -f, --follow, and	--fol-
	      low=descriptor are equivalent

       -F     same as --follow=name --retry

       -n, --lines=N
	      output the last N	lines, instead of the last 10

       --max-unchanged-stats=N
	      with  --follow=name,  reopen  a  FILE which has not changed size
	      after N (default 5) iterations to	see if it has been unlinked or
	      renamed (this is the usual case of rotated log files)

       --pid=PID
	      with -f, terminate after process ID, PID dies

       -q, --quiet, --silent
	      never output headers giving file names

       -s, --sleep-interval=S
	      with -f, sleep for approximately S seconds (default 1.0) between
	      iterations.

       -v, --verbose
	      always output headers giving file	names

       --help display this help	and exit

       --version
	      output version information and exit

       If the first character of N (the	number of bytes	or lines)  is  a  `+',
       print  beginning	 with the Nth item from	the start of each file,	other-
       wise, print the last N items in the file.  N may	have a multiplier suf-
       fix: b for 512, k for 1024, m for 1048576 (1 Meg).

       With  --follow  (-f),  tail  defaults to	following the file descriptor,
       which means that	even if	a tail'ed file is renamed, tail	will  continue
       to  track  its  end.   This  default behavior is	not desirable when you
       really want to track the	actual name of the file, not the file descrip-
       tor (e.g., log rotation).  Use --follow=name in that case.  That	causes
       tail to track the named file by reopening it periodically to see	if  it
       has been	removed	and recreated by some other program.

AUTHOR
       Written	by Paul	Rubin, David MacKenzie,	Ian Lance Taylor, and Jim Mey-
       ering.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2002 Free Software	Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for copying conditions.  There is
       NO  warranty;  not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
       PURPOSE.

SEE ALSO
       The full	documentation for tail is maintained as	a Texinfo manual.   If
       the  info  and  tail  programs are properly installed at	your site, the
       command

	      info tail

       should give you access to the complete manual.

tail (coreutils) 4.5.3		 February 2003			       TAIL(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | AUTHOR | REPORTING BUGS | COPYRIGHT | SEE ALSO

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