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STRTOL(3)	       FreeBSD Library Functions Manual		     STRTOL(3)

NAME
     strtol, strtoll, strtoimax, strtoq	-- convert a string value to a long,
     long long,	intmax_t or quad_t integer

LIBRARY
     Standard C	Library	(libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <stdlib.h>
     #include <limits.h>

     long
     strtol(const char * restrict nptr,	char **	restrict endptr, int base);

     long long
     strtoll(const char	* restrict nptr, char ** restrict endptr, int base);

     #include <inttypes.h>

     intmax_t
     strtoimax(const char * restrict nptr, char	** restrict endptr, int	base);

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <stdlib.h>
     #include <limits.h>

     quad_t
     strtoq(const char *nptr, char **endptr, int base);

DESCRIPTION
     The strtol() function converts the	string in nptr to a long value.	 The
     strtoll() function	converts the string in nptr to a long long value.  The
     strtoimax() function converts the string in nptr to an intmax_t value.
     The strtoq() function converts the	string in nptr to a quad_t value.  The
     conversion	is done	according to the given base, which must	be between 2
     and 36 inclusive, or be the special value 0.

     The string	may begin with an arbitrary amount of white space (as deter-
     mined by isspace(3)) followed by a	single optional	`+' or `-' sign.  If
     base is zero or 16, the string may	then include a ``0x'' prefix, and the
     number will be read in base 16; otherwise,	a zero base is taken as	10
     (decimal) unless the next character is `0', in which case it is taken as
     8 (octal).

     The remainder of the string is converted to a long, long long, intmax_t
     or	quad_t value in	the obvious manner, stopping at	the first character
     which is not a valid digit	in the given base.  (In	bases above 10,	the
     letter `A'	in either upper	or lower case represents 10, `B' represents
     11, and so	forth, with `Z'	representing 35.)

     If	endptr is not NULL, strtol() stores the	address	of the first invalid
     character in *endptr.  If there were no digits at all, however, strtol()
     stores the	original value of nptr in *endptr.  (Thus, if *nptr is not
     `\0' but **endptr is `\0' on return, the entire string was	valid.)

RETURN VALUES
     The strtol(), strtoll(), strtoimax() and strtoq() functions return	the
     result of the conversion, unless the value	would underflow	or overflow.
     If	no conversion could be performed, 0 is returned	and the	global vari-
     able errno	is set to EINVAL (the last feature is not portable across all
     platforms).  If an	overflow or underflow occurs, errno is set to ERANGE
     and the function return value is clamped according	to the following ta-
     ble.

	   Function	  underflow    overflow
	   strtol()	  LONG_MIN     LONG_MAX
	   strtoll()	  LLONG_MIN    LLONG_MAX
	   strtoimax()	  INTMAX_MIN   INTMAX_MAX
	   strtoq()	  LLONG_MIN    LLONG_MAX

ERRORS
     [EINVAL]		The value of base is not supported or no conversion
			could be performed (the	last feature is	not portable
			across all platforms).

     [ERANGE]		The given string was out of range; the value converted
			has been clamped.

SEE ALSO
     atof(3), atoi(3), atol(3),	strtod(3), strtonum(3),	strtoul(3), wcstol(3)

STANDARDS
     The strtol() function conforms to ISO/IEC 9899:1990 (``ISO	C90'').	 The
     strtoll() and strtoimax() functions conform to ISO/IEC 9899:1999
     (``ISO C99'').  The BSD strtoq() function is deprecated.

FreeBSD	9.2		       November	28, 2001		   FreeBSD 9.2

NAME | LIBRARY | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUES | ERRORS | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS

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