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STAT(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual		       STAT(1)

     stat, readlink -- display file status

     stat [-FLnq] [-f format | -l | -r | -s | -x] [-t timefmt] [file ...]
     readlink [-n] [file ...]

     The stat utility displays information about the file pointed to by	file.
     Read, write or execute permissions	of the named file are not required,
     but all directories listed	in the path name leading to the	file must be
     searchable.  If no	argument is given, stat	displays information about the
     file descriptor for standard input.

     When invoked as readlink, only the	target of the symbolic link is
     printed.  If the given argument is	not a symbolic link, readlink will
     print nothing and exit with an error.

     The information displayed is obtained by calling lstat(2) with the	given
     argument and evaluating the returned structure.

     The options are as	follows:

     -F	     As	in ls, display a slash (/) immediately after each pathname
	     that is a directory, an asterisk (*) after	each that is exe-
	     cutable, an at sign (@) after each	symbolic link, a percent sign
	     (%) after each whiteout, an equal sign (=)	after each socket, and
	     a vertical	bar (|)	after each that	is a FIFO.  The	use of -F
	     implies -l.

     -L	     Use stat(2) instead of lstat(2).  The information reported	by
	     stat will refer to	the target of file, if file is a symbolic
	     link, and not to file itself.

     -n	     Do	not force a newline to appear at the end of each piece of out-

     -q	     Suppress failure messages if calls	to stat(2) or lstat(2) fail.
	     When run as readlink, error messages are automatically sup-

     -f	format
	     Display information using the specified format.  See the FORMATS
	     section for a description of valid	formats.

     -l	     Display output in ls -lT format.

     -r	     Display raw information.  That is,	for all	the fields in the
	     stat-structure, display the raw, numerical	value (for example,
	     times in seconds since the	epoch, etc.)

     -s	     Display information in ``shell output'', suitable for initializ-
	     ing variables.

     -x	     Display information in a more verbose way as known	from some
	     Linux distributions.

     -t	timefmt
	     Display timestamps	using the specified format.  This format is
	     passed directly to	strftime(3).

     Format strings are	similar	to printf(3) formats in	that they start	with
     %,	are then followed by a sequence	of formatting characters, and end in a
     character that selects the	field of the struct stat which is to be	for-
     matted.  If the % is immediately followed by one of n, t, %, or @,	then a
     newline character,	a tab character, a percent character, or the current
     file number is printed, otherwise the string is examined for the follow-

     Any of the	following optional flags:

     #	     Selects an	alternate output form for octal	and hexadecimal	out-
	     put.  Non-zero octal output will have a leading zero, and non-
	     zero hexadecimal output will have ``0x'' prepended	to it.

     +	     Asserts that a sign indicating whether a number is	positive or
	     negative should always be printed.	 Non-negative numbers are not
	     usually printed with a sign.

     -	     Aligns string output to the left of the field, instead of to the

     0	     Sets the fill character for left padding to the 0 character,
	     instead of	a space.

     space   Reserves a	space at the front of non-negative signed output
	     fields.  A	`+' overrides a	space if both are used.

     Then the following	fields:

     size    An	optional decimal digit string specifying the minimum field

     prec    An	optional precision composed of a decimal point `.' and a deci-
	     mal digit string that indicates the maximum string	length,	the
	     number of digits to appear	after the decimal point	in floating
	     point output, or the minimum number of digits to appear in
	     numeric output.

     fmt     An	optional output	format specifier which is one of D, O, U, X,
	     F,	or S.  These represent signed decimal output, octal output,
	     unsigned decimal output, hexadecimal output, floating point out-
	     put, and string output, respectively.  Some output	formats	do not
	     apply to all fields.  Floating point output only applies to time-
	     spec fields (the a, m, and	c fields).

	     The special output	specifier S may	be used	to indicate that the
	     output, if	applicable, should be in string	format.	 May be	used
	     in	combination with

	     amc     Display date in strftime(3) format.

	     dr	     Display actual device name.

	     gu	     Display group or user name.

	     p	     Display the mode of file as in ls -lTd.

	     N	     Displays the name of file.

	     T	     Displays the type of file.

	     Y	     Insert a `` -> '' into the	output.	 Note that the default
		     output format for Y is a string, but if specified explic-
		     itly, these four characters are prepended.

     sub     An	optional sub field specifier (high, middle, low).  Only
	     applies to	the p, d, r, and T output formats.  It can be one of
	     the following:

	     H	     ``High'' -- specifies the major number for	devices	from r
		     or	d, the ``user''	bits for permissions from the string
		     form of p,	the file ``type'' bits from the	numeric	forms
		     of	p, and the long	output form of T.

	     L	     ``Low'' --	specifies the minor number for devices from r
		     or	d, the ``other'' bits for permissions from the string
		     form of p,	the ``user'', ``group'', and ``other'' bits
		     from the numeric forms of p, and the ls -F	style output
		     character for file	type when used with T (the use of L
		     for this is optional).

	     M	     ``Middle''	-- specifies the ``group'' bits	for permis-
		     sions from	the string output form of p, or	the ``suid'',
		     ``sgid'', and ``sticky'' bits for the numeric forms of p.

     datum   A required	field specifier, being one of the following:

	     d	     Device upon which file resides.

	     i	     file's inode number.

	     p	     File type and permissions.

	     l	     Number of hard links to file.

	     u,	g    User-id and group-id of file's owner.

	     r	     Device number for character and block device special

	     a,	m, c
		     The time file was last accessed, modified,	or of when the
		     inode was last changed.

	     z	     The size of file in bytes.

	     b	     Number of blocks allocated	for file.

	     k	     Optimal file system I/O operation block size.

	     f	     User defined flags	for file.

	     v	     Inode generation number.

	     The following four	field specifiers are not drawn directly	from
	     the data in struct	stat, but are

	     N	     The name of the file.

	     T	     The file type, either as in ls -F or in a more descrip-
		     tive form if the sub field	specifier H is given.

	     Y	     The target	of a symbolic link.

	     Z	     Expands to	``major,minor''	from the rdev field for	char-
		     acter or block special devices and	gives size output for
		     all others.

     Only the %	and the	field specifier	are required.  Most field specifiers
     default to	U as an	output form, with the exception	of p which defaults to
     O,	a, m, and c which default to D,	and Y, T, and N, which default to S.

     stat exits	0 on success, and >0 if	an error occurred.

     Given a symbolic link ``foo'' that	points from /tmp/foo to	/, you would
     use stat as follows:

	   > stat -F /tmp/foo
	   lrwxrwxrwx 1	jschauma cs 1 Apr 24 16:37:28 2002 /tmp/foo@ ->	/

	   > stat -LF /tmp/foo
	   lrwxrwxrwx 16 root wheel 512	Apr 19 10:57:54	2002 /tmp/foo/

     To	initialize some	shell-variables, you could use the -s flag as follows:

	   > csh
	   % eval set `stat -s .cshrc`
	   % echo $st_size $st_mtimespec
	   1148	1015432481

	   > sh
	   $ eval $(stat -s .profile)
	   $ echo $st_size $st_mtimespec
	   1148	1015432481

     In	order to get a list of the kind	of files including files pointed to if
     the file is a symbolic link, you could use	the following format:

	   $ stat -f "%N: %HT%SY" /tmp/*
	   /tmp/bar: Symbolic Link -> /tmp/foo
	   /tmp/output25568: Regular File
	   /tmp/blah: Directory
	   /tmp/foo: Symbolic Link -> /

     In	order to get a list of the devices, their types	and the	major and
     minor device numbers, formatted with tabs and linebreaks, you could use
     the following format:

	   stat	-f "Name: %N%n%tType: %HT%n%tMajor: %Hr%n%tMinor: %Lr%n%n" /dev/*
	   Name: /dev/wt8
		   Type: Block Device
		   Major: 3
		   Minor: 8

	   Name: /dev/zero
		   Type: Character Device
		   Major: 2
		   Minor: 12

     In	order to determine the permissions set on a file separately, you could
     use the following format:

	   > stat -f "%Sp -> owner=%SHp	group=%SMp other=%SLp" .
	   drwxr-xr-x -> owner=rwx group=r-x other=r-x

     In	order to determine the three files that	have been modified most
     recently, you could use the following format:

	   > stat -f "%m%t%Sm %N" /tmp/* | sort	-rn | head -3 |	cut -f2-
	   Apr 25 11:47:00 2002	/tmp/blah
	   Apr 25 10:36:34 2002	/tmp/bar
	   Apr 24 16:47:35 2002	/tmp/foo

     file(1), ls(1), lstat(2), readlink(2), stat(2), printf(3),	strftime(3)

     The stat utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

     The stat utility was written by Andrew Brown <>.	This
     man page was written by Jan Schaumann <>.

FreeBSD	9.2			April 24, 2002			   FreeBSD 9.2


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