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SSH-KEYGEN(1)		FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual		 SSH-KEYGEN(1)

NAME
     ssh-keygen	-- authentication key generation, management and conversion

SYNOPSIS
     ssh-keygen	[-q] [-b bits] -t type [-N new_passphrase] [-C comment]
		[-f output_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen	-p [-P old_passphrase] [-N new_passphrase] [-f keyfile]
     ssh-keygen	-i [-f input_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen	-e [-f input_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen	-y [-f input_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen	-c [-P passphrase] [-C comment]	[-f keyfile]
     ssh-keygen	-l [-f input_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen	-B [-f input_keyfile]
     ssh-keygen	-D reader
     ssh-keygen	-U reader [-f input_keyfile]

DESCRIPTION
     ssh-keygen	generates, manages and converts	authentication keys for
     ssh(1).  ssh-keygen can create RSA	keys for use by	SSH protocol version 1
     and RSA or	DSA keys for use by SSH	protocol version 2. The	type of	key to
     be	generated is specified with the	-t option.

     Normally each user	wishing	to use SSH with	RSA or DSA authentication runs
     this once to create the authentication key	in $HOME/.ssh/identity,
     $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa or $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.  Additionally, the	system admin-
     istrator may use this to generate host keys, as seen in /etc/rc.

     Normally this program generates the key and asks for a file in which to
     store the private key.  The public	key is stored in a file	with the same
     name but ``.pub'' appended.  The program also asks	for a passphrase.  The
     passphrase	may be empty to	indicate no passphrase (host keys must have an
     empty passphrase),	or it may be a string of arbitrary length.  A
     passphrase	is similar to a	password, except it can	be a phrase with a
     series of words, punctuation, numbers, whitespace,	or any string of char-
     acters you	want.  Good passphrases	are 10-30 characters long, are not
     simple sentences or otherwise easily guessable (English prose has only
     1-2 bits of entropy per character,	and provides very bad passphrases),
     and contain a mix of upper	and lowercase letters, numbers,	and non-
     alphanumeric characters.  The passphrase can be changed later by using
     the -p option.

     There is no way to	recover	a lost passphrase.  If the passphrase is lost
     or	forgotten, a new key must be generated and copied to the corresponding
     public key	to other machines.

     For RSA1 keys, there is also a comment field in the key file that is only
     for convenience to	the user to help identify the key.  The	comment	can
     tell what the key is for, or whatever is useful.  The comment is initial-
     ized to ``user@host'' when	the key	is created, but	can be changed using
     the -c option.

     After a key is generated, instructions below detail where the keys	should
     be	placed to be activated.

     The options are as	follows:

     -b	bits
	     Specifies the number of bits in the key to	create.	 Minimum is
	     512 bits.	Generally 1024 bits is considered sufficient, and key
	     sizes above that no longer	improve	security but make things
	     slower.  The default is 1024 bits.

     -c	     Requests changing the comment in the private and public key
	     files.  This operation is only supported for RSA1 keys.  The pro-
	     gram will prompt for the file containing the private keys,	for
	     the passphrase if the key has one,	and for	the new	comment.

     -e	     This option will read a private or	public OpenSSH key file	and
	     print the key in a	`SECSH Public Key File Format' to stdout.
	     This option allows	exporting keys for use by several commercial
	     SSH implementations.

     -f	filename
	     Specifies the filename of the key file.

     -i	     This option will read an unencrypted private (or public) key file
	     in	SSH2-compatible	format and print an OpenSSH compatible private
	     (or public) key to	stdout.	 ssh-keygen also reads the `SECSH
	     Public Key	File Format'.  This option allows importing keys from
	     several commercial	SSH implementations.

     -l	     Show fingerprint of specified public key file.  Private RSA1 keys
	     are also supported.  For RSA and DSA keys ssh-keygen tries	to
	     find the matching public key file and prints its fingerprint.

     -p	     Requests changing the passphrase of a private key file instead of
	     creating a	new private key.  The program will prompt for the file
	     containing	the private key, for the old passphrase, and twice for
	     the new passphrase.

     -q	     Silence ssh-keygen.  Used by /etc/rc when creating	a new key.

     -y	     This option will read a private OpenSSH format file and print an
	     OpenSSH public key	to stdout.

     -t	type
	     Specifies the type	of the key to create.  The possible values are
	     ``rsa1'' for protocol version 1 and ``rsa'' or ``dsa'' for	proto-
	     col version 2.

     -B	     Show the bubblebabble digest of specified private or public key
	     file.

     -C	comment
	     Provides the new comment.

     -D	reader
	     Download the RSA public key stored	in the smartcard in reader.

     -N	new_passphrase
	     Provides the new passphrase.

     -P	passphrase
	     Provides the (old)	passphrase.

     -U	reader
	     Upload an existing	RSA private key	into the smartcard in reader.

FILES
     $HOME/.ssh/identity
	     Contains the protocol version 1 RSA authentication	identity of
	     the user.	This file should not be	readable by anyone but the
	     user.  It is possible to specify a	passphrase when	generating the
	     key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of
	     this file using 3DES.  This file is not automatically accessed by
	     ssh-keygen	but it is offered as the default file for the private
	     key.  ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made.

     $HOME/.ssh/identity.pub
	     Contains the protocol version 1 RSA public	key for	authentica-
	     tion.  The	contents of this file should be	added to
	     $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys	on all machines	where the user wishes
	     to	log in using RSA authentication.  There	is no need to keep the
	     contents of this file secret.

     $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa
	     Contains the protocol version 2 DSA authentication	identity of
	     the user.	This file should not be	readable by anyone but the
	     user.  It is possible to specify a	passphrase when	generating the
	     key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of
	     this file using 3DES.  This file is not automatically accessed by
	     ssh-keygen	but it is offered as the default file for the private
	     key.  ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made.

     $HOME/.ssh/id_dsa.pub
	     Contains the protocol version 2 DSA public	key for	authentica-
	     tion.  The	contents of this file should be	added to
	     $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys	on all machines	where the user wishes
	     to	log in using public key	authentication.	 There is no need to
	     keep the contents of this file secret.

     $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa
	     Contains the protocol version 2 RSA authentication	identity of
	     the user.	This file should not be	readable by anyone but the
	     user.  It is possible to specify a	passphrase when	generating the
	     key; that passphrase will be used to encrypt the private part of
	     this file using 3DES.  This file is not automatically accessed by
	     ssh-keygen	but it is offered as the default file for the private
	     key.  ssh(1) will read this file when a login attempt is made.

     $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
	     Contains the protocol version 2 RSA public	key for	authentica-
	     tion.  The	contents of this file should be	added to
	     $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys	on all machines	where the user wishes
	     to	log in using public key	authentication.	 There is no need to
	     keep the contents of this file secret.

AUTHORS
     OpenSSH is	a derivative of	the original and free ssh 1.2.12 release by
     Tatu Ylonen.  Aaron Campbell, Bob Beck, Markus Friedl, Niels Provos, Theo
     de	Raadt and Dug Song removed many	bugs, re-added newer features and cre-
     ated OpenSSH.  Markus Friedl contributed the support for SSH protocol
     versions 1.5 and 2.0.

SEE ALSO
     ssh(1), ssh-add(1), ssh-agent(1), sshd(8)

     J.	Galbraith and R. Thayer, SECSH Public Key File Format, draft-ietf-
     secsh-publickeyfile-01.txt, March 2001, work in progress material.

FreeBSD	10.1		      September	25, 1999		  FreeBSD 10.1

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FILES | AUTHORS | SEE ALSO

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