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SENDMAIL(8)                                                        SENDMAIL(8)

NAME
       sendmail - an electronic mail transport agent

SYNOPSIS
       sendmail [flags] [address ...]
       newaliases
       mailq [-v]
       hoststat
       purgestat
       smtpd

DESCRIPTION
       Sendmail sends a message to one or more recipients, routing the message
       over whatever networks are necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork  for-
       warding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       Sendmail  is  not  intended as a user interface routine; other programs
       provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-
       formatted messages.

       With  no  flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file
       or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of the  mes-
       sage  found  there  to  all of the addresses listed.  It determines the
       network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in  a  file  and  aliased  appropriately.
       Aliasing  can  be  prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.
       Beginning with 8.10, the sender is included in  any  alias  expansions,
       e.g.,  if  `john'  sends to `group', and `group' includes `john' in the
       expansion, then the letter will also be delivered to `john'.

   Parameters
       -Ac    Use submit.cf even if the operation mode does  not  indicate  an
              initial mail submission.

       -Am    Use  sendmail.cf even if the operation mode indicates an initial
              mail submission.

       -Btype Set the body type to type.  Current legal  values  are  7BIT  or
              8BITMIME.

       -ba    Go  into  ARPANET  mode.  All input lines must end with a CR-LF,
              and all messages will be generated with  a  CR-LF  at  the  end.
              Also,  the ``From:'' and ``Sender:'' fields are examined for the
              name of the sender.

       -bd    Run as a daemon.  Sendmail will fork and run in background  lis-
              tening on socket 25 for incoming SMTP connections.  This is nor-
              mally run from /etc/rc.

       -bD    Same as -bd except runs in foreground.

       -bh    Print the persistent host status database.

       -bH    Purge expired entries from the persistent host status  database.

       -bi    Initialize the alias database.

       -bm    Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

       -bp    Print a listing of the queue(s).

       -bP    Print  number  of  entries  in the queue(s); only available with
              shared memory support.

       -bs    Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on  standard  input
              and  output.   This  flag  implies all the operations of the -ba
              flag that are compatible with SMTP.

       -bt    Run in address test mode.  This mode reads addresses  and  shows
              the  steps  in  parsing;  it is used for debugging configuration
              tables.

       -bv    Verify names only - do not try to collect or deliver a  message.
              Verify  mode  is  normally  used for validating users or mailing
              lists.

       -Cfile Use alternate configuration file.  Sendmail refuses  to  run  as
              root if an alternate configuration file is specified.

       -dX    Set debugging value to X.

       -Ffullname
              Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname Sets  the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the envelope sender
              of the mail).  This address may also be used in the From: header
              if  that header is missing during initial submission.  The enve-
              lope sender address is used as the recipient for delivery status
              notifications  and may also appear in a Return-Path: header.  -f
              should only be used by ``trusted'' users (normally root, daemon,
              and  network)  or  if the person you are trying to become is the
              same as the person you  are.   Otherwise,  an  X-Authentication-
              Warning header will be added to the message.

       -G     Relay  (gateway) submission of a message, e.g., when rmail calls
              sendmail .

       -hN    Set the hop count to N.  The hop count is incremented every time
              the  mail  is  processed.   When it reaches a limit, the mail is
              returned with an error message, the victim of an aliasing  loop.
              If  not  specified,  ``Received:''  lines  in  the  message  are
              counted.

       -i     Ignore dots alone on lines by themselves in  incoming  messages.
              This should be set if you are reading data from a file.

       -L tag Set  the identifier used in syslog messages to the supplied tag.

       -N dsn Set delivery status notification conditions to dsn, which can be
              `never'  for  no  notifications or a comma separated list of the
              values `failure' to be notified if delivery failed,  `delay'  to
              be notified if delivery is delayed, and `success' to be notified
              when the message is successfully delivered.

       -n     Don't do aliasing.

       -O option=value
              Set option option to the specified value.  This form  uses  long
              names.  See below for more details.

       -ox value
              Set  option  x  to  the  specified value.  This form uses single
              character names only.  The short names are not described in this
              manual  page;  see the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide
              for details.

       -pprotocol
              Set the name of the protocol used to receive the message.   This
              can be a simple protocol name such as ``UUCP'' or a protocol and
              hostname, such as ``UUCP:ucbvax''.

       -q[time]
              Process saved messages in the queue at given intervals.  If time
              is  omitted,  process the queue once.  Time is given as a tagged
              number, with `s' being seconds, `m' being minutes (default), `h'
              being  hours, `d' being days, and `w' being weeks.  For example,
              `-q1h30m' or `-q90m' would both set  the  timeout  to  one  hour
              thirty  minutes.   By  default,  sendmail  will run in the back-
              ground.  This option can be used safely with -bd.

       -qp[time]
              Similar to -qtime, except that instead of periodically forking a
              child  to  process the queue, sendmail forks a single persistent
              child for each queue  that  alternates  between  processing  the
              queue and sleeping.  The sleep time is given as the argument; it
              defaults to 1 second.  The process will always sleep at least  5
              seconds if the queue was empty in the previous queue run.

       -qf    Process  saved messages in the queue once and do not fork(), but
              run in the foreground.

       -qG name
              Process jobs in queue group called name only.

       -q[!]Isubstr
              Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
              of the queue id or not when !  is specified.

       -q[!]Rsubstr
              Limit  processed  jobs to those containing substr as a substring
              of one of the recipients or not when !  is specified.

       -q[!]Ssubstr
              Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
              of the sender or not when !  is specified.

       -R return
              Set  the  amount  of  the  message to be returned if the message
              bounces.  The return parameter  can  be  `full'  to  return  the
              entire  message  or  `hdrs'  to return only the headers.  In the
              latter case also local bounces return only the headers.

       -rname An alternate and obsolete form of the -f flag.

       -t     Read message for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines  will  be
              scanned  for recipient addresses.  The Bcc: line will be deleted
              before transmission.

       -V envid
              Set the original envelope id.  This is propagated across SMTP to
              servers that support DSNs and is returned in DSN-compliant error
              messages.

       -v     Go into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be announced,  etc.

       -X logfile
              Log all traffic in and out of mailers in the indicated log file.
              This should only be used as a last resort for  debugging  mailer
              bugs.  It will log a lot of data very quickly.

       --     Stop  processing command flags and use the rest of the arguments
              as addresses.

   Options
       There are also a number of processing options that may  be  set.   Nor-
       mally  these  will only be used by a system administrator.  Options may
       be set either on the command line using the -o flag (for short  names),
       the  -O flag (for long names), or in the configuration file.  This is a
       partial list limited to those options that are likely to be  useful  on
       the  command  line  and  only shows the long names; for a complete list
       (and details), consult the Sendmail Installation and  Operation  Guide.
       The options are:

       AliasFile=file
              Use alternate alias file.

       HoldExpensive
              On  mailers  that  are  considered  ``expensive'' to connect to,
              don't initiate immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

       CheckpointInterval=N
              Checkpoint the queue file after every  N  successful  deliveries
              (default  10).   This avoids excessive duplicate deliveries when
              sending to long mailing lists interrupted by system crashes.

       DeliveryMode=x
              Set the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are `i' for interac-
              tive  (synchronous)  delivery, `b' for background (asynchronous)
              delivery, `q' for queue only - i.e., actual delivery is done the
              next  time  the queue is run, and `d' for deferred - the same as
              `q' except that database lookups for maps which have set the  -D
              option (default for the host map) are avoided.

       ErrorMode=x
              Set  error  processing  to  mode x.  Valid modes are `m' to mail
              back the error message, `w' to ``write'' back the error  message
              (or  mail  it back if the sender is not logged in), `p' to print
              the errors on the terminal (default), `q' to  throw  away  error
              messages  (only  exit status is returned), and `e' to do special
              processing for the BerkNet.  If the text of the message  is  not
              mailed  back  by  modes `m' or `w' and if the sender is local to
              this machine, a copy of the message  is  appended  to  the  file
              dead.letter in the sender's home directory.

       SaveFromLine
              Save UNIX-style From lines at the front of messages.

       MaxHopCount=N
              The  maximum  number  of  times  a message is allowed to ``hop''
              before we decide it is in a loop.

       IgnoreDots
              Do not take dots on a line by themselves as a  message  termina-
              tor.

       SendMimeErrors
              Send error messages in MIME format.  If not set, the DSN (Deliv-
              ery Status Notification) SMTP extension is disabled.

       ConnectionCacheTimeout=timeout
              Set connection cache timeout.

       ConnectionCacheSize=N
              Set connection cache size.

       LogLevel=n
              The log level.

       MeToo=False
              Don't send to ``me'' (the sender) if I am in an alias expansion.

       CheckAliases
              Validate  the  right hand side of aliases during a newaliases(1)
              command.

       OldStyleHeaders
              If set, this message may have old style headers.   If  not  set,
              this message is guaranteed to have new style headers (i.e., com-
              mas instead of spaces between addresses).  If set,  an  adaptive
              algorithm  is used that will correctly determine the header for-
              mat in most cases.

       QueueDirectory=queuedir
              Select the directory in which to queue messages.

       StatusFile=file
              Save statistics in the named file.

       Timeout.queuereturn=time
              Set the timeout on undelivered messages  in  the  queue  to  the
              specified  time.   After delivery has failed (e.g., because of a
              host being down) for this amount of time, failed  messages  will
              be returned to the sender.  The default is five days.

       UserDatabaseSpec=userdatabase
              If  set, a user database is consulted to get forwarding informa-
              tion.  You can consider this an adjunct to the  aliasing  mecha-
              nism,  except  that  the database is intended to be distributed;
              aliases are local to a particular host.  This may not be  avail-
              able  if  your sendmail does not have the USERDB option compiled
              in.

       ForkEachJob
              Fork each job during queue runs.  May be convenient  on  memory-
              poor machines.

       SevenBitInput
              Strip incoming messages to seven bits.

       EightBitMode=mode
              Set the handling of eight bit input to seven bit destinations to
              mode: m (mimefy) will convert to seven-bit MIME format, p (pass)
              will  pass  it  as  eight  bits  (but violates protocols), and s
              (strict) will bounce the message.

       MinQueueAge=timeout
              Sets how long a job must ferment in the queue  between  attempts
              to send it.

       DefaultCharSet=charset
              Sets  the default character set used to label 8-bit data that is
              not otherwise labelled.

       DialDelay=sleeptime
              If opening a connection fails, sleep for sleeptime  seconds  and
              try again.  Useful on dial-on-demand sites.

       NoRecipientAction=action
              Set  the behaviour when there are no recipient headers (To:, Cc:
              or Bcc:) in the message  to  action:  none  leaves  the  message
              unchanged,  add-to  adds  a To: header with the envelope recipi-
              ents, add-apparently-to adds an Apparently-To: header  with  the
              envelope recipients, add-bcc adds an empty Bcc: header, and add-
              to-undisclosed adds a header  reading  `To:  undisclosed-recipi-
              ents:;'.

       MaxDaemonChildren=N
              Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP daemon
              will allow to spawn at any time to N.

       ConnectionRateThrottle=N
              Sets the maximum number of connections per second  to  the  SMTP
              port to N.

       In  aliases,  the  first  character  of a name may be a vertical bar to
       cause interpretation of the rest of the name as a command to  pipe  the
       mail  to.   It may be necessary to quote the name to keep sendmail from
       suppressing the blanks from between arguments.  For example,  a  common
       alias is:

              msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

       Aliases  may also have the syntax ``:include:filename'' to ask sendmail
       to read the named file for a list of recipients.  For example, an alias
       such as:

              poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

       would  read  /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of addresses making
       up the group.

       Sendmail returns an exit status describing what it did.  The codes  are
       defined in <sysexits.h>:

       EX_OK  Successful completion on all addresses.

       EX_NOUSER
              User name not recognized.

       EX_UNAVAILABLE
              Catchall meaning necessary resources were not available.

       EX_SYNTAX
              Syntax error in address.

       EX_SOFTWARE
              Internal software error, including bad arguments.

       EX_OSERR
              Temporary operating system error, such as ``cannot fork''.

       EX_NOHOST
              Host name not recognized.

       EX_TEMPFAIL
              Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued.

       If invoked as newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.  If
       invoked as mailq, sendmail will print the contents of the  mail  queue.
       If  invoked as hoststat, sendmail will print the persistent host status
       database.  If invoked as purgestat, sendmail will purge expired entries
       from  the  persistent host status database.  If invoked as smtpd, send-
       mail will act as a daemon, as if the -bd option were specified.

NOTES
       sendmail often gets blamed for many  problems  that  are  actually  the
       result  of  other problems, such as overly permissive modes on directo-
       ries.  For this reason, sendmail checks the modes on system directories
       and  files  to determine if they can be trusted.  Although these checks
       can be turned off and your system security reduced by setting the Dont-
       BlameSendmail  option,  the  permission  problems should be fixed.  For
       more information, see:

       http://www.sendmail.org/tips/DontBlameSendmail.html

FILES
       Except for the file /etc/mail/sendmail.cf itself  the  following  path-
       names  are  all specified in /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.  Thus, these values
       are only approximations.

        /etc/mail/aliases
              raw data for alias names

        /etc/mail/aliases.db
              data base of alias names

        /etc/mail/sendmail.cf
              configuration file

        /etc/mail/helpfile
              help file

        /etc/mail/statistics
              collected statistics

        /var/spool/mqueue/*
              temp files

SEE ALSO
       mail(1),  syslog(3),  aliases(5),  mailaddr(7),  mail.local(8),  rc(8),
       rmail(8)

       DARPA  Internet  Request For Comments RFC819, RFC821, RFC822.  Sendmail
       Installation and Operation Guide, No. 8, SMM.

       http://www.sendmail.org/

HISTORY
       The sendmail command appeared in 4.2BSD.

                         $Date: 2003/05/20 16:38:15 $              SENDMAIL(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | NOTES | FILES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY

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