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SENDMAIL(8)							   SENDMAIL(8)

NAME
       sendmail	- an electronic	mail transport agent

SYNOPSIS
       sendmail	[flags]	[address ...]
       newaliases
       mailq [-v]
       hoststat
       purgestat
       smtpd

DESCRIPTION
       Sendmail	sends a	message	to one or more recipients, routing the message
       over whatever networks are necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork  for-
       warding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       Sendmail	 is  not  intended as a	user interface routine;	other programs
       provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-
       formatted messages.

       With  no	 flags,	sendmail reads its standard input up to	an end-of-file
       or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of the  mes-
       sage  found  there  to  all of the addresses listed.  It	determines the
       network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in	 a  file  and  aliased	appropriately.
       Aliasing	 can  be  prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.
       Beginning with 8.10, the	sender is included in  any  alias  expansions,
       e.g.,  if  `john'  sends	to `group', and	`group'	includes `john'	in the
       expansion, then the letter will also be delivered to `john'.

   Parameters
       -Ac    Use submit.cf even if the	operation mode does  not  indicate  an
	      initial mail submission.

       -Am    Use  sendmail.cf even if the operation mode indicates an initial
	      mail submission.

       -Btype Set the body type	to type.  Current legal	 values	 are  7BIT  or
	      8BITMIME.

       -ba    Go  into	ARPANET	 mode.	All input lines	must end with a	CR-LF,
	      and all messages will be generated with  a  CR-LF	 at  the  end.
	      Also,  the ``From:'' and ``Sender:'' fields are examined for the
	      name of the sender.

       -bd    Run as a daemon.	Sendmail will fork and run in background  lis-
	      tening on	socket 25 for incoming SMTP connections.  This is nor-
	      mally run	from /etc/rc.

       -bD    Same as -bd except runs in foreground.

       -bh    Print the	persistent host	status database.

       -bH    Purge expired entries from the persistent	host status  database.

       -bi    Initialize the alias database.

       -bm    Deliver mail in the usual	way (default).

       -bp    Print a listing of the queue(s).

       -bP    Print  number  of	 entries  in the queue(s); only	available with
	      shared memory support.

       -bs    Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on  standard	 input
	      and  output.   This  flag	 implies all the operations of the -ba
	      flag that	are compatible with SMTP.

       -bt    Run in address test mode.	 This mode reads addresses  and	 shows
	      the  steps  in  parsing;	it is used for debugging configuration
	      tables.

       -bv    Verify names only	- do not try to	collect	or deliver a  message.
	      Verify  mode  is	normally  used for validating users or mailing
	      lists.

       -Cfile Use alternate configuration file.	 Sendmail refuses  to  run  as
	      root if an alternate configuration file is specified.

       -dX    Set debugging value to X.

       -Ffullname
	      Set the full name	of the sender.

       -fname Sets  the	name of	the ``from'' person (i.e., the envelope	sender
	      of the mail).  This address may also be used in the From:	header
	      if  that header is missing during	initial	submission.  The enve-
	      lope sender address is used as the recipient for delivery	status
	      notifications  and may also appear in a Return-Path: header.  -f
	      should only be used by ``trusted'' users (normally root, daemon,
	      and  network)  or	 if the	person you are trying to become	is the
	      same as the person you  are.   Otherwise,	 an  X-Authentication-
	      Warning header will be added to the message.

       -G     Relay  (gateway) submission of a message,	e.g., when rmail calls
	      sendmail .

       -hN    Set the hop count	to N.  The hop count is	incremented every time
	      the  mail	 is  processed.	  When it reaches a limit, the mail is
	      returned with an error message, the victim of an aliasing	 loop.
	      If  not  specified,  ``Received:''  lines	 in  the  message  are
	      counted.

       -i     Ignore dots alone	on lines by themselves in  incoming  messages.
	      This should be set if you	are reading data from a	file.

       -L tag Set  the identifier used in syslog messages to the supplied tag.

       -N dsn Set delivery status notification conditions to dsn, which	can be
	      `never'  for  no	notifications or a comma separated list	of the
	      values `failure' to be notified if delivery failed,  `delay'  to
	      be notified if delivery is delayed, and `success'	to be notified
	      when the message is successfully delivered.

       -n     Don't do aliasing.

       -O option=value
	      Set option option	to the specified value.	 This form  uses  long
	      names.  See below	for more details.

       -ox value
	      Set  option  x  to  the  specified value.	 This form uses	single
	      character	names only.  The short names are not described in this
	      manual  page;  see the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide
	      for details.

       -pprotocol
	      Set the name of the protocol used	to receive the message.	  This
	      can be a simple protocol name such as ``UUCP'' or	a protocol and
	      hostname,	such as	``UUCP:ucbvax''.

       -q[time]
	      Process saved messages in	the queue at given intervals.  If time
	      is  omitted,  process the	queue once.  Time is given as a	tagged
	      number, with `s' being seconds, `m' being	minutes	(default), `h'
	      being  hours, `d'	being days, and	`w' being weeks.  For example,
	      `-q1h30m'	or `-q90m' would both set  the	timeout	 to  one  hour
	      thirty  minutes.	 By  default,  sendmail	 will run in the back-
	      ground.  This option can be used safely with -bd.

       -qp[time]
	      Similar to -qtime, except	that instead of	periodically forking a
	      child  to	 process the queue, sendmail forks a single persistent
	      child for	each queue  that  alternates  between  processing  the
	      queue and	sleeping.  The sleep time is given as the argument; it
	      defaults to 1 second.  The process will always sleep at least  5
	      seconds if the queue was empty in	the previous queue run.

       -qf    Process  saved messages in the queue once	and do not fork(), but
	      run in the foreground.

       -qG name
	      Process jobs in queue group called name only.

       -q[!]I substr
	      Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
	      of the queue id or not when !  is	specified.

       -q[!]R substr
	      Limit  processed	jobs to	those containing substr	as a substring
	      of one of	the recipients or not when !  is specified.

       -q[!]S substr
	      Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
	      of the sender or not when	!  is specified.

       -R return
	      Set  the	amount	of  the	 message to be returned	if the message
	      bounces.	The return parameter  can  be  `full'  to  return  the
	      entire  message  or  `hdrs'  to return only the headers.	In the
	      latter case also local bounces return only the headers.

       -rname An alternate and obsolete	form of	the -f flag.

       -t     Read message for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines  will  be
	      scanned  for recipient addresses.	 The Bcc: line will be deleted
	      before transmission.

       -V envid
	      Set the original envelope	id.  This is propagated	across SMTP to
	      servers that support DSNs	and is returned	in DSN-compliant error
	      messages.

       -v     Go into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be announced,  etc.

       -X logfile
	      Log all traffic in and out of mailers in the indicated log file.
	      This should only be used as a last resort	for  debugging	mailer
	      bugs.  It	will log a lot of data very quickly.

       --     Stop  processing command flags and use the rest of the arguments
	      as addresses.

   Options
       There are also a	number of processing options that may  be  set.	  Nor-
       mally  these  will only be used by a system administrator.  Options may
       be set either on	the command line using the -o flag (for	short  names),
       the  -O flag (for long names), or in the	configuration file.  This is a
       partial list limited to those options that are likely to	be  useful  on
       the  command  line  and	only shows the long names; for a complete list
       (and details), consult the Sendmail Installation	and  Operation	Guide.
       The options are:

       AliasFile=file
	      Use alternate alias file.

       HoldExpensive
	      On  mailers  that	 are  considered  ``expensive''	to connect to,
	      don't initiate immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

       CheckpointInterval=N
	      Checkpoint the queue file	after every  N	successful  deliveries
	      (default	10).   This avoids excessive duplicate deliveries when
	      sending to long mailing lists interrupted	by system crashes.

       DeliveryMode=x
	      Set the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are `i' for interac-
	      tive  (synchronous)  delivery, `b' for background	(asynchronous)
	      delivery,	`q' for	queue only - i.e., actual delivery is done the
	      next  time  the queue is run, and	`d' for	deferred - the same as
	      `q' except that database lookups for maps	which have set the  -D
	      option (default for the host map)	are avoided.

       ErrorMode=x
	      Set  error  processing  to  mode x.  Valid modes are `m' to mail
	      back the error message, `w' to ``write'' back the	error  message
	      (or  mail	 it back if the	sender is not logged in), `p' to print
	      the errors on the	terminal (default), `q'	to  throw  away	 error
	      messages	(only  exit status is returned), and `e' to do special
	      processing for the BerkNet.  If the text of the message  is  not
	      mailed  back  by	modes `m' or `w' and if	the sender is local to
	      this machine, a copy of the message  is  appended	 to  the  file
	      dead.letter in the sender's home directory.

       SaveFromLine
	      Save UNIX-style From lines at the	front of messages.

       MaxHopCount=N
	      The  maximum  number  of	times  a message is allowed to ``hop''
	      before we	decide it is in	a loop.

       IgnoreDots
	      Do not take dots on a line by themselves as a  message  termina-
	      tor.

       SendMimeErrors
	      Send error messages in MIME format.  If not set, the DSN (Deliv-
	      ery Status Notification) SMTP extension is disabled.

       ConnectionCacheTimeout=timeout
	      Set connection cache timeout.

       ConnectionCacheSize=N
	      Set connection cache size.

       LogLevel=n
	      The log level.

       MeToo=False
	      Don't send to ``me'' (the	sender)	if I am	in an alias expansion.

       CheckAliases
	      Validate	the  right hand	side of	aliases	during a newaliases(1)
	      command.

       OldStyleHeaders
	      If set, this message may have old	style headers.	 If  not  set,
	      this message is guaranteed to have new style headers (i.e., com-
	      mas instead of spaces between addresses).	 If set,  an  adaptive
	      algorithm	 is used that will correctly determine the header for-
	      mat in most cases.

       QueueDirectory=queuedir
	      Select the directory in which to queue messages.

       StatusFile=file
	      Save statistics in the named file.

       Timeout.queuereturn=time
	      Set the timeout on undelivered messages  in  the	queue  to  the
	      specified	 time.	 After delivery	has failed (e.g., because of a
	      host being down) for this	amount of time,	failed	messages  will
	      be returned to the sender.  The default is five days.

       UserDatabaseSpec=userdatabase
	      If  set, a user database is consulted to get forwarding informa-
	      tion.  You can consider this an adjunct to the  aliasing	mecha-
	      nism,  except  that  the database	is intended to be distributed;
	      aliases are local	to a particular	host.  This may	not be	avail-
	      able  if	your sendmail does not have the	USERDB option compiled
	      in.

       ForkEachJob
	      Fork each	job during queue runs.	May be convenient  on  memory-
	      poor machines.

       SevenBitInput
	      Strip incoming messages to seven bits.

       EightBitMode=mode
	      Set the handling of eight	bit input to seven bit destinations to
	      mode: m (mimefy) will convert to seven-bit MIME format, p	(pass)
	      will  pass  it  as  eight	 bits  (but violates protocols), and s
	      (strict) will bounce the message.

       MinQueueAge=timeout
	      Sets how long a job must ferment in the queue  between  attempts
	      to send it.

       DefaultCharSet=charset
	      Sets  the	default	character set used to label 8-bit data that is
	      not otherwise labelled.

       DialDelay=sleeptime
	      If opening a connection fails, sleep for sleeptime  seconds  and
	      try again.  Useful on dial-on-demand sites.

       NoRecipientAction=action
	      Set  the behaviour when there are	no recipient headers (To:, Cc:
	      or Bcc:) in the message  to  action:  none  leaves  the  message
	      unchanged,  add-to  adds	a To: header with the envelope recipi-
	      ents, add-apparently-to adds an Apparently-To: header  with  the
	      envelope recipients, add-bcc adds	an empty Bcc: header, and add-
	      to-undisclosed adds a header  reading  `To:  undisclosed-recipi-
	      ents:;'.

       MaxDaemonChildren=N
	      Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP	daemon
	      will allow to spawn at any time to N.

       ConnectionRateThrottle=N
	      Sets the maximum number of connections per second	 to  the  SMTP
	      port to N.

       In  aliases,  the  first	 character  of a name may be a vertical	bar to
       cause interpretation of the rest	of the name as a command to  pipe  the
       mail  to.   It may be necessary to quote	the name to keep sendmail from
       suppressing the blanks from between arguments.  For example,  a	common
       alias is:

	      msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

       Aliases	may also have the syntax ``:include:filename'' to ask sendmail
       to read the named file for a list of recipients.	 For example, an alias
       such as:

	      poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

       would  read  /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of addresses	making
       up the group.

       Sendmail	returns	an exit	status describing what it did.	The codes  are
       defined in <sysexits.h>:

       EX_OK  Successful completion on all addresses.

       EX_NOUSER
	      User name	not recognized.

       EX_UNAVAILABLE
	      Catchall meaning necessary resources were	not available.

       EX_SYNTAX
	      Syntax error in address.

       EX_SOFTWARE
	      Internal software	error, including bad arguments.

       EX_OSERR
	      Temporary	operating system error,	such as	``cannot fork''.

       EX_NOHOST
	      Host name	not recognized.

       EX_TEMPFAIL
	      Message could not	be sent	immediately, but was queued.

       If invoked as newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.  If
       invoked as mailq, sendmail will print the contents of the  mail	queue.
       If  invoked as hoststat,	sendmail will print the	persistent host	status
       database.  If invoked as	purgestat, sendmail will purge expired entries
       from  the  persistent host status database.  If invoked as smtpd, send-
       mail will act as	a daemon, as if	the -bd	option were specified.

NOTES
       sendmail	often gets blamed for many  problems  that  are	 actually  the
       result  of  other problems, such	as overly permissive modes on directo-
       ries.  For this reason, sendmail	checks the modes on system directories
       and  files  to determine	if they	can be trusted.	 Although these	checks
       can be turned off and your system security reduced by setting the Dont-
       BlameSendmail  option,  the  permission	problems should	be fixed.  For
       more information, see:

       http://www.sendmail.org/tips/DontBlameSendmail.html

FILES
       Except for the file /etc/mail/sendmail.cf itself	 the  following	 path-
       names  are  all specified in /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.  Thus, these	values
       are only	approximations.

	/etc/mail/aliases
	      raw data for alias names

	/etc/mail/aliases.db
	      data base	of alias names

	/etc/mail/sendmail.cf
	      configuration file

	/etc/mail/helpfile
	      help file

	/etc/mail/statistics
	      collected	statistics

	/var/spool/mqueue/*
	      temp files

SEE ALSO
       mail(1),	 syslog(3),  aliases(5),  mailaddr(7),	mail.local(8),	rc(8),
       rmail(8)

       DARPA  Internet	Request	For Comments RFC819, RFC821, RFC822.  Sendmail
       Installation and	Operation Guide, No. 8,	SMM.

       http://www.sendmail.org/

HISTORY
       The sendmail command appeared in	4.2BSD.

			 $Date:	2001/03/23 22:10:00 $		   SENDMAIL(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | NOTES | FILES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY

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