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SENDMAIL(8)							   SENDMAIL(8)

NAME
       sendmail	- an electronic	mail transport agent

SYNOPSIS
       sendmail	[flags]	[address ...]
       newaliases
       mailq [-v]
       hoststat
       purgestat
       smtpd

DESCRIPTION
       Sendmail	sends a	message	to one or more recipients, routing the message
       over whatever networks are necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork  for-
       warding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       Sendmail	 is  not  intended as a	user interface routine;	other programs
       provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-
       formatted messages.

       With  no	 flags,	sendmail reads its standard input up to	an end-of-file
       or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of the  mes-
       sage  found  there  to  all of the addresses listed.  It	determines the
       network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in	 a  file  and  aliased	appropriately.
       Aliasing	 can  be  prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.
       Beginning with 8.10, the	sender is included in  any  alias  expansions,
       e.g.,  if  `john'  sends	to `group', and	`group'	includes `john'	in the
       expansion, then the letter will also be delivered to `john'.

   Parameters
       -Btype Set the body type	to type.  Current legal	 values	 are  7BIT  or
	      8BITMIME.

       -ba    Go  into	ARPANET	 mode.	All input lines	must end with a	CR-LF,
	      and all messages will be generated with  a  CR-LF	 at  the  end.
	      Also,  the ``From:'' and ``Sender:'' fields are examined for the
	      name of the sender.

       -bd    Run as a daemon.	This requires  Berkeley	 IPC.	Sendmail  will
	      fork  and	 run in	background listening on	socket 25 for incoming
	      SMTP connections.	 This is normally run from /etc/rc.

       -bD    Same as -bd except runs in foreground.

       -bh    Print the	persistent host	status database.

       -bH    Purge expired entries from the persistent	host status  database.

       -bi    Initialize the alias database.

       -bm    Deliver mail in the usual	way (default).

       -bp    Print a listing of the queue.

       -bs    Use  the	SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on	standard input
	      and output.  This	flag implies all the  operations  of  the  -ba
	      flag that	are compatible with SMTP.

       -bt    Run  in  address test mode.  This	mode reads addresses and shows
	      the steps	in parsing; it is  used	 for  debugging	 configuration
	      tables.

       -bv    Verify  names only - do not try to collect or deliver a message.
	      Verify mode is normally used for	validating  users  or  mailing
	      lists.

       -Cfile Use  alternate  configuration  file.  Sendmail refuses to	run as
	      root if an alternate configuration file is specified.

       -dX    Set debugging value to X.

       -Ffullname
	      Set the full name	of the sender.

       -fname Sets the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the envelope	sender
	      of the mail).  This address may also be used in the From:	header
	      if that header is	missing	during initial submission.  The	 enve-
	      lope sender address is used as the recipient for delivery	status
	      notifications and	may also appear	in a Return-Path: header.   -f
	      should only be used by ``trusted'' users (normally root, daemon,
	      and network) or if the person you	are trying to  become  is  the
	      same  as	the  person  you are.  Otherwise, an X-Authentication-
	      Warning header will be added to the message.

       -G     Relay (gateway) submission of a message, e.g., when rmail	 calls
	      sendmail .

       -hN    Set the hop count	to N.  The hop count is	incremented every time
	      the mail is processed.  When it reaches a	 limit,	 the  mail  is
	      returned	with an	error message, the victim of an	aliasing loop.
	      If  not  specified,  ``Received:''  lines	 in  the  message  are
	      counted.

       -i     Ignore  dots  alone on lines by themselves in incoming messages.
	      This should be set if you	are reading data from a	file.

       -L tag Set the identifier used in syslog	messages to the	supplied  tag.

       -N dsn Set delivery status notification conditions to dsn, which	can be
	      `never' for no notifications or a	comma separated	 list  of  the
	      values  `failure'	 to be notified	if delivery failed, `delay' to
	      be notified if delivery is delayed, and `success'	to be notified
	      when the message is successfully delivered.

       -n     Don't do aliasing.

       -O option=value
	      Set  option  option to the specified value.  This	form uses long
	      names.  See below	for more details.

       -ox value
	      Set option x to the specified  value.   This  form  uses	single
	      character	names only.  The short names are not described in this
	      manual page; see the Sendmail Installation and  Operation	 Guide
	      for details.

       -pprotocol
	      Set  the name of the protocol used to receive the	message.  This
	      can be a simple protocol name such as ``UUCP'' or	a protocol and
	      hostname,	such as	``UUCP:ucbvax''.

       -q[time]
	      Processed	 saved	messages  in the queue at given	intervals.  If
	      time is omitted, process the queue once.	Time  is  given	 as  a
	      tagged  number,  with  `s' being seconds,	`m' being minutes, `h'
	      being hours, `d' being days, and `w' being weeks.	 For  example,
	      `-q1h30m'	 or  `-q90m'  would  both  set the timeout to one hour
	      thirty minutes.  If time is specified, sendmail will run in  the
	      background.  This	option can be used safely with -bd.

       -qIsubstr
	      Limit  processed	jobs to	those containing substr	as a substring
	      of the queue id.

       -qRsubstr
	      Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
	      of one of	the recipients.

       -qSsubstr
	      Limit  processed	jobs to	those containing substr	as a substring
	      of the sender.

       -R return
	      Set the amount of	the message to	be  returned  if  the  message
	      bounces.	 The  return  parameter	 can  be  `full' to return the
	      entire message or	`hdrs' to return only  the  headers.   In  the
	      latter case also local bounces return only the headers.

       -rname An alternate and obsolete	form of	the -f flag.

       -t     Read  message  for recipients.  To:, Cc:,	and Bcc: lines will be
	      scanned for recipient addresses.	The Bcc: line will be  deleted
	      before transmission.

       -U     Initial  (user)  submission.   This  should  always  be set when
	      called from a user agent such as Mail or exmh and	never  be  set
	      when called by a network delivery	agent such as rmail.

       -V envid
	      Set the original envelope	id.  This is propagated	across SMTP to
	      servers that support DSNs	and is returned	in DSN-compliant error
	      messages.

       -v     Go  into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be announced, etc.

       -X logfile
	      Log all traffic in and out of mailers in the indicated log file.
	      This  should  only be used as a last resort for debugging	mailer
	      bugs.  It	will log a lot of data very quickly.

       --     Stop processing command flags and	use the	rest of	the  arguments
	      as addresses.

   Options
       There  are  also	 a number of processing	options	that may be set.  Nor-
       mally these will	only be	used by	a system administrator.	  Options  may
       be  set either on the command line using	the -o flag (for short names),
       the -O flag (for	long names), or	in the configuration file.  This is  a
       partial	list  limited to those options that are	likely to be useful on
       the command line	and only shows the long	names;	for  a	complete  list
       (and  details),	consult	the Sendmail Installation and Operation	Guide.
       The options are:

       AliasFile=file
	      Use alternate alias file.

       HoldExpensive
	      On mailers that are  considered  ``expensive''  to  connect  to,
	      don't initiate immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

       CheckpointInterval=N
	      Checkpoint  the  queue  file after every N successful deliveries
	      (default 10).  This avoids excessive duplicate  deliveries  when
	      sending to long mailing lists interrupted	by system crashes.

       DeliveryMode=x
	      Set the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are `i' for interac-
	      tive (synchronous) delivery, `b' for  background	(asynchronous)
	      delivery,	`q' for	queue only - i.e., actual delivery is done the
	      next time	the queue is run, and `d' for deferred - the  same  as
	      `q'  except that database	lookups	for maps which have set	the -D
	      option (default for the host map)	are avoided.

       ErrorMode=x
	      Set error	processing to mode x.  Valid modes  are	 `m'  to  mail
	      back  the	error message, `w' to ``write''	back the error message
	      (or mail it back if the sender is	not logged in),	`p'  to	 print
	      the  errors  on  the terminal (default), `q' to throw away error
	      messages (only exit status is returned), and `e' to  do  special
	      processing  for  the BerkNet.  If	the text of the	message	is not
	      mailed back by modes `m' or `w' and if the sender	 is  local  to
	      this  machine,  a	 copy  of  the message is appended to the file
	      dead.letter in the sender's home directory.

       SaveFromLine
	      Save UNIX-style From lines at the	front of messages.

       MaxHopCount=N
	      The maximum number of times a  message  is  allowed  to  ``hop''
	      before we	decide it is in	a loop.

       IgnoreDots
	      Do  not  take dots on a line by themselves as a message termina-
	      tor.

       SendMimeErrors
	      Send error messages in MIME format.  If not set, the DSN (Deliv-
	      ery Status Notification) SMTP extension is disabled.

       ConnectionCacheTimeout=timeout
	      Set connection cache timeout.

       ConnectionCacheSize=N
	      Set connection cache size.

       LogLevel=n
	      The log level.

       MeToo=False
	      Don't send to ``me'' (the	sender)	if I am	in an alias expansion.

       CheckAliases
	      Validate the right hand side of aliases during  a	 newaliases(1)
	      command.

       OldStyleHeaders
	      If  set,	this  message may have old style headers.  If not set,
	      this message is guaranteed to have new style headers (i.e., com-
	      mas  instead  of spaces between addresses).  If set, an adaptive
	      algorithm	is used	that will correctly determine the header  for-
	      mat in most cases.

       QueueDirectory=queuedir
	      Select the directory in which to queue messages.

       StatusFile=file
	      Save statistics in the named file.

       Timeout.queuereturn=time
	      Set  the	timeout	 on  undelivered  messages in the queue	to the
	      specified	time.  After delivery has failed (e.g.,	because	 of  a
	      host  being  down) for this amount of time, failed messages will
	      be returned to the sender.  The default is five days.

       UserDatabaseSpec=userdatabase
	      If set, a	user database is consulted to get forwarding  informa-
	      tion.   You  can consider	this an	adjunct	to the aliasing	mecha-
	      nism, except that	the database is	intended  to  be  distributed;
	      aliases  are local to a particular host.	This may not be	avail-
	      able if your sendmail does not have the USERDB  option  compiled
	      in.

       ForkEachJob
	      Fork  each  job during queue runs.  May be convenient on memory-
	      poor machines.

       SevenBitInput
	      Strip incoming messages to seven bits.

       EightBitMode=mode
	      Set the handling of eight	bit input to seven bit destinations to
	      mode: m (mimefy) will convert to seven-bit MIME format, p	(pass)
	      will pass	it as eight  bits  (but	 violates  protocols),	and  s
	      (strict) will bounce the message.

       MinQueueAge=timeout
	      Sets  how	 long a	job must ferment in the	queue between attempts
	      to send it.

       DefaultCharSet=charset
	      Sets the default character set used to label 8-bit data that  is
	      not otherwise labelled.

       DialDelay=sleeptime
	      If  opening  a connection	fails, sleep for sleeptime seconds and
	      try again.  Useful on dial-on-demand sites.

       NoRecipientAction=action
	      Set the behaviour	when there are no recipient headers (To:,  Cc:
	      or  Bcc:)	 in  the  message  to  action: none leaves the message
	      unchanged, add-to	adds a To: header with	the  envelope  recipi-
	      ents,  add-apparently-to	adds an	Apparently-To: header with the
	      envelope recipients, add-bcc adds	an empty Bcc: header, and add-
	      to-undisclosed  adds  a  header reading `To: undisclosed-recipi-
	      ents:;'.

       MaxDaemonChildren=N
	      Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP	daemon
	      will allow to spawn at any time to N.

       ConnectionRateThrottle=N
	      Sets  the	 maximum  number of connections	per second to the SMTP
	      port to N.

       In aliases, the first character of a name may  be  a  vertical  bar  to
       cause  interpretation  of the rest of the name as a command to pipe the
       mail to.	 It may	be necessary to	quote the name to keep	sendmail  from
       suppressing  the	 blanks	from between arguments.	 For example, a	common
       alias is:

	      msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

       Aliases may also	have the syntax	``:include:filename'' to ask  sendmail
       to read the named file for a list of recipients.	 For example, an alias
       such as:

	      poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

       would read /usr/local/lib/poets.list for	the list of  addresses	making
       up the group.

       Sendmail	 returns an exit status	describing what	it did.	 The codes are
       defined in <sysexits.h>:

       EX_OK  Successful completion on all addresses.

       EX_NOUSER
	      User name	not recognized.

       EX_UNAVAILABLE
	      Catchall meaning necessary resources were	not available.

       EX_SYNTAX
	      Syntax error in address.

       EX_SOFTWARE
	      Internal software	error, including bad arguments.

       EX_OSERR
	      Temporary	operating system error,	such as	``cannot fork''.

       EX_NOHOST
	      Host name	not recognized.

       EX_TEMPFAIL
	      Message could not	be sent	immediately, but was queued.

       If invoked as newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.  If
       invoked	as  mailq, sendmail will print the contents of the mail	queue.
       If invoked as hoststat, sendmail	will print the persistent host	status
       database.  If invoked as	purgestat, sendmail will purge expired entries
       from the	persistent host	status database.  If invoked as	 smtpd,	 send-
       mail will act as	a daemon, as if	the -bd	option were specified.

NOTES
       sendmail	 often	gets  blamed  for  many	problems that are actually the
       result of other problems, such as overly	permissive modes  on  directo-
       ries.  For this reason, sendmail	checks the modes on system directories
       and files to determine if they can be trusted.  Although	 these	checks
       can be turned off and your system security reduced by setting the Dont-
       BlameSendmail option, the permission problems  should  be  fixed.   For
       more information, see:

       http://www.sendmail.org/tips/DontBlameSendmail.html

FILES
       Except  for  the	 file /etc/mail/sendmail.cf itself the following path-
       names are all specified in /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.  Thus,	 these	values
       are only	approximations.

	/etc/mail/aliases
	      raw data for alias names

	/etc/mail/aliases.db
	      data base	of alias names

	/etc/mail/sendmail.cf
	      configuration file

	/etc/mail/helpfile
	      help file

	/etc/mail/statistics
	      collected	statistics

	/var/spool/mqueue/*
	      temp files

SEE ALSO
       mail(1),	 syslog(3),  aliases(5),  mailaddr(7),	mail.local(8),	rc(8),
       rmail(8)

       DARPA Internet Request For Comments RFC819, RFC821,  RFC822.   Sendmail
       Installation and	Operation Guide, No. 8,	SMM.

       http://www.sendmail.org/

HISTORY
       The sendmail command appeared in	4.2BSD.

			 $Date:	2000/12/14 23:08:15 $		   SENDMAIL(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | NOTES | FILES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY

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