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SENDMAIL(8)                                                        SENDMAIL(8)

NAME
       sendmail - an electronic mail transport agent

SYNOPSIS
       sendmail [flags] [address ...]
       newaliases
       mailq [-v]
       hoststat
       purgestat
       smtpd

DESCRIPTION
       Sendmail sends a message to one or more recipients, routing the message
       over whatever networks are necessary.  Sendmail does internetwork  for-
       warding as necessary to deliver the message to the correct place.

       Sendmail  is  not  intended as a user interface routine; other programs
       provide user-friendly front ends; sendmail is used only to deliver pre-
       formatted messages.

       With  no  flags, sendmail reads its standard input up to an end-of-file
       or a line consisting only of a single dot and sends a copy of the  mes-
       sage  found  there  to  all of the addresses listed.  It determines the
       network(s) to use based on the syntax and contents of the addresses.

       Local addresses are looked up in  a  file  and  aliased  appropriately.
       Aliasing  can  be  prevented by preceding the address with a backslash.
       Beginning with 8.10, the sender is included in  any  alias  expansions,
       e.g.,  if  `john'  sends to `group', and `group' includes `john' in the
       expansion, then the letter will also be delivered to `john'.

   Parameters
       -Ac    Use submit.cf even if the operation mode does  not  indicate  an
              initial mail submission.

       -Am    Use  sendmail.cf even if the operation mode indicates an initial
              mail submission.

       -Btype Set the body type to type.  Current legal  values  are  7BIT  or
              8BITMIME.

       -ba    Go  into  ARPANET  mode.  All input lines must end with a CR-LF,
              and all messages will be generated with  a  CR-LF  at  the  end.
              Also,  the ``From:'' and ``Sender:'' fields are examined for the
              name of the sender.

       -bd    Run as a daemon.  Sendmail will fork and run in background  lis-
              tening on socket 25 for incoming SMTP connections.  This is nor-
              mally run from /etc/rc.

       -bD    Same as -bd except runs in foreground.

       -bh    Print the persistent host status database.

       -bH    Purge expired entries from the persistent host status  database.

       -bi    Initialize the alias database.

       -bm    Deliver mail in the usual way (default).

       -bp    Print a listing of the queue(s).

       -bP    Print  number  of  entries  in the queue(s); only available with
              shared memory support.

       -bs    Use the SMTP protocol as described in RFC821 on  standard  input
              and  output.   This  flag  implies all the operations of the -ba
              flag that are compatible with SMTP.

       -bt    Run in address test mode.  This mode reads addresses  and  shows
              the  steps  in  parsing;  it is used for debugging configuration
              tables.

       -bv    Verify names only - do not try to collect or deliver a  message.
              Verify  mode  is  normally  used for validating users or mailing
              lists.

       -Cfile Use  alternate  configuration  file.   Sendmail  gives  up   any
              enhanced  (set-user-ID  or set-group-ID) privileges if an alter-
              nate configuration file is specified.

       -dcategory.level...
              Set the debugging flag  for  category  to  level.   Category  is
              either  an  integer or a name specifying the topic, and level an
              integer  specifying  the  level  of  debugging  output  desired.
              Higher  levels  generally  mean more output.  More than one flag
              can be specified by separating them  with  commas.   A  list  of
              numeric debugging categories can be found in the TRACEFLAGS file
              in the sendmail source distribution.
              The option -d0.1 prints the version of sendmail and the  options
              it was compiled with.
              Most  other  categories are only useful with, and documented in,
              sendmail's source code.

       -Ffullname
              Set the full name of the sender.

       -fname Sets the name of the ``from'' person (i.e., the envelope  sender
              of the mail).  This address may also be used in the From: header
              if that header is missing during initial submission.  The  enve-
              lope sender address is used as the recipient for delivery status
              notifications and may also appear in a Return-Path: header.   -f
              should only be used by ``trusted'' users (normally root, daemon,
              and network) or if the person you are trying to  become  is  the
              same  as  the  person  you are.  Otherwise, an X-Authentication-
              Warning header will be added to the message.

       -G     Relay (gateway) submission of a message, e.g., when rmail  calls
              sendmail .

       -hN    Set the hop count to N.  The hop count is incremented every time
              the mail is processed.  When it reaches a  limit,  the  mail  is
              returned  with an error message, the victim of an aliasing loop.
              If  not  specified,  ``Received:''  lines  in  the  message  are
              counted.

       -i     Ignore  dots  alone on lines by themselves in incoming messages.
              This should be set if you are reading data from a file.

       -L tag Set the identifier used in syslog messages to the supplied  tag.

       -N dsn Set delivery status notification conditions to dsn, which can be
              `never' for no notifications or a comma separated  list  of  the
              values  `failure'  to be notified if delivery failed, `delay' to
              be notified if delivery is delayed, and `success' to be notified
              when the message is successfully delivered.

       -n     Don't do aliasing.

       -O option=value
              Set  option  option to the specified value.  This form uses long
              names.  See below for more details.

       -ox value
              Set option x to the specified  value.   This  form  uses  single
              character names only.  The short names are not described in this
              manual page; see the Sendmail Installation and  Operation  Guide
              for details.

       -pprotocol
              Set  the name of the protocol used to receive the message.  This
              can be a simple protocol name such as ``UUCP'' or a protocol and
              hostname, such as ``UUCP:ucbvax''.

       -q[time]
              Process saved messages in the queue at given intervals.  If time
              is omitted, process the queue once.  Time is given as  a  tagged
              number, with `s' being seconds, `m' being minutes (default), `h'
              being hours, `d' being days, and `w' being weeks.  For  example,
              `-q1h30m'  or  `-q90m'  would  both  set the timeout to one hour
              thirty minutes.  By default, sendmail  will  run  in  the  back-
              ground.  This option can be used safely with -bd.

       -qp[time]
              Similar to -qtime, except that instead of periodically forking a
              child to process the queue, sendmail forks a  single  persistent
              child  for  each  queue  that  alternates between processing the
              queue and sleeping.  The sleep time is given as the argument; it
              defaults  to 1 second.  The process will always sleep at least 5
              seconds if the queue was empty in the previous queue run.

       -qf    Process saved messages in the queue once and do not fork(),  but
              run in the foreground.

       -qG name
              Process jobs in queue group called name only.

       -q[!]Isubstr
              Limit  processed  jobs to those containing substr as a substring
              of the queue id or not when !  is specified.

       -q[!]Rsubstr
              Limit processed jobs to those containing substr as  a  substring
              of one of the recipients or not when !  is specified.

       -q[!]Ssubstr
              Limit  processed  jobs to those containing substr as a substring
              of the sender or not when !  is specified.

       -R return
              Set the amount of the message to  be  returned  if  the  message
              bounces.   The  return  parameter  can  be  `full' to return the
              entire message or `hdrs' to return only  the  headers.   In  the
              latter case also local bounces return only the headers.

       -rname An alternate and obsolete form of the -f flag.

       -t     Read  message  for recipients.  To:, Cc:, and Bcc: lines will be
              scanned for recipient addresses.  The Bcc: line will be  deleted
              before transmission.

       -V envid
              Set the original envelope id.  This is propagated across SMTP to
              servers that support DSNs and is returned in DSN-compliant error
              messages.

       -v     Go  into verbose mode.  Alias expansions will be announced, etc.

       -X logfile
              Log all traffic in and out of mailers in the indicated log file.
              This  should  only be used as a last resort for debugging mailer
              bugs.  It will log a lot of data very quickly.

       --     Stop processing command flags and use the rest of the  arguments
              as addresses.

   Options
       There  are  also  a number of processing options that may be set.  Nor-
       mally these will only be used by a system administrator.   Options  may
       be  set either on the command line using the -o flag (for short names),
       the -O flag (for long names), or in the configuration file.  This is  a
       partial  list  limited to those options that are likely to be useful on
       the command line and only shows the long names;  for  a  complete  list
       (and  details),  consult the Sendmail Installation and Operation Guide.
       The options are:

       AliasFile=file
              Use alternate alias file.

       HoldExpensive
              On mailers that are  considered  ``expensive''  to  connect  to,
              don't initiate immediate connection.  This requires queueing.

       CheckpointInterval=N
              Checkpoint  the  queue  file after every N successful deliveries
              (default 10).  This avoids excessive duplicate  deliveries  when
              sending to long mailing lists interrupted by system crashes.

       DeliveryMode=x
              Set the delivery mode to x.  Delivery modes are `i' for interac-
              tive (synchronous) delivery, `b' for  background  (asynchronous)
              delivery, `q' for queue only - i.e., actual delivery is done the
              next time the queue is run, and `d' for deferred - the  same  as
              `q'  except that database lookups for maps which have set the -D
              option (default for the host map) are avoided.

       ErrorMode=x
              Set error processing to mode x.  Valid modes  are  `m'  to  mail
              back  the error message, `w' to ``write'' back the error message
              (or mail it back if the sender is not logged in), `p'  to  print
              the  errors  on  the terminal (default), `q' to throw away error
              messages (only exit status is returned), and `e' to  do  special
              processing  for  the BerkNet.  If the text of the message is not
              mailed back by modes `m' or `w' and if the sender  is  local  to
              this  machine,  a  copy  of  the message is appended to the file
              dead.letter in the sender's home directory.

       SaveFromLine
              Save UNIX-style From lines at the front of messages.

       MaxHopCount=N
              The maximum number of times a  message  is  allowed  to  ``hop''
              before we decide it is in a loop.

       IgnoreDots
              Do  not  take dots on a line by themselves as a message termina-
              tor.

       SendMimeErrors
              Send error messages in MIME format.  If not set, the DSN (Deliv-
              ery Status Notification) SMTP extension is disabled.

       ConnectionCacheTimeout=timeout
              Set connection cache timeout.

       ConnectionCacheSize=N
              Set connection cache size.

       LogLevel=n
              The log level.

       MeToo=False
              Don't send to ``me'' (the sender) if I am in an alias expansion.

       CheckAliases
              Validate the right hand side of aliases during  a  newaliases(1)
              command.

       OldStyleHeaders
              If  set,  this  message may have old style headers.  If not set,
              this message is guaranteed to have new style headers (i.e., com-
              mas  instead  of spaces between addresses).  If set, an adaptive
              algorithm is used that will correctly determine the header  for-
              mat in most cases.

       QueueDirectory=queuedir
              Select the directory in which to queue messages.

       StatusFile=file
              Save statistics in the named file.

       Timeout.queuereturn=time
              Set  the  timeout  on  undelivered  messages in the queue to the
              specified time.  After delivery has failed (e.g., because  of  a
              host  being  down) for this amount of time, failed messages will
              be returned to the sender.  The default is five days.

       UserDatabaseSpec=userdatabase
              If set, a user database is consulted to get forwarding  informa-
              tion.   You  can consider this an adjunct to the aliasing mecha-
              nism, except that the database is intended  to  be  distributed;
              aliases  are local to a particular host.  This may not be avail-
              able if your sendmail does not have the USERDB  option  compiled
              in.

       ForkEachJob
              Fork  each  job during queue runs.  May be convenient on memory-
              poor machines.

       SevenBitInput
              Strip incoming messages to seven bits.

       EightBitMode=mode
              Set the handling of eight bit input to seven bit destinations to
              mode: m (mimefy) will convert to seven-bit MIME format, p (pass)
              will pass it as eight  bits  (but  violates  protocols),  and  s
              (strict) will bounce the message.

       MinQueueAge=timeout
              Sets  how  long a job must ferment in the queue between attempts
              to send it.

       DefaultCharSet=charset
              Sets the default character set used to label 8-bit data that  is
              not otherwise labelled.

       DialDelay=sleeptime
              If  opening  a connection fails, sleep for sleeptime seconds and
              try again.  Useful on dial-on-demand sites.

       NoRecipientAction=action
              Set the behaviour when there are no recipient headers (To:,  Cc:
              or  Bcc:)  in  the  message  to  action: none leaves the message
              unchanged, add-to adds a To: header with  the  envelope  recipi-
              ents,  add-apparently-to  adds an Apparently-To: header with the
              envelope recipients, add-bcc adds an empty Bcc: header, and add-
              to-undisclosed  adds  a  header reading `To: undisclosed-recipi-
              ents:;'.

       MaxDaemonChildren=N
              Sets the maximum number of children that an incoming SMTP daemon
              will allow to spawn at any time to N.

       ConnectionRateThrottle=N
              Sets  the  maximum  number of connections per second to the SMTP
              port to N.

       In aliases, the first character of a name may  be  a  vertical  bar  to
       cause  interpretation  of the rest of the name as a command to pipe the
       mail to.  It may be necessary to quote the name to keep  sendmail  from
       suppressing  the  blanks from between arguments.  For example, a common
       alias is:

              msgs: "|/usr/bin/msgs -s"

       Aliases may also have the syntax ``:include:filename'' to ask  sendmail
       to read the named file for a list of recipients.  For example, an alias
       such as:

              poets: ":include:/usr/local/lib/poets.list"

       would read /usr/local/lib/poets.list for the list of  addresses  making
       up the group.

       Sendmail  returns an exit status describing what it did.  The codes are
       defined in <sysexits.h>:

       EX_OK  Successful completion on all addresses.

       EX_NOUSER
              User name not recognized.

       EX_UNAVAILABLE
              Catchall meaning necessary resources were not available.

       EX_SYNTAX
              Syntax error in address.

       EX_SOFTWARE
              Internal software error, including bad arguments.

       EX_OSERR
              Temporary operating system error, such as ``cannot fork''.

       EX_NOHOST
              Host name not recognized.

       EX_TEMPFAIL
              Message could not be sent immediately, but was queued.

       If invoked as newaliases, sendmail will rebuild the alias database.  If
       invoked  as  mailq, sendmail will print the contents of the mail queue.
       If invoked as hoststat, sendmail will print the persistent host  status
       database.  If invoked as purgestat, sendmail will purge expired entries
       from the persistent host status database.  If invoked as  smtpd,  send-
       mail will act as a daemon, as if the -bd option were specified.

NOTES
       sendmail  often  gets  blamed  for  many problems that are actually the
       result of other problems, such as overly permissive modes  on  directo-
       ries.  For this reason, sendmail checks the modes on system directories
       and files to determine if they can be trusted.  Although  these  checks
       can be turned off and your system security reduced by setting the Dont-
       BlameSendmail option, the permission problems  should  be  fixed.   For
       more information, see:

       http://www.sendmail.org/tips/DontBlameSendmail.html

FILES
       Except  for  the  file /etc/mail/sendmail.cf itself the following path-
       names are all specified in /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.  Thus,  these  values
       are only approximations.

        /etc/mail/aliases
              raw data for alias names

        /etc/mail/aliases.db
              data base of alias names

        /etc/mail/sendmail.cf
              configuration file

        /etc/mail/helpfile
              help file

        /etc/mail/statistics
              collected statistics

        /var/spool/mqueue/*
              temp files

SEE ALSO
       mail(1),  syslog(3),  aliases(5),  mailaddr(7),  mail.local(8),  rc(8),
       rmail(8)

       DARPA Internet Request For Comments RFC819, RFC821,  RFC822.   Sendmail
       Installation and Operation Guide, No. 8, SMM.

       http://www.sendmail.org/

HISTORY
       The sendmail command appeared in 4.2BSD.

                         $Date: 2003/12/01 17:02:00 $              SENDMAIL(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | NOTES | FILES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY

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