Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Man Pages

Man Page or Keyword Search:
Man Architecture
Apropos Keyword Search (all sections) Output format
home | help
SENDMAIL(1)							   SENDMAIL(1)

NAME
       sendmail	- Postfix to Sendmail compatibility interface

SYNOPSIS
       sendmail	[option	...] [recipient	...]

       mailq
       sendmail	-bp

       newaliases
       sendmail	-I

DESCRIPTION
       The Postfix sendmail(1) command implements the Postfix to Sendmail com-
       patibility interface.  For the  sake  of	 compatibility	with  existing
       applications,  some  Sendmail  command-line  options are	recognized but
       silently	ignored.

       By default, Postfix sendmail(1) reads a	message	 from  standard	 input
       until  EOF  or  until  it  reads	 a  line  with only a .	character, and
       arranges	for delivery.  Postfix sendmail(1) relies on  the  postdrop(1)
       command to create a queue file in the maildrop directory.

       Specific	 command aliases are provided for other	common modes of	opera-
       tion:

       mailq  List the mail queue. Each	entry shows the	queue file ID, message
	      size,  arrival  time, sender, and	the recipients that still need
	      to be delivered.	If mail	could not be delivered upon  the  last
	      attempt, the reason for failure is shown.	The queue ID string is
	      followed by an optional status character:

	      *	     The message is in the active queue, i.e. the  message  is
		     selected for delivery.

	      !	     The  message is in	the hold queue,	i.e. no	further	deliv-
		     ery attempt will be made until  the  mail	is  taken  off
		     hold.

	      This   mode   of	operation  is  implemented  by	executing  the
	      postqueue(1) command.

       newaliases
	      Initialize the alias database.  If no input  file	 is  specified
	      (with  the  -oA  option,	see  below), the program processes the
	      file(s) specified	with the alias_database	configuration  parame-
	      ter.   If	 no alias database type	is specified, the program uses
	      the type specified with the default_database_type	 configuration
	      parameter.  This mode of operation is implemented	by running the
	      postalias(1) command.

	      Note: it may take	a minute or so before an alias database	update
	      becomes  visible.	 Use the "postfix reload" command to eliminate
	      this delay.

       These and other features	can be selected	by specifying the  appropriate
       combination  of	command-line  options. Some features are controlled by
       parameters in the main.cf configuration file.

       The following options are recognized:

       -Am (ignored)

       -Ac (ignored)
	      Postfix sendmail uses the	same configuration file	regardless  of
	      whether or not a message is an initial submission.

       -B body_type
	      The message body MIME type: 7BIT or 8BITMIME.

       -bd    Go  into	daemon	mode. This mode	of operation is	implemented by
	      executing	the "postfix start" command.

       -bh (ignored)

       -bH (ignored)
	      Postfix has no persistent	host status database.

       -bi    Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -bm    Read mail	from standard input and	arrange	for delivery.  This is
	      the default mode of operation.

       -bp    List the mail queue. See the mailq command above.

       -bs    Stand-alone  SMTP	 server	mode. Read SMTP	commands from standard
	      input, and write responses to standard output.   In  stand-alone
	      SMTP  server  mode,  mail	relaying and other access controls are
	      disabled by default. To enable them,  run	 the  process  as  the
	      mail_owner user.

	      This  mode  of  operation	is implemented by running the smtpd(8)
	      daemon.

       -bv    Do not collect or	deliver	a  message.  Instead,  send  an	 email
	      report  after  verifying each recipient address.	This is	useful
	      for testing address rewriting and	routing	configurations.

	      This feature is available	in Postfix version 2.1 and later.

       -C config_file

       -C config_dir
	      The path name of the Postfix main.cf  file,  or  of  its	parent
	      directory.  This	information  is	 ignored with Postfix versions
	      before 2.3.

	      With all Postfix versions, you can specify a directory  pathname
	      with  the	MAIL_CONFIG environment	variable to override the loca-
	      tion of configuration files.

       -F full_name
	      Set the sender full name.	This overrides	the  NAME  environment
	      variable,	and is used only with messages that have no From: mes-
	      sage header.

       -f sender
	      Set the envelope sender  address.	 This  is  the	address	 where
	      delivery problems	are sent to. With Postfix versions before 2.1,
	      the  Errors-To:  message	header	overrides  the	error	return
	      address.

       -G     Gateway  (relay)	submission, as opposed to initial user submis-
	      sion.  Either do not rewrite addresses at	all, or	update	incom-
	      plete  addresses	with  the  domain  information	specified with
	      remote_header_rewrite_domain.

	      This option is ignored before Postfix version 2.3.

       -h hop_count (ignored)
	      Hop count	limit. Use the hopcount_limit configuration  parameter
	      instead.

       -I     Initialize alias database. See the newaliases command above.

       -i     When  reading  a message from standard input, don't treat	a line
	      with only	a . character as the end of input.

       -L label	(ignored)
	      The logging label. Use the syslog_name  configuration  parameter
	      instead.

       -m (ignored)
	      Backwards	compatibility.

       -N dsn (default:	'delay,	failure')
	      Delivery	status	notification  control. Specify either a	comma-
	      separated	list with one or more of  failure  (send  notification
	      when  delivery fails), delay (send notification when delivery is
	      delayed),	or success (send  notification	when  the  message  is
	      delivered);  or  specify	never (don't send any notifications at
	      all).

	      This feature is available	in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -n (ignored)
	      Backwards	compatibility.

       -oAalias_database
	      Non-default alias	database. Specify pathname  or	type:pathname.
	      See postalias(1) for details.

       -O option=value (ignored)
	      Backwards	compatibility.

       -o7 (ignored)

       -o8 (ignored)
	      To  send 8-bit or	binary content,	use an appropriate MIME	encap-
	      sulation and specify the appropriate -B command-line option.

       -oi    When reading a message from standard input, don't	treat  a  line
	      with only	a . character as the end of input.

       -om (ignored)
	      The sender is never eliminated from alias	etc. expansions.

       -o x value (ignored)
	      Set  option x to value. Use the equivalent configuration parame-
	      ter in main.cf instead.

       -r sender
	      Set the envelope sender  address.	 This  is  the	address	 where
	      delivery problems	are sent to. With Postfix versions before 2.1,
	      the  Errors-To:  message	header	overrides  the	error	return
	      address.

       -R return_limit (ignored)
	      Limit  the  size of bounced mail.	Use the	bounce_size_limit con-
	      figuration parameter instead.

       -q     Attempt to deliver all queued mail. This is implemented by  exe-
	      cuting the postqueue(1) command.

	      Warning:	flushing  undeliverable	mail frequently	will result in
	      poor delivery performance	of all other mail.

       -qinterval (ignored)
	      The interval between queue runs. Use the queue_run_delay config-
	      uration parameter	instead.

       -qIqueueid
	      Schedule immediate delivery of mail with the specified queue ID.
	      This option is implemented by executing  the  postqueue(1)  com-
	      mand, and	is available with Postfix version 2.4 and later.

       -qRsite
	      Schedule	immediate  delivery of all mail	that is	queued for the
	      named site. This option accepts only site	names that are	eligi-
	      ble  for the "fast flush"	service, and is	implemented by execut-
	      ing the postqueue(1) command.  See flush(8) for more information
	      about the	"fast flush" service.

       -qSsite
	      This  command  is	 not implemented. Use the slower "sendmail -q"
	      command instead.

       -t     Extract recipients from message headers. These are added to  any
	      recipients specified on the command line.

	      With Postfix versions prior to 2.1, this option requires that no
	      recipient	addresses are specified	on the command line.

       -U (ignored)
	      Initial user submission.

       -V envid
	      Specify the envelope ID for notification by servers that support
	      DSN.

	      This feature is available	in Postfix 2.3 and later.

       -XV (Postfix 2.2	and earlier: -V)
	      Variable	Envelope Return	Path. Given an envelope	sender address
	      of the form owner-listname@origin,  each	recipient  user@domain
	      receives mail with a personalized	envelope sender	address.

	      By  default,  the	personalized envelope sender address is	owner-
	      listname+user=domain@origin. The default + and = characters  are
	      configurable   with  the	default_verp_delimiters	 configuration
	      parameter.

       -XVxy (Postfix 2.2 and earlier: -Vxy)
	      As -XV, but uses x and  y	 as  the  VERP	delimiter  characters,
	      instead of the characters	specified with the default_verp_delim-
	      iters configuration parameter.

       -v     Send an email report of the first	delivery attempt (Postfix ver-
	      sions  2.1 and later). Mail delivery always happens in the back-
	      ground. When multiple -v options are given, enable verbose  log-
	      ging for debugging purposes.

       -X log_file (ignored)
	      Log mailer traffic. Use the debug_peer_list and debug_peer_level
	      configuration parameters instead.

SECURITY
       By design, this program is not set-user (or group) id. However, it must
       handle  data  from  untrusted, possibly remote, users.  Thus, the usual
       precautions need	to be taken against malicious inputs.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Problems	are logged to syslogd(8) and to	the standard error stream.

ENVIRONMENT
       MAIL_CONFIG
	      Directory	with Postfix configuration files.

       MAIL_VERBOSE (value does	not matter)
	      Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.

       MAIL_DEBUG (value does not matter)
	      Enable debugging with an external	command, as specified with the
	      debugger_command configuration parameter.

       NAME   The  sender full name. This is used only with messages that have
	      no From: message header. See also	the -F option above.

CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS
       The following main.cf parameters	are especially relevant	to  this  pro-
       gram.   The  text  below	 provides  only	a parameter summary. See post-
       conf(5) for more	details	including examples.

TROUBLE	SHOOTING CONTROLS
       The DEBUG_README	file gives examples of how to trouble shoot a  Postfix
       system.

       debugger_command	(empty)
	      The external command to execute when a Postfix daemon program is
	      invoked with the -D option.

       debug_peer_level	(2)
	      The increment in verbose logging level when a remote  client  or
	      server matches a pattern in the debug_peer_list parameter.

       debug_peer_list (empty)
	      Optional	list  of  remote  client or server hostname or network
	      address  patterns	 that  cause  the  verbose  logging  level  to
	      increase by the amount specified in $debug_peer_level.

ACCESS CONTROLS
       Available in Postfix version 2.2	and later:

       authorized_flush_users (static:anyone)
	      List of users who	are authorized to flush	the queue.

       authorized_mailq_users (static:anyone)
	      List of users who	are authorized to view the queue.

       authorized_submit_users (static:anyone)
	      List  of	users who are authorized to submit mail	with the send-
	      mail(1) command (and with	the privileged postdrop(1) helper com-
	      mand).

RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS
       bounce_size_limit (50000)
	      The  maximal  amount  of original	message	text that is sent in a
	      non-delivery notification.

       fork_attempts (5)
	      The maximal number of attempts to	fork() a child process.

       fork_delay (1s)
	      The delay	between	attempts to fork() a child process.

       hopcount_limit (50)
	      The maximal number of Received:  message headers that is allowed
	      in the primary message headers.

       queue_run_delay (300s)
	      The  time	 between  deferred  queue  scans by the	queue manager;
	      prior to Postfix 2.4 the default value was 1000s.

FAST FLUSH CONTROLS
       The ETRN_README file describes configuration and	operation details  for
       the Postfix "fast flush"	service.

       fast_flush_domains ($relay_domains)
	      Optional list of destinations that are eligible for per-destina-
	      tion logfiles with mail that is queued to	those destinations.

VERP CONTROLS
       The VERP_README file describes configuration and	operation  details  of
       Postfix support for variable envelope return path addresses.

       default_verp_delimiters (+=)
	      The two default VERP delimiter characters.

       verp_delimiter_filter (-=+)
	      The  characters  Postfix accepts as VERP delimiter characters on
	      the Postfix sendmail(1) command line and in SMTP commands.

MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS
       alias_database (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      The alias	databases for local(8) delivery	that are updated  with
	      "newaliases" or with "sendmail -bi".

       command_directory (see 'postconf	-d' output)
	      The location of all postfix administrative commands.

       config_directory	(see 'postconf -d' output)
	      The  default  location of	the Postfix main.cf and	master.cf con-
	      figuration files.

       daemon_directory	(see 'postconf -d' output)
	      The directory with Postfix support programs and daemon programs.

       default_database_type (see 'postconf -d'	output)
	      The default database type	for use	in newaliases(1), postalias(1)
	      and postmap(1) commands.

       delay_warning_time (0h)
	      The time after which the sender receives the message headers  of
	      mail that	is still queued.

       enable_errors_to	(no)
	      Report  mail  delivery  errors to	the address specified with the
	      non-standard Errors-To: message header, instead of the  envelope
	      sender  address  (this  feature  is removed with Postfix version
	      2.2, is turned off by default with Postfix version 2.1,  and  is
	      always turned on with older Postfix versions).

       mail_owner (postfix)
	      The  UNIX	 system	 account  that owns the	Postfix	queue and most
	      Postfix daemon processes.

       queue_directory (see 'postconf -d' output)
	      The location of the Postfix top-level queue directory.

       remote_header_rewrite_domain (empty)
	      Don't rewrite message headers from remote	clients	 at  all  when
	      this  parameter is empty;	otherwise, rewrite message headers and
	      append the specified domain name to incomplete addresses.

       syslog_facility (mail)
	      The syslog facility of Postfix logging.

       syslog_name (see	'postconf -d' output)
	      The mail system name that	is prepended to	the  process  name  in
	      syslog  records,	so  that  "smtpd" becomes, for example,	"post-
	      fix/smtpd".

FILES
       /var/spool/postfix, mail	queue
       /etc/postfix, configuration files

SEE ALSO
       pickup(8), mail pickup daemon
       qmgr(8),	queue manager
       smtpd(8), SMTP server
       flush(8), fast flush service
       postsuper(1), queue maintenance
       postalias(1), create/update/query alias database
       postdrop(1), mail posting utility
       postfix(1), mail	system control
       postqueue(1), mail queue	control
       syslogd(8), system logging

README_FILES
       Use "postconf readme_directory" or "postconf html_directory" to	locate
       this information.
       DEBUG_README, Postfix debugging howto
       ETRN_README, Postfix ETRN howto
       VERP_README, Postfix VERP howto

LICENSE
       The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this software.

AUTHOR(S)
       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J.	Watson Research
       P.O. Box	704
       Yorktown	Heights, NY 10598, USA

								   SENDMAIL(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SECURITY | DIAGNOSTICS | ENVIRONMENT | CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS | TROUBLE SHOOTING CONTROLS | ACCESS CONTROLS | RESOURCE AND RATE CONTROLS | FAST FLUSH CONTROLS | VERP CONTROLS | MISCELLANEOUS CONTROLS | FILES | SEE ALSO | README_FILES | LICENSE | AUTHOR(S)

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=sendmail&manpath=SuSE+Linux%2fi386+11.3>

home | help