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rsync(1)							      rsync(1)

       rsync --	a fast,	versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync	daemon:
	 Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
	       rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
	 Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	[USER@]HOST::DEST
	       rsync [OPTION...] SRC...	rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just	one SRC	arg and	no DEST	arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

       Rsync is	a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote	rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of	 its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of	the set	of files to be copied.	It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of	data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the	 source	 files
       and  the	 existing  files in the	destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved	copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync  finds  files  that  need to be transferred using a "quick	check"
       algorithm (by default) that looks for files that	have changed  in  size
       or   in	last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in	 the  other  preserved
       attributes (as requested	by options) are	made on	the  destination  file
       directly	 when  the quick check indicates that the file's data does not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync	are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and  permis-

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a	 CVS  exclude  mode for	ignoring the same files	that CVS would

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal  for

       Rsync  copies  files either to or from a	remote host, or	locally	on the
       current host (it	does not support  copying  files  between  two	remote

       There  are  two	different  ways	 for rsync to contact a	remote system:
       using a remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or  rsh)  or
       contacting  an  rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell	trans-
       port is used whenever the source	or destination path contains a	single
       colon  (:)  separator  after a host specification.  Contacting an rsync
       daemon directly happens when the	source or destination path contains  a
       double  colon  (::)  separator  after  a	host specification, OR when an
       rsync://	URL is specified (see also the	"USING	RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES
       VIA  A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception	to this	latter

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a	desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format	similar	to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a	remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote  side  as
       the  "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a	daemon
       is always a server, but a server	can be either a	daemon	or  a  remote-
       shell spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,	 you  can use rsync to any machine that	you can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that	you can	access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).	 For remote transfers, a modern	rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use  a  dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can	also specify any remote	shell you like,	either by using	the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH	environment  variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the	source and destination

       You use rsync in	the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best	way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the	directory src on the machine foo. If any of the	 files
       already	exist on the remote system then	the rsync remote-update	proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the	/data/tmp/bar directory	on the local  machine.
       The  files  are	transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that sym-
       bolic links, devices, attributes,  permissions,	ownerships,  etc.  are
       preserved  in  the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions	of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash	on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You	can think of a
       trailing	/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to	"copy  the  directory  by name", but in	both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the  contain-
       ing  directory on the destination.  In other words, each	of the follow-
       ing commands copies the files in	the same way, including	their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av	/src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av	/src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that	 host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to	copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these	copy the remote	directory's contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av	host: /dest
	      rsync -av	host::module /dest

       You  can	 also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both	the source and
       destination don't have a	':' in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy	command.

       Finally,	 you can list all the (listable) modules available from	a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files	from a remote host is done  by
       specifying  additional remote-host args in the same style as the	first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all	these work:

	      rsync -av	host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
	      rsync -av	host::modname/file{1,2}	host::modname/file3 /dest/
	      rsync -av	host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required	using quoted spaces in the  SRC,  like
       these examples:

	      rsync -av	host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This  word-splitting  still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but
       is not as easy to use as	the first method.

       If you need to transfer a filename that contains	 whitespace,  you  can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll	need to	escape
       the whitespace in a way that the	remote	shell  will  understand.   For

	      rsync -av	host:'file\ name\ with\	spaces'	/dest

       It  is  also possible to	use rsync without a remote shell as the	trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to	a remote rsync daemon,
       typically  using	 TCP port 873.	(This obviously	requires the daemon to
       be running on the remote	system,	so refer to the	STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using  rsync  in	 this  way is the same as using	it with	a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first	word of	the "path" is actually a module	name.

       o      the remote daemon	may print a message of the day when  you  con-

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon	will be	shown.

       o      if you specify no	local destination then a listing of the	speci-
	      fied files on the	remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote	module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may	require	authentication.	If so,
       you will	receive	a password prompt when you connect. You	can avoid  the
       password	 prompt	 by setting the	environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you	want to	use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:	 On  some  systems  environment	 variables  are	visible	to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is	recommended.

       You may establish the connection	via a web proxy	by setting  the	 envi-
       ronment	variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note	that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You  may	 also establish	a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
       you  wish  to  run  in place of making a	direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
       in  the	rsync  command	(so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).	 For example:

	 export	RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh	proxyhost nc %H	873'
	 rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
	 rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses	ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which  forwards all data	to port	873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
       ost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as  named modules) without actually allowing any	new socket connections
       into a system (other than what is already  required  to	allow  remote-
       shell  access).	 Rsync	supports  connecting  to a host	using a	remote
       shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon" server  that  expects  to
       read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This	can be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the  daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able
       to use features such as chroot or change	the uid	used  by  the  daemon.
       (For  another  way  to encrypt a	daemon transfer, consider using	ssh to
       tunnel a	local port to a	remote machine and configure  a	 normal	 rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow	connections from "localhost".)

       From the	user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax	as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that	 you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line	with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.	(Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will	 not  turn  on
       this functionality.)  For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a	different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix	in front of the	 host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based	authentication).  This
       means that you must give	the '-l	user' option to	 ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short	version	of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e	"ssh -l	ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".

       In order	to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon	already	running	(or it needs to	have configured	something like
       inetd to	spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full	information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming	socket connections, see	the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
       that is the config file for  the	 daemon,  and  it  contains  the  full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone	and inetd con-

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for	the  transfer,
       there is	no need	to manually start an rsync daemon.

       Here are	some examples of how I use rsync.

       To  backup  my  wife's  home directory, which consists of large MS Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job	that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection	to a duplicate directory on my machine

       To  synchronize my samba	source trees I use the following Makefile tar-

		   rsync -avuzb	--exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the  other  end  of  the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of	time as	the remote CVS protocol	isn't very efficient.

       I mirror	a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-

       rsync -az -e ssh	--delete ~ftp/pub/samba	nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched	from cron every	few hours.

       Here is a short summary of the options available	in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete	description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not	mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
	    --no-OPTION		    turn off an	implied	OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive		    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use	relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy	based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are	newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data	onto shorter files
	    --append-verify	    --append w/old data	in file	checksum
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links	    only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir	on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file	and/or directory permissions
	-A, --acls		    preserve ACLs (implies -p)
	-X, --xattrs		    preserve extended attributes
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve modification times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories from --times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	    --fake-super	    store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files	efficiently
	-n, --dry-run		    perform a trial run	with no	changes	made
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross	filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the	remote shell to	use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the	rsync to run on	remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files	that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized	files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before transfer (default)
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during xfer, not before
	    --delete-delay	    find deletions during, delete after
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not before
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete	excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even	if there are I/O errors
	    --force		    force deletion of dirs even	if not empty
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than	SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put	a partially transferred	file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put	all updated files into place at	end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty	directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by	user/group name
	    --timeout=SECONDS	    set	I/O timeout in seconds
	    --contimeout=SECONDS    set	daemon connection timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match	size and time
	    --size-only		    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM	    compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory	DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis	if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files	relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ...	and include copies of unchanged	files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to	files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	    --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with	suffix in LIST
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore	files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add	a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge	/.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE	    read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files	matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE	    read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from	FILE
	-0, --from0		    all	*from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	-s, --protect-args	    no space-splitting;	wildcard chars only
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to	daemon
	    --port=PORT		    specify double-colon alternate port	number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use	blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a	human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for	all updates
	    --out-format=FORMAT	    output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log	what we're doing to the	specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log	updates	using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password	from FILE
	    --list-only		    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes	per second
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating	dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
	    --checksum-seed=NUM	    set	block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see	below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as	a daemon, in which case	the following  options
       are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run	as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the	specified address
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes	per second
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	    --no-detach		    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT		    listen on alternate	port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

       rsync  uses  the	 GNU  long  options  package. Many of the command line
       options have two	variants, one short and	one  long.   These  are	 shown
       below, separated	by commas. Some	options	only have a long variant.  The
       '=' for options that take a parameter is	optional;  whitespace  can  be
       used instead.

       --help Print  a	short  help  page  describing the options available in
	      rsync and	exit.  For backward-compatibility with older  versions
	      of  rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h	option
	      without any other	args.

	      print the	rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during the transfer.  By default,	rsync works silently. A	single
	      -v will give you information about what files are	 being	trans-
	      ferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will give
	      you information on what files are	 being	skipped	 and  slightly
	      more  information	 at  the  end. More than two -v	options	should
	      only be used if you are debugging	rsync.

	      Note that	the names of the transferred files that	are output are
	      done  using  a  default  --out-format of "%n%L", which tells you
	      just the name of the file	and, if	the item is a link,  where  it
	      points.  At the single -v	level of verbosity, this does not men-
	      tion when	a file gets its	attributes changed.  If	you ask	for an
	      itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or
	      adding "%i" to the --out-format setting),	 the  output  (on  the
	      client)  increases  to mention all items that are	changed	in any
	      way.  See	the --out-format option	for more details.

       -q, --quiet
	      This option decreases the	amount of information  you  are	 given
	      during  the  transfer,  notably suppressing information messages
	      from the remote server. This  option  is	useful	when  invoking
	      rsync from cron.

	      This option affects the information that is output by the	client
	      at the start of a	daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
	      of-the-day  (MOTD) text, but it also affects the list of modules
	      that the daemon sends in response	to the "rsync host::"  request
	      (due to a	limitation in the rsync	protocol), so omit this	option
	      if you want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
	      size  and	 have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This	option
	      turns off	this "quick check" behavior, causing all files	to  be

	      This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
	      that need	to be transferred, changing it	from  the  default  of
	      transferring files with either a changed size or a changed last-
	      modified time to just looking for	files  that  have  changed  in
	      size.   This  is	useful	when starting to use rsync after using
	      another mirroring	 system	 which	may  not  preserve  timestamps

	      When  comparing  two  timestamps,	rsync treats the timestamps as
	      being equal if they differ by no	more  than  the	 modify-window
	      value.   This  is	 normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
	      find it useful to	set this to a larger value in some situations.
	      In  particular,  when  transferring to or	from an	MS Windows FAT
	      filesystem (which	represents times with a	2-second  resolution),
	      --modify-window=1	is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1

       -c, --checksum
	      This changes the way rsync checks	if the files have been changed
	      and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
	      a	"quick check" that (by default)	checks if each file's size and
	      time of last modification	match between the sender and receiver.
	      This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
	      file  that  has a	matching size.	Generating the checksums means
	      that both	sides will expend a lot	of disk	I/O  reading  all  the
	      data  in	the  files  in	the transfer (and this is prior	to any
	      reading that will	be done	to transfer changed  files),  so  this
	      can slow things down significantly.

	      The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
	      file-system scan that builds the list of	the  available	files.
	      The  receiver  generates	its  checksums when it is scanning for
	      changed files, and will checksum any file	that has the same size
	      as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
	      size or a	changed	checksum are selected for transfer.

	      Note that	rsync always verifies that each	transferred  file  was
	      correctly	 reconstructed	on  the	 receiving  side by checking a
	      whole-file checksum that is generated  as	 the  file  is	trans-
	      ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
	      nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
	      file need	to be updated?"	check.

	      For  protocol  30	 and  beyond  (first  supported	in 3.0.0), the
	      checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is

       -a, --archive
	      This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
	      want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
	      being  a	notable	 omission).   The  only	exception to the above
	      equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in	which case  -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that	-a does	not preserve hardlinks,	because	finding	multi-
	      ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify  -H.

	      You  may	turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the
	      option name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with  a
	      "no-":  only  options  that  are	implied	by other options (e.g.
	      --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in	 various  cir-
	      cumstances  (e.g.	--no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).
	      You may specify either the short or the long option  name	 after
	      the "no-"	prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same	as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
	      (--owner), instead of converting	-a  into  -rlptgD,  you	 could
	      specify -a --no-o	(or -a --no-owner).

	      The  order  of  the options is important:	 if you	specify	--no-r
	      -a, the -r option	would end up being turned on, the opposite  of
	      -a  --no-r.  Note	also that the side-effects of the --files-from
	      option are NOT positional, as it affects the  default  state  of
	      several  options and slightly changes the	meaning	of -a (see the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This tells rsync to  copy	 directories  recursively.   See  also
	      --dirs (-d).

	      Beginning	 with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used	is now
	      an incremental scan that uses much less memory than  before  and
	      begins the transfer after	the scanning of	the first few directo-
	      ries have	been completed.	 This incremental  scan	 only  affects
	      our  recursion  algorithm,  and  does not	change a non-recursive
	      transfer.	 It is also only possible when both ends of the	trans-
	      fer are at least version 3.0.0.

	      Some  options require rsync to know the full file	list, so these
	      options disable the incremental recursion	mode.  These  include:
	      --delete-before,	  --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,   and
	      --delay-updates.	Because	of this, the default delete mode  when
	      you  specify  --delete  is now --delete-during when both ends of
	      the connection are at least 3.0.0	(use --del or  --delete-during
	      to  request  this	 improved deletion mode	explicitly).  See also
	      the --delete-delay option	that is	a  better  choice  than	 using

	      Incremental  recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recur-
	      sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
	      Use relative paths. This means that the full path	 names	speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent	to the server rather than just
	      the last parts of	the filenames.	This  is  particularly	useful
	      when  you	want to	send several different directories at the same
	      time. For	example, if you	used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/	on the	remote
	      machine. If instead you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be	created	on the
	      remote machine, preserving its full path.	 These extra path ele-
	      ments  are  called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo" and the
	      "foo/bar"	directories in the above example).

	      Beginning	with rsync 3.0.0, rsync	 always	 sends	these  implied
	      directories as real directories in the file list,	even if	a path
	      element is really	a symlink on the sending side.	This  prevents
	      some really unexpected behaviors when copying the	full path of a
	      file that	you didn't realize had a symlink in its	path.  If  you
	      want  to	duplicate a server-side	symlink, include both the sym-
	      link via its path, and referent directory	via its	real path.  If
	      you're  dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may
	      need to use the --no-implied-dirs	option.

	      It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
	      is  sent as implied directories for each path you	specify.  With
	      a	modern rsync on	the sending side (beginning with  2.6.7),  you
	      can insert a dot and a slash into	the source path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That  would  create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the	remote machine.	 (Note
	      that the dot must	be followed by a slash,	so "/foo/." would  not
	      be  abbreviated.)	  For  older rsync versions, you would need to
	      use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c	remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note  that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so
	      that the "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for  future  com-
	      mands.)	If  you're pulling files from an older rsync, use this
	      idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

	      This option affects  the	default	 behavior  of  the  --relative
	      option.	When  it  is  specified, the attributes	of the implied
	      directories from the source names	are not	included in the	trans-
	      fer.   This  means  that	the corresponding path elements	on the
	      destination system are left unchanged if	they  exist,  and  any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even	allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences,  such  as being a symlink to a directory on the receiving

	      For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from  entry  told
	      rsync  to	 transfer  the	file  "path/foo/file", the directories
	      "path" and "path/foo" are	implied	when --relative	is  used.   If
	      "path/foo"  is a symlink to "bar"	on the destination system, the
	      receiving	rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate  it
	      as  a  directory,	 and  receive the file into the	new directory.
	      With   --no-implied-dirs,	  the	 receiving    rsync    updates
	      "path/foo/file"  using  the  existing path elements, which means
	      that the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another  way
	      to   accomplish	this   link   preservation   is	  to  use  the
	      --keep-dirlinks option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks  to
	      directories in the rest of the transfer).

	      When  pulling files from an rsync	older than 3.0.0, you may need
	      to use this option if the	sending	side has a symlink in the path
	      you  request  and	 you wish the implied directories to be	trans-
	      ferred as	normal directories.

       -b, --backup
	      With this	option,	preexisting destination	files are  renamed  as
	      each  file is transferred	or deleted.  You can control where the
	      backup file goes and what	(if any) suffix	 gets  appended	 using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note   that   if	 you   don't  specify  --backup-dir,  (1)  the
	      --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if --delete  is
	      also  in	effect	(without  --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
	      "protect"	filter-rule for	the backup suffix to the  end  of  all
	      your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").	This will prevent pre-
	      viously backed-up	files from being deleted.  Note	 that  if  you
	      are  supplying  your  own	filter rules, you may need to manually
	      insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in  the
	      list  so	that  it  has  a  high enough priority to be effective
	      (e.g., if	your rules specify a trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of
	      '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

	      In  combination  with  the  --backup option, this	tells rsync to
	      store all	backups	in the specified directory  on	the  receiving
	      side.   This can be used for incremental backups.	 You can addi-
	      tionally specify a backup	suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
	      erwise  the files	backed up in the specified directory will keep
	      their original filenames).

	      This option allows you to	override  the  default	backup	suffix
	      used with	the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is	a ~ if
	      no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an	empty  string.

       -u, --update
	      This  forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destina-
	      tion and have a modified time that  is  newer  than  the	source
	      file.   (If an existing destination file has a modification time
	      equal to the source file's, it will be updated if	the sizes  are

	      Note  that this does not affect the copying of symlinks or other
	      special files.  Also, a difference of file  format  between  the
	      sender  and receiver is always considered	to be important	enough
	      for an update, no	matter what date is on the objects.  In	 other
	      words, if	the source has a directory where the destination has a
	      file, the	transfer would occur regardless	of the timestamps.

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      This  option  changes  how  rsync	transfers a file when its data
	      needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
	      new  copy	 of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
	      plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
	      destination file.

	      This  has	several	effects: (1) in-use binaries cannot be updated
	      (either the OS will prevent this	from  happening,  or  binaries
	      that attempt to swap-in their data will misbehave	or crash), (2)
	      the file's data will be in  an  inconsistent  state  during  the
	      transfer,	(3) a file's data may be left in an inconsistent state
	      after the	transfer if the	 transfer  is  interrupted  or	if  an
	      update  fails,  (4)  a file that does not	have write permissions
	      can not be updated, and (5) the  efficiency  of  rsync's	delta-
	      transfer	algorithm  may be reduced if some data in the destina-
	      tion file	is overwritten before it can be	copied to  a  position
	      later  in	the file (one exception	to this	is if you combine this
	      option with --backup, since rsync	is smart  enough  to  use  the
	      backup file as the basis file for	the transfer).

	      WARNING: you should not use this option to update	files that are
	      being accessed by	others,	so be careful  when  choosing  to  use
	      this for a copy.

	      This  option  is useful for transferring large files with	block-
	      based changes or appended	data, and also	on  systems  that  are
	      disk bound, not network bound.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the  file),  but  conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and
	      --delay-updates.	Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also	incom-
	      patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This causes rsync	to update a file by appending  data  onto  the
	      end  of  the  file,  which  presumes  that the data that already
	      exists on	the receiving side is identical	with the start of  the
	      file on the sending side.	 If a file needs to be transferred and
	      its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size  on
	      the  sender,  the	file is	skipped.  This does not	interfere with
	      the updating of a	file's non-content  attributes	(e.g.  permis-
	      sions, ownership,	etc.) when the file does not need to be	trans-
	      ferred, nor does it  affect  the	updating  of  any  non-regular
	      files.   Implies	--inplace, but does not	conflict with --sparse
	      (since it	is always extending a file's length).

	      This works just like the --append	option,	but the	existing  data
	      on the receiving side is included	in the full-file checksum ver-
	      ification	step, which will cause a file  to  be  resent  if  the
	      final  verification step fails (rsync uses a normal, non-append-
	      ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

	      Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0,  the	--append  option  worked  like
	      --append-verify,	so  if you are interacting with	an older rsync
	      (or the transfer is using	a protocol prior  to  30),  specifying
	      either  append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell the sending	side  to  include  any	directories  that  are
	      encountered.  Unlike --recursive,	a directory's contents are not
	      copied unless the	directory name specified is "."	or ends	with a
	      trailing	slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
	      option or	the --recursive	option,	rsync will skip	 all  directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).  If	you specify both --dirs	and  --recursive,  --recursive
	      takes precedence.

	      The  --dirs  option is implied by	the --files-from option	or the
	      --list-only option (including an implied --list-only  usage)  if
	      --recursive  wasn't  specified  (so that directories are seen in
	      the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
	      this off.

	      There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
	      (or  --old-d)  that  tells  rsync	 to  use   a   hack   of   "-r
	      --exclude='/*/*'"	 to get	an older rsync to list a single	direc-
	      tory without recursing.

       -l, --links
	      When symlinks are	encountered, recreate the symlink on the  des-

       -L, --copy-links
	      When  symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
	      referent)	is copied, rather than the symlink.  In	older versions
	      of  rsync,  this	option also had	the side-effect	of telling the
	      receiving	side to	follow symlinks, such as symlinks to  directo-
	      ries.   In a modern rsync	such as	this one, you'll need to spec-
	      ify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.   The  only
	      exception	 is  when sending files	to an rsync that is too	old to
	      understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will	still have the
	      side-effect of -K	on that	older receiving	rsync.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent	of symbolic links that
	      point outside the	 copied	 tree.	 Absolute  symlinks  are  also
	      treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks	in the
	      source path itself when --relative is used.  This	option has  no
	      additional effect	if --copy-links	was also specified.

	      This  tells  rsync to ignore any symbolic	links which point out-
	      side the copied tree. All	absolute symlinks  are	also  ignored.
	      Using  this option in conjunction	with --relative	may give unex-
	      pected results.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
	      This option causes the sending side to  treat  a	symlink	 to  a
	      directory	as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you don't	want symlinks to non-directories to  be	 affected,  as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without  this  option, if	the sending side has replaced a	direc-
	      tory with	a symlink to a	directory,  the	 receiving  side  will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the	new symlink, including
	      a	directory hierarchy (as	long as	 --force  or  --delete	is  in

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This option causes the receiving side to treat a	symlink	 to  a
	      directory	 as  though  it	 were a	real directory,	but only if it
	      matches a	real directory from the	sender.	 Without this  option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with	a real

	      For example, suppose you transfer	a directory  "foo"  that  con-
	      tains  a	file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar"
	      on the receiver.	Without	--keep-dirlinks, the receiver  deletes
	      symlink  "foo",  recreates  it  as a directory, and receives the
	      file into	the new	directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the	symlink	and "file" ends	up in "bar".

	      One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks,	you must trust
	      all the symlinks	in  the	 copy!	 If  it	 is  possible  for  an
	      untrusted	user to	create their own symlink to any	directory, the
	      user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink  with
	      a	 real  directory  and affect the content of whatever directory
	      the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are  better  off
	      using something like a bind mount	instead	of a symlink to	modify
	      your receiving hierarchy.

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the sending

       -H, --hard-links
	      This  tells  rsync to look for hard-linked files in the transfer
	      and link together	the corresponding files	on the receiving side.
	      Without  this  option,  hard-linked  files  in  the transfer are
	      treated as though	they were separate files.

	      When you are updating a non-empty	destination, this option  only
	      ensures  that  files that	are hard-linked	together on the	source
	      are hard-linked together on the destination.  It does  NOT  cur-
	      rently endeavor to break already existing	hard links on the des-
	      tination that do not exist between the source files.  Note, how-
	      ever,  that  if  one  or	more  extra-linked  files have content
	      changes, they will become	unlinked when  updated	(assuming  you
	      are not using the	--inplace option).

	      Note  that  rsync	 can only detect hard links between files that
	      are inside the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file  that  has
	      extra  hard-link connections to files outside the	transfer, that
	      linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
	      option to	avoid this breakage, be	very careful that you know how
	      your files are being updated so that you	are  certain  that  no
	      unintended  changes  happen due to lingering hard	links (and see
	      the --inplace option for more caveats).

	      If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync  may
	      transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
	      link for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.	  This
	      does  not	 affect	 the  accuracy of the transfer,	just its effi-
	      ciency.  One way to avoid	this is	to disable incremental	recur-
	      sion using the --no-inc-recursive	option.

       -p, --perms
	      This  option  causes  the	receiving rsync	to set the destination
	      permissions to be	the same as the	source permissions.  (See also
	      the  --chmod  option for a way to	modify what rsync considers to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this	option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing files (including	updated	 files)	 retain	 their
		     existing  permissions,  though the	--executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New files get their "normal" permission bits set  to  the
		     source  file's  permissions  masked  with	the  receiving
		     directory's default  permissions  (either	the  receiving
		     process's	umask,	or  the	 permissions specified via the
		     destination directory's default ACL), and	their  special
		     permission	 bits  disabled	except in the case where a new
		     directory inherits	a setgid bit from  its	parent	direc-

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's behavior is the same as that of other  file-copy	utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In  summary:  to	give  destination files	(both old and new) the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give	new files the destina-
	      tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing	 files
	      unchanged), make sure that the --perms option  is	 off  and  use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures	that  all  non-masked bits get
	      enabled).	 If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier  to
	      type, you	could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the  -Z  option,
	      and  includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination

		 rsync alias -Z	--no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You could	then use this new option in a  command	such  as  this

		 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

	      (Caveat:	make  sure  that -a does not follow -Z,	or it will re-
	      enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned	above.)

	      The preservation of the destination's setgid bit	on  newly-cre-
	      ated  directories	 when --perms is off was added in rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older rsync versions erroneously	preserved  the	three  special
	      permission  bits	for  newly-created files when --perms was off,
	      while overriding the  destination's  setgid  bit	setting	 on  a
	      newly-created  directory.	  Default  ACL observance was added to
	      the ACL patch for	rsync 2.6.7,  so  older	 (or  non-ACL-enabled)
	      rsyncs use the umask even	if default ACLs	are present.  (Keep in
	      mind that	it is the version of the receiving rsync that  affects
	      these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
	      This  option causes rsync	to preserve the	executability (or non-
	      executability) of	regular	files when --perms is not enabled.   A
	      regular  file is considered to be	executable if at least one 'x'
	      is turned	on in its permissions.	When an	 existing  destination
	      file's  executability  differs  from  that  of the corresponding
	      source file, rsync modifies the destination  file's  permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To	 make  a  file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
		     'x' permissions.

	      o	     To	make a file executable,	rsync turns on each  'x'  per-
		     mission  that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
	      This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs	to  be
	      the same as the source ACLs.  The	option also implies --perms.

	      The  source  and	destination  systems  must have	compatible ACL
	      entries for this option to work properly.	 See the  --fake-super
	      option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-

       -X, --xattrs
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  update  the   remote   extended
	      attributes to be the same	as the local ones.

	      For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces,	a copy
	      being done by a super-user copies	 all  namespaces  except  sys-
	      tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.	 To be
	      able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as	a normal user,
	      see the --fake-super option.

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to apply one or more comma-separated
	      "chmod" strings to the permission	of the files in	the  transfer.
	      The resulting value is treated as	though it were the permissions
	      that the sending side supplied for the file,  which  means  that
	      this  option  can	 seem  to  have	no effect on existing files if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in  the
	      chmod(1) manpage,	you can	specify	an item	that should only apply
	      to a directory by	prefixing it with a 'D', or  specify  an  item
	      that  should  only  apply	 to a file by prefixing	it with	a 'F'.
	      For example:


	      It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
	      additional  option  is  just  appended to	the list of changes to

	      See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
	      ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the	trans-

       -o, --owner
	      This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
	      file  to be the same as the source file, but only	if the receiv-
	      ing rsync	is being run as	the super-user (see also  the  --super
	      and  --fake-super	 options).   Without this option, the owner of
	      new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The  preservation	 of ownership will associate matching names by
	      default, but may fall back to using the ID number	in  some  cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full discus-

       -g, --group
	      This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
	      file  to	be the same as the source file.	 If the	receiving pro-
	      gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
	      specified),  only	groups that the	invoking user on the receiving
	      side is a	member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group  is	 set  to the default group of the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The preservation of group	information  will  associate  matching
	      names  by	 default,  but may fall	back to	using the ID number in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full

	      This  option causes rsync	to transfer character and block	device
	      files to the remote system  to  recreate	these  devices.	  This
	      option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is	not run	as the
	      super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super	options).

	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times	along with the
	      files and	update them on the remote system.  Note	that  if  this
	      option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
	      have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used -I, causing all files to be updated (though rsync's	delta-
	      transfer	algorithm will make the	update fairly efficient	if the
	      files haven't actually changed, you're  much  better  off	 using

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when	it is preserving modi-
	      fication times (see --times).  If	NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it	is a good idea to use -O.  This	option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

	      This tells the receiving side to attempt	super-user  activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by	the super-user.	 These
	      activities include: preserving users  via	 the  --owner  option,
	      preserving  all  groups (not just	the current user's groups) via
	      the --groups option,  and	 copying  devices  via	the  --devices
	      option.	This  is useful	for systems that allow such activities
	      without being the	super-user, and	also  for  ensuring  that  you
	      will  get	 errors	 if  the receiving side	isn't being run	as the
	      super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
	      can use --no-super.

	      When  this option	is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activi-
	      ties by saving/restoring the privileged attributes  via  special
	      extended	attributes that	are attached to	each file (as needed).
	      This includes the	file's owner and  group	 (if  it  is  not  the
	      default),	 the  file's  device  info (device & special files are
	      created as empty text files), and	any permission	bits  that  we
	      won't allow to be	set on the real	file (e.g.  the	real file gets
	      u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the  owner's	access
	      (since  the real super-user can always access/change a file, the
	      files we create can always be accessed/changed by	 the  creating
	      user).   This option also	handles	ACLs (if --acls	was specified)
	      and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was	specified).

	      This is a	good way to backup data	without	 using	a  super-user,
	      and to store ACLs	from incompatible systems.

	      The  --fake-super	 option	only affects the side where the	option
	      is used.	To affect the remote side of  a	 remote-shell  connec-
	      tion, specify an rsync path:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --fake-super" /src/ host:/dest/

	      Since  there  is	only  one  "side" in a local copy, this	option
	      affects both the sending and receiving of	files.	You'll need to
	      specify a	copy using "localhost" if you need to avoid this, pos-
	      sibly using the "lsh" shell script (from the support  directory)
	      as a substitute for an actual remote shell (see --rsh).

	      This option is overridden	by both	--super	and --no-super.

	      See  also	 the  "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf

       -S, --sparse
	      Try to handle sparse files efficiently  so  they	take  up  less
	      space on the destination.	 Conflicts with	--inplace because it's
	      not possible to overwrite	data in	a sparse fashion.

	      NOTE: Don't use this option when the destination	is  a  Solaris
	      "tmpfs"  filesystem. It seems to have problems seeking over null
	      regions, and ends	up corrupting the files.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This makes rsync perform a  trial	 run  that  doesn't  make  any
	      changes (and produces mostly the same output as a	real run).  It
	      is most commonly used in	combination  with  the	-v,  --verbose
	      and/or  -i,  --itemize-changes options to	see what an rsync com-
	      mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

	      The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
	      same on a	dry run	and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
	      trickery and system call failures); if it	isn't, that's  a  bug.
	      Other  output should be mostly unchanged,	but may	differ in some
	      areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send	the  actual  data  for
	      file  transfers,	so --progress has no effect, the "bytes	sent",
	      "bytes received",	"literal data",	and "matched data"  statistics
	      are  too	small,	and the	"speedup" value	is equivalent to a run
	      where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With this	option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm	 is  not  used
	      and  the	whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer	may be
	      faster if	this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
	      source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
	      tination are specified as	local paths, but  only	if  no	batch-
	      writing option is	in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
	      recursing.  This does not	limit the user's  ability  to  specify
	      items  to	copy from multiple filesystems,	just rsync's recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and  also	 the  analogous	recursion on the receiving side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that	rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is	repeated, rsync	omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries from	the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an  empty  directory
	      at  each	mount-point it encounters (using the attributes	of the
	      mounted directory	because	those of  the  underlying  mount-point
	      directory	are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been	told to	collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on	another	device
	      is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks	to non-directories are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This tells rsync to skip creating	files (including  directories)
	      that  do	not  exist  yet	on the destination.  If	this option is
	      combined with the	--ignore-existing option,  no  files  will  be
	      updated  (which  can  be	useful if all you want to do is	delete
	      extraneous files).

	      This option is a transfer	rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
	      affect  the  data	 that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
	      doesn't affect deletions.	 It just limits	 the  files  that  the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
	      the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or
	      nothing would get	done).	See also --existing.

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an	exclude, so it doesn't
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn't  affect  deletions.   It	just limits the	files that the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      This option can be useful	for  those  doing  backups  using  the
	      --link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
	      got interrupted.	Since a	--link-dest run	is copied into	a  new
	      directory	 hierarchy  (when it is	used properly),	using --ignore
	      existing will ensure that	the already-handled  files  don't  get
	      tweaked (which avoids a change in	permissions on the hard-linked
	      files).  This does mean that this	option is only looking at  the
	      existing files in	the destination	hierarchy itself.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the	sending	side the files
	      (meaning non-directories)	that are a part	of  the	 transfer  and
	      have been	successfully duplicated	on the receiving side.

	      This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
	      side (ones that aren't on	the sending side), but	only  for  the
	      directories  that	 are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
	      rsync to send the	whole directory	(e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using  a	wildcard  for  the directory's contents	(e.g. "dir/*")
	      since the	wildcard is expanded by	the shell and rsync thus  gets
	      a	 request  to  transfer individual files, not the files'	parent
	      directory.  Files	that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option or	mark the rules as only matching	on  the	 sending  side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the	FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option	would have  no	effect	unless
	      --recursive  was	enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,	deletions will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
	      whose contents are being copied.

	      This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is	a very
	      good idea	to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n)  to
	      see what files are going to be deleted.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any files	at the destination  will  be  automatically  disabled.
	      This  is	to  prevent temporary filesystem failures (such	as NFS
	      errors) on the sending side from causing a massive  deletion  of
	      files  on	 the  destination.   You  can  override	 this with the
	      --ignore-errors option.

	      The  --delete  option  may  be  combined	 with	one   of   the
	      --delete-WHEN    options	  without   conflict,	as   well   as
	      --delete-excluded.   However,  if	 none  of  the	 --delete-WHEN
	      options  are  specified,	rsync  will choose the --delete-during
	      algorithm	 when  talking	to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
	      --delete-before  algorithm  when talking to an older rsync.  See
	      also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  done
	      before the transfer starts.  See --delete	(which is implied) for
	      more details on file-deletion.

	      Deleting before the transfer is helpful  if  the	filesystem  is
	      tight for	space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the transfer possible.   However,	 it  does  introduce  a	 delay
	      before the start of the transfer,	and this delay might cause the
	      transfer to timeout  (if	--timeout  was	specified).   It  also
	      forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
	      that requires rsync to scan all the files	in the	transfer  into
	      memory at	once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during,	--del
	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory	delete
	      scan is done right before	each directory is checked for updates,
	      so it behaves like a more	efficient  --delete-before,  including
	      doing  the  deletions  prior  to	any per-directory filter files
	      being updated.  This option was first  added  in	rsync  version
	      2.6.4.   See  --delete  (which  is  implied) for more details on

	      Request that the file-deletions on the receiving	side  be  com-
	      puted  during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and then
	      removed after the	transfer completes.  This is useful when  com-
	      bined with --delay-updates and/or	--fuzzy, and is	more efficient
	      than using --delete-after	(but  can  behave  differently,	 since
	      --delete-after  computes	the deletions in a separate pass after
	      all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
	      an  internal  buffer,  a	temporary  file	will be	created	on the
	      receiving	side to	hold the names (it is removed while  open,  so
	      you  shouldn't  see it during the	transfer).  If the creation of
	      the temporary file fails,	rsync will try to fall back  to	 using
	      --delete-after  (which  it  cannot do if --recursive is doing an
	      incremental scan).  See --delete (which  is  implied)  for  more
	      details on file-deletion.

	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      after the	transfer has completed.	 This is  useful  if  you  are
	      sending  new per-directory merge files as	a part of the transfer
	      and you want their exclusions to	take  effect  for  the	delete
	      phase  of	the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the
	      old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync  to
	      scan  all	 the  files  in	 the transfer into memory at once (see
	      --recursive).  See --delete (which is implied) for more  details
	      on file-deletion.

	      In addition to deleting the files	on the receiving side that are
	      not on the sending side, this tells rsync	 to  also  delete  any
	      files  on	 the receiving side that are excluded (see --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to	make individual	exclu-
	      sions  behave this way on	the receiver, and for a	way to protect
	      files from --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which  is  implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

	      Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even	when there are
	      I/O errors.

	      This option tells	rsync to delete	a non-empty directory when  it
	      is  to be	replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
	      deletions	are not	active (see --delete for details).

	      Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
	      when  using  --delete-after,  and	 it  used to be	non-functional
	      unless the --recursive option was	also enabled.

	      This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
	      ries.   If that limit is exceeded, a warning is output and rsync
	      exits with an error code of 25 (new for 3.0.0).

	      Also new for version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be
	      warned  about  any  extraneous  files in the destination without
	      removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
	      ited",  so if you	don't know what	version	the client is, you can
	      use the less obvious --max-delete=-1  as	a  backward-compatible
	      way  to  specify that no deletions be allowed (though older ver-
	      sions didn't warn	when the limit was exceeded).

	      This tells rsync to avoid	transferring any file that  is	larger
	      than  the	 specified SIZE. The SIZE value	can be suffixed	with a
	      string to	indicate a size	multiplier, and	may  be	 a  fractional
	      value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      This  option  is	a transfer rule, not an	exclude, so it doesn't
	      affect the data that goes	 into  the  file-lists,	 and  thus  it
	      doesn't  affect  deletions.   It	just limits the	files that the
	      receiver requests	to be transferred.

	      The suffixes are as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB")  is  a  kibibyte
	      (1024),  "M"  (or	 "MiB")	is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or
	      "GiB") is	a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want  the	multi-
	      plier  to	 be  1000  instead  of	1024, use "KB",	"MB", or "GB".
	      (Note: lower-case	is also	accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
	      the suffix ends in either	"+1" or	"-1", the value	will be	offset
	      by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:	  --max-size=1.5mb-1	is    1499999	 bytes,	   and
	      --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

	      This  tells rsync	to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
	      than the specified SIZE, which  can  help	 in  not  transferring
	      small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
	      of SIZE and other	information.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer	 algo-
	      rithm  to	 a  fixed value.  It is	normally selected based	on the
	      size of each file	being updated.	See the	technical  report  for

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This  option  allows  you	 to choose an alternative remote shell
	      program to use for communication between the  local  and	remote
	      copies  of  rsync.  Typically, rsync is configured to use	ssh by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on	a local	network.

	      If this option is	used with [user@]host::module/path,  then  the
	      remote  shell COMMAND will be used to run	an rsync daemon	on the
	      remote host, and all  data  will	be  transmitted	 through  that
	      remote  shell  connection,  rather  than through a direct	socket
	      connection to a running rsync daemon on the  remote  host.   See
	      NECTION" above.

	      Command-line arguments are permitted in  COMMAND	provided  that
	      COMMAND  is  presented  to rsync as a single argument.  You must
	      use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace)	to separate  the  com-
	      mand  and	 args  from each other,	and you	can use	single-	and/or
	      double-quotes to preserve	spaces in an argument (but  not	 back-
	      slashes).	  Note	that  doubling a single-quote inside a single-
	      quoted string gives you a	 single-quote;	likewise  for  double-
	      quotes  (though  you  need to pay	attention to which quotes your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes	rsync is parsing).  Some exam-

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h	%p"'

	      (Note  that  ssh	users  can alternately customize site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment  variable, which accepts the same range of values as

	      See also the --blocking-io option	 which	is  affected  by  this

	      Use  this	 to  specify  what  program is to be run on the	remote
	      machine to start-up rsync.  Often	used when rsync	is not in  the
	      default		 remote-shell's		  path		 (e.g.
	      --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note	that  PROGRAM  is  run
	      with  the	 help of a shell, so it	can be any program, script, or
	      command sequence you'd care to run, so long as it	does not  cor-
	      rupt  the	standard-in & standard-out that	rsync is using to com-

	      One tricky example is to set a different	default	 directory  on
	      the  remote  machine  for	 use  with the --relative option.  For

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This is a	useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of	 files
	      that you often don't want	to transfer between systems. It	uses a
	      similar algorithm	to CVS	to  determine  if  a  file  should  be

	      The  exclude  list is initialized	to exclude the following items
	      (these initial items are marked as perishable -- see the	FILTER
	      RULES section):

		     RCS   SCCS	  CVS	CVS.adm	  RCSLOG  cvslog.*  tags  TAGS
		     .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#*	,* _$* *$ *.old	 *.bak
		     *.BAK  *.orig *.rej .del-*	*.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe
		     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .bzr/

	      then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to  the  list
	      and  any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all
	      cvsignore	names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file	is ignored if it is in the same	directory as a
	      .cvsignore  file and matches one of the patterns listed therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If  you're combining -C with your	own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that	these CVS excludes are appended	at the end of your own
	      rules,  regardless  of  where  the -C was	placed on the command-
	      line.  This makes	them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
	      ified  explicitly.   If  you  want  to  control  where these CVS
	      excludes get inserted into your filter rules,  you  should  omit
	      the  -C as a command-line	option and use a combination of	--fil-
	      ter=:C and  --filter=-C  (either	on  your  command-line	or  by
	      putting  the  ":C"  and  "-C" rules into a filter	file with your
	      other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
	      ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second	option does a one-time
	      import of	the CVS	excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This option allows you to	add rules to selectively exclude  cer-
	      tain  files  from	 the  list of files to be transferred. This is
	      most useful in combination with a	recursive transfer.

	      You may use as many --filter options on the command line as  you
	      like  to	build  up the list of files to exclude.	 If the	filter
	      contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
	      the  rule	 to  rsync  as a single	argument.  The text below also
	      mentions that you	can use	an underscore  to  replace  the	 space
	      that separates a rule from its arg.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two  --filter  rules  to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This tells rsync to look for per-directory  .rsync-filter	 files
	      that  have  been	sprinkled  through the hierarchy and use their
	      rules to filter the files	in the transfer.  If -F	 is  repeated,
	      it is a shorthand	for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This  filters  out  the  .rsync-filter files themselves from the

	      See the FILTER RULES section for	detailed  information  on  how
	      these options work.

	      This  option  is	a  simplified form of the --filter option that
	      defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow  the  full	 rule-
	      parsing syntax of	normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this

	      This option is related to	the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  exclude patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	 and  lines  starting  with  ';'  or  '#'  are
	      ignored.	 If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard

	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      defaults	to  an	include	rule and does not allow	the full rule-
	      parsing syntax of	normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this

	      This option is related to	the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	FILE that contains include patterns  (one  per	line).	 Blank
	      lines  in	 the  file  and	 lines	starting  with	';' or '#' are
	      ignored.	If FILE	is -, the list	will  be  read	from  standard

	      Using  this option allows	you to specify the exact list of files
	      to transfer (as read from	the specified FILE or -	 for  standard
	      input).	It  also  tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make
	      transferring just	the specified files and	directories easier:

	      o	     The --relative (-R) option	is  implied,  which  preserves
		     the  path	information that is specified for each item in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The  --dirs  (-d)	option	is  implied, which will	create
		     directories specified in  the  list  on  the  destination
		     rather  than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs or
		     --no-d if you want	to turn	that off).

	      o	     The --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not	 imply
		     --recursive  (-r),	 so specify it explicitly, if you want

	      o	     These side-effects	change the default state of rsync,  so
		     the  position  of the --files-from	option on the command-
		     line has no bearing on how	other options are parsed (e.g.
		     -a	 works	the same before	or after --files-from, as does
		     --no-R and	all other options).

	      The filenames that are read from the FILE	are  all  relative  to
	      the  source  dir	-- any leading slashes are removed and no ".."
	      references are allowed to	go higher than the  source  dir.   For
	      example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo	/usr remote:/backup

	      If  /tmp/foo  contains  the  string  "bin" (or even "/bin"), the
	      /usr/bin directory will be created as /backup/bin	on the	remote
	      host.   If  it  contains	"bin/"	(note the trailing slash), the
	      immediate	contents of the	directory would	also be	sent  (without
	      needing  to be explicitly	mentioned in the file -- this began in
	      version 2.6.4).  In both cases, if the -r	 option	 was  enabled,
	      that  dir's  entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in
	      mind that	-r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since  it	 is  not implied by -a).  Also note that the effect of
	      the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate  only
	      the  path	 info  that is read from the file -- it	does not force
	      the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In addition, the --files-from file can be	read from  the	remote
	      host instead of the local	host if	you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a	prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the	transfer".  For	example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list	src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This would copy all the files specified in  the  /path/file-list
	      file that	was located on the remote "src"	host.

	      If  the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the
	      --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to  another,
	      the filenames will be translated from the	sending	host's charset
	      to the receiving host's charset.

       -0, --from0
	      This tells rsync that the	rules/filenames	it reads from  a  file
	      are  terminated  by  a  null  ('\0') character, not a NL,	CR, or
	      CR+LF.	 This	 affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
	      --files-from, and	any merged files specified in a	--filter rule.
	      It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names	 read  from  a
	      .cvsignore file are split	on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
	      This  option  sends all filenames	and most options to the	remote
	      rsync without allowing the remote	shell to interpret them.  This
	      means  that  spaces are not split	in names, and any non-wildcard
	      special characters are not translated  (such  as	~,  $,	;,  &,
	      etc.).   Wildcards  are  expanded	 on  the  remote host by rsync
	      (instead of the shell doing it).

	      If you use this option with --iconv, the	args  related  to  the
	      remote side will also be translated from the local to the	remote
	      character-set.  The translation happens  before  wild-cards  are
	      expanded.	 See also the --files-from option.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This  option  instructs  rsync to	use DIR	as a scratch directory
	      when creating temporary copies of	the files transferred  on  the
	      receiving	 side.	 The default behavior is to create each	tempo-
	      rary file	in the same directory as  the  associated  destination

	      This option is most often	used when the receiving	disk partition
	      does not have enough free	space to hold a	copy  of  the  largest
	      file  in	the  transfer.	 In  this  case	(i.e. when the scratch
	      directory	is on a	different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
	      able  to rename each received temporary file over	the top	of the
	      associated destination file,  but	 instead  must	copy  it  into
	      place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over	the top	of the
	      destination file,	which means that  the  destination  file  will
	      contain  truncated data during this copy.	 If this were not done
	      this way (even if	the destination	file were first	 removed,  the
	      data  locally  copied  to	 a  temporary  file in the destination
	      directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if	someone	had it
	      open), and thus there might not be enough	room to	 fit  the  new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
	      of  disk	space,	you  may  wish	to   combine   it   with   the
	      --delay-updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files
	      get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy,	await-
	      ing  the	end of the transfer.  If you don't have	enough room to
	      duplicate	all the	arriving files on the  destination  partition,
	      another way to tell rsync	that you aren't	overly concerned about
	      disk space is to use the --partial-dir option  with  a  relative
	      path; because this tells rsync that it is	OK to stash off	a copy
	      of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
	      will  use	 the  partial-dir  as a	staging	area to	bring over the
	      copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
	      ing  a  --partial-dir  with  an absolute path does not have this

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells	rsync that it should look for a	basis file for
	      any  destination	file  that  is missing.	 The current algorithm
	      looks in the same	directory as the destination file for either a
	      file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
	      larly-named file.	 If found, rsync uses the fuzzy	basis file  to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might	get rid	of any
	      potential	fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

	      This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
	      machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination	 files
	      against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the	desti-
	      nation directory).  If a file is found in	DIR that is  identical
	      to  the  sender's	 file, the file	will NOT be transferred	to the
	      destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a	sparse
	      backup of	just files that	have changed from an earlier backup.

	      Beginning	 in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
	      may be provided, which will cause	rsync to search	 the  list  in
	      the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a	match is found
	      that differs only	in attributes, a local copy is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-

	      If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it	is relative to the destination
	      directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

	      This option behaves like --compare-dest,	but  rsync  will  also
	      copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
	      using a local copy.  This	is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination  while leaving existing files	intact,	and then doing
	      a	flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully	trans-

	      Multiple	--copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
	      cause rsync to search the	list in	the  order  specified  for  an
	      unchanged	 file.	If a match is not found, a basis file from one
	      of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
	      hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The	 files
	      must be identical	in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly	ownership)  in	order  for  the	 files	to  be	linked
	      together.	 An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      If  file's  aren't linking, double-check their attributes.  Also
	      check if some attributes are getting forced outside  of  rsync's
	      control,	such  a	 mount	option	that squishes root to a	single
	      user, or mounts a	removable drive	with generic  ownership	 (such
	      as OS X's	"Ignore	ownership on this volume" option).

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be provided, which will cause rsync to search the	 list  in  the
	      order  specified	for  an	exact match.  If a match is found that
	      differs only in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-

	      This  option  works  best	when copying into an empty destination
	      hierarchy, as rsync treats existing files	as definitive  (so  it
	      never  looks  in	the  link-dest	dirs  when  a destination file
	      already exists), and  as	malleable  (so	it  might  change  the
	      attributes  of  a	 destination file, which affects all the hard-
	      linked versions).

	      Note that	if you combine this option with	--ignore-times,	 rsync
	      will not link any	files together because it only links identical
	      files together as	a substitute for transferring the file,	 never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it	is relative to the destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

	      Note that	rsync versions prior to	2.6.1 had  a  bug  that	 could
	      prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a	non-super-user
	      when -o was specified (or	implied	by -a).	 You  can  work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old	rsync.

       -z, --compress
	      With this	option,	rsync compresses the file data as it  is  sent
	      to  the  destination  machine,  which reduces the	amount of data
	      being transmitted	-- something that is useful over a  slow  con-

	      Note  that  this	option	typically  achieves better compression
	      ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote	 shell
	      or  a  compressing  transport  because it	takes advantage	of the
	      implicit information in the matching data	blocks	that  are  not
	      explicitly sent over the connection.

	      See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf-
	      fixes that will not be compressed.

	      Explicitly set the compression level  to	use  (see  --compress)
	      instead  of  letting it default.	If NUM is non-zero, the	--com-
	      press option is implied.

	      Override the list	of file	suffixes that will not be  compressed.
	      The  LIST	 should	be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
	      separated	by slashes (/).

	      You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file	should
	      be skipped.

	      Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
	      of a list	of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
	      classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are	supported).

	      The  characters  asterisk	(*) and	question-mark (?) have no spe-
	      cial meaning.

	      Here's an	example	that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1  of
	      the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):


	      The default list of suffixes that	will not be compressed is this
	      (several of these	are newly added	for 3.0.0):


	      This list	will be	replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
	      but  one	situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
	      skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
	      list may be configured to	a different default).

	      With  this option	rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
	      rather than using	user and group names and mapping them at  both

	      By  default  rsync will use the username and groupname to	deter-
	      mine what	ownership to give files. The special  uid  0  and  the
	      special  group  0	 are never mapped via user/group names even if
	      the --numeric-ids	option is not specified.

	      If a user	or group has no	name on	the source system or it	has no
	      match  on	 the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
	      source system is used instead.  See also	the  comments  on  the
	      "use  chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
	      on how the chroot	setting	affects	rsync's	ability	to look	up the
	      names of the users and groups and	what you can do	about it.

	      This  option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds.
	      If no data is transferred	for the	specified time then rsync will
	      exit. The	default	is 0, which means no timeout.

	      This option allows you to	set the	amount of time that rsync will
	      wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.   If  the
	      timeout is reached, rsync	exits with an error.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when connect-
	      ing to an	rsync daemon.  The  --address  option  allows  you  to
	      specify  a  specific  IP	address	(or hostname) to bind to.  See
	      also this	option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This specifies an	alternate TCP port number to use  rather  than
	      the  default  of	873.  This is only needed if you are using the
	      double-colon (::)	syntax to connect with an rsync	daemon	(since
	      the  URL	syntax	has a way to specify the port as a part	of the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

	      This option can provide endless fun for people who like to  tune
	      their  systems  to  the  utmost degree. You can set all sorts of
	      socket options which may make  transfers	faster	(or  slower!).
	      Read  the	 man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
	      on some of the options you may be	able to	 set.  By  default  no
	      special  socket options are set. This only affects direct	socket
	      connections to a remote rsync daemon.  This option  also	exists
	      in the --daemon mode section.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  use blocking I/O when launching a	remote
	      shell transport.	If the remote shell is either  rsh  or	remsh,
	      rsync  defaults  to using	blocking I/O, otherwise	it defaults to
	      using non-blocking I/O.  (Note  that  ssh	 prefers  non-blocking

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests	a  simple  itemized list of the	changes	that are being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the  same	 as  specifying	--out-format='%i %n%L'.	 If you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only	if the
	      receiving	 rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with
	      older versions of	rsync, but that	also turns on  the  output  of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The  "%i"	 escape	 has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.
	      The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax,  where	 Y  is
	      replaced	by the type of update being done, X is replaced	by the
	      file-type, and the other letters represent attributes  that  may
	      be output	if they	are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the	Y are as follows:

	      o	     A	< means	that a file is being transferred to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A > means that a file is being transferred	to  the	 local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A	c  means that a	local change/creation is occurring for
		     the item (such as the creation  of	 a  directory  or  the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A	h  means  that the item	is a hard link to another item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A . means that the	item is	not being updated  (though  it
		     might have	attributes that	are being modified).

	      o	     A	* means	that the rest of the itemized-output area con-
		     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

	      The file-types that replace the X	are: f for a file, a d	for  a
	      directory,  an  L	for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The other	letters	in the string above  are  the  actual  letters
	      that  will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
	      being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to  this
	      are:  (1)	 a newly created item replaces each letter with	a "+",
	      (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3)  an
	      unknown attribute	replaces each letter with a "?"	(this can hap-
	      pen when talking to an older rsync).

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter	is as follows:

	      o	     A	c  means  either  that	a regular file has a different
		     checksum (requires	--checksum) or that a symlink, device,
		     or	 special  file	has a changed value.  Note that	if you
		     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this	change
		     flag  will	be present only	for checksum-differing regular

	      o	     A s means the size	of a regular  file  is	different  and
		     will be updated by	the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification	time is	different and is being
		     updated to	the sender's  value  (requires	--times).   An
		     alternate	value  of  T  means that the modification time
		     will be set to the	transfer time, which  happens  when  a
		     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and	when a
		     symlink is	changed	and the	receiver can't set  its	 time.
		     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
		     the s flag	combined with t	instead	of the proper  T  flag
		     for this time-setting failure.)

	      o	     A	p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
		     updated to	the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An	o means	the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --owner and super-user priv-

	      o	     A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
		     the sender's value	(requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o	     The u slot	is reserved for	future use.

	      o	     The a means that the ACL information changed.

	      o	     The x  means  that	 the  extended	attribute  information

	      One  other  output  is  possible:	 when deleting files, the "%i"
	      will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is	 being
	      removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
	      that it logs deletions instead of	outputting them	as  a  verbose

	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync	client outputs
	      to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is	a text	string
	      containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.   A	default	format	of  "%n%L"  is
	      assumed  if  -v is specified (which reports the name of the file
	      and, if the item is a link, where	it points).  For a  full  list
	      of  the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting
	      in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      Specifying the --out-format option will mention each file,  dir,
	      etc. that	gets updated in	a significant way (a transferred file,
	      a	recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).   In	 addi-
	      tion,  if	 the  itemize-changes  escape  (%i) is included	in the
	      string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the log-
	      ging  of	names increases	to mention any item that is changed in
	      any way (as long as the receiving	side is	at least 2.6.4).   See
	      the  --itemize-changes option for	a description of the output of

	      Rsync will output	the out-format string prior to a file's	trans-
	      fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
	      in which case the	logging	is done	 at  the  end  of  the	file's
	      transfer.	 When this late	logging	is in effect and --progress is
	      also specified, rsync will also output  the  name	 of  the  file
	      being  transferred  prior	to its progress	information (followed,
	      of course, by the	out-format output).

	      This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a	 file.
	      This  is	similar	 to the	logging	that a daemon does, but	can be
	      requested	for the	client side and/or the server side of  a  non-
	      daemon transfer.	If specified as	a client option, transfer log-
	      ging will	be enabled with	a default format of  "%i  %n%L".   See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's  a	 example  command that requests	the remote side	to log
	      what is happening:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

	      This is very useful if you need to debug	why  a	connection  is
	      closing unexpectedly.

	      This  allows  you	 to specify exactly what per-update logging is
	      put into the file	specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also  be	specified for this option to have any effect).	If you
	      specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
	      the log file.  For a list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      The default FORMAT used if  --log-file  is  specified  and  this
	      option is	not is '%i %n%L'.

	      This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics	on the
	      file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective	rsync's	delta-
	      transfer algorithm is for	your data.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number  of	 files	is  the	 count	of all "files" (in the
		     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,

	      o	     Number  of	files transferred is the count of normal files
		     that were updated via rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm,
		     which does	not include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

	      o	     Total file	size is	the total sum of all file sizes	in the
		     transfer.	This does not count any	size  for  directories
		     or	 special files,	but does include the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the	total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the	transferred files.

	      o	     Literal  data  is	how much unmatched file-update data we
		     had to send to  the  receiver  for	 it  to	 recreate  the
		     updated files.

	      o	     Matched  data  is	how much data the receiver got locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory size for	the file list due to some  compressing
		     of	duplicated data	when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File  list	 generation time is the	number of seconds that
		     the sender	spent creating the file	list.  This requires a
		     modern  rsync on the sending side for this	to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer	time is	the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list	to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
		     bytes  that  rsync	 received  by the client side from the
		     server side.  "Non-message" bytes	means  that  we	 don't
		     count  the	 bytes	for  a verbose message that the	server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This tells rsync to leave	all high-bit characters	 unescaped  in
	      the  output  instead  of	trying	to test	them to	see if they're
	      valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
	      control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is	to  output  a  literal
	      backslash	 (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
	      its.  For	example, a newline would output	as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash	that is	in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output numbers in	a more human-readable format.  This makes  big
	      numbers output using larger units, with a	K, M, or G suffix.  If
	      this option was specified	once, these  units  are	 K  (1000),  M
	      (1000*1000),  and	G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated,
	      the units	are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

	      By default, rsync	will delete any	partially transferred file  if
	      the  transfer  is	 interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
	      desirable	to keep	partially transferred files. Using the	--par-
	      tial  option  tells  rsync to keep the partial file which	should
	      make a subsequent	transfer of the	rest of	the file much  faster.

	      A	 better	way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
	      to specify a DIR that will be used  to  hold  the	 partial  data
	      (instead	of  writing  it	 out to	the destination	file).	On the
	      next transfer, rsync will	use a file found in this dir  as  data
	      to  speed	 up  the resumption of the transfer and	then delete it
	      after it has served its purpose.

	      Note that	if --whole-file	is specified (or  implied),  any  par-
	      tial-dir	file  that  is	found for a file that is being updated
	      will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending	files  without
	      using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

	      Rsync will create	the DIR	if it is missing (just the last	dir --
	      not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a	relative  path
	      (such  as	 "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync	create
	      the partial-directory in the destination file's  directory  when
	      needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the partial file is

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path,	rsync will add
	      an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files	that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An	 example:  the
	      above  --partial-dir  option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p
	      .rsync-partial/'"	at the end of any other	filter rules.

	      If you are supplying your	own exclude rules, you may need	to add
	      your  own	 exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
	      (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the	 end  of  your
	      other  rules,  or	 (2)  you may wish to override rsync's exclude
	      choice.  For instance, if	you want to make  rsync	 clean-up  any
	      left-over	 partial-dirs  that  may  be  lying around, you	should
	      specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R
	      .rsync-partial/'.	 (Avoid	using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
	      ing unless you don't need	rsync to use any of the	left-over par-
	      tial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT:  the  --partial-dir  should  not be writable by other
	      users or it is a security	risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You can also set the  partial-dir	 value	the  RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
	      environment  variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
	      force --partial to be enabled, but rather	it affects where  par-
	      tial  files  go  when  --partial	is  specified.	 For instance,
	      instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp	along with --progress,
	      you  could  set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
	      and then just use	the -P option  to  turn	 on  the  use  of  the
	      .rsync-tmp  dir  for partial transfers.  The only	times that the
	      --partial	option does not	look for this  environment  value  are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace	conflicts with
	      --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified  (see

	      For  the	purposes  of the daemon-config's "refuse options" set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so	that a
	      refusal  of  the	--partial  option  can be used to disallow the
	      overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,	 while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

	      This  option puts	the temporary file from	each updated file into
	      a	holding	directory until	the end	of the transfer, at which time
	      all  the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By  default the files are	placed into a directory	named ".~tmp~"
	      in each file's destination directory, but	 if  you've  specified
	      the  --partial-dir  option, that directory will be used instead.
	      See the comments in the --partial-dir section for	 a  discussion
	      of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded	from the transfer, and
	      what you can do if you want rsync	to cleanup old	".~tmp~"  dirs
	      that  might  be  lying  around.	Conflicts  with	 --inplace and

	      This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit  per
	      file  transferred)  and  also requires enough free disk space on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.   Note  also  that	you should not use an absolute path to
	      --partial-dir unless (1) there is	no chance of any of the	 files
	      in  the  transfer	 having	 the  same name	(since all the updated
	      files will be put	into a single directory	if the path  is	 abso-
	      lute)  and (2) there are no mount	points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the delayed updates will fail if	they  can't  be	 renamed  into

	      See  also	the "atomic-rsync" perl	script in the "support"	subdir
	      for an update algorithm  that  is	 even  more  atomic  (it  uses
	      --link-dest and a	parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This option tells	the receiving rsync to get rid of empty	direc-
	      tories from the file-list,  including  nested  directories  that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation of a bunch of  useless  directories  when  the  sending
	      rsync  is	 recursively  scanning	a  hierarchy  of  files	 using
	      include/exclude/filter rules.

	      Note that	the use	of transfer  rules,  such  as  the  --min-size
	      option,  does  not affect	what goes into the file	list, and thus
	      does not leave directories empty,	even if	none of	the files in a
	      directory	match the transfer rule.

	      Because the file-list is actually	being pruned, this option also
	      affects what directories get deleted when	a  delete  is  active.
	      However,	keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
	      prevent existing items from being	deleted	due to an exclude both
	      hiding  source  files and	protecting destination files.  See the
	      perishable filter-rule option for	how to avoid this.

	      You can prevent the pruning of certain  empty  directories  from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect"	filter.	 For instance,
	      this option would	ensure that the	directory "emptydir" was  kept
	      in the file-list:

	      --filter 'protect	emptydir/'

	      Here's  an  example  that	 copies	all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
	      only creating the	necessary destination directories to hold  the
	      .pdf  files, and ensures that any	superfluous files and directo-
	      ries in the destination are removed (note	 the  hide  filter  of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */'	src/ dest

	      If  you didn't want to remove superfluous	destination files, the
	      more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'	--exclude='*'"
	      would  work  fine	 in  place of the hide-filter (if that is more
	      natural to you).

	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress	of  the	transfer. This gives a bored user something to
	      watch.  Implies --verbose	if it wasn't already specified.

	      While rsync  is  transferring  a	regular	 file,	it  updates  a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		    782448  63%	 110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In  this example,	the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or
	      63% of the sender's file,	which is being reconstructed at	a rate
	      of  110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer	will finish in
	      4	seconds	if the current rate is maintained until	the end.

	      These statistics can be  misleading  if  rsync's	delta-transfer
	      algorithm	is in use.  For	example, if the	sender's file consists
	      of the basis file	followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will  probably  drop  dramatically when the receiver gets	to the
	      literal data, and	the transfer will probably take	much longer to
	      finish  than  the	 receiver  estimated  as  it was finishing the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When the file transfer finishes,	rsync  replaces	 the  progress
	      line with	a summary line that looks like this:

		   1238099 100%	 146.38kB/s    0:00:08	(xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

	      In  this	example, the file was 1238099 bytes long in total, the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per  second  over	the 8 seconds that it took to complete,	it was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during	the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and	there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see if they are up-to-date or not)  remaining  out  of  the  396
	      total files in the file-list.

       -P     The  -P  option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its pur-
	      pose is to make it much easier to	specify	these two options  for
	      a	long transfer that may be interrupted.

	      This  option  allows  you	 to  provide  a	password in a file for
	      accessing	an rsync daemon.  The file must	not be world readable.
	      It should	contain	just the password as a single line.

	      This  option does	not supply a password to a remote shell	trans-
	      port such	as ssh;	to learn how to	do that,  consult  the	remote
	      shell's  documentation.	When accessing an rsync	daemon using a
	      remote shell as the  transport,  this  option  only  comes  into
	      effect  after the	remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e.
	      if you have also specified a password  in	 the  daemon's	config

	      This  option will	cause the source files to be listed instead of
	      transferred.  This option	is  inferred  if  there	 is  a	single
	      source  arg  and no destination specified, so its	main uses are:
	      (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
	      a	 file-listing  command,	or (2) to be able to specify more than
	      one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
	      tion:  keep  in  mind  that  a  source  arg  with	a wild-card is
	      expanded by the shell into multiple args,	so it is never safe to
	      try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

		  rsync	-av --list-only	foo* dest/

	      Compatibility note:  when	requesting a remote listing  of	 files
	      from  an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
	      an error if you  ask  for	 a  non-recursive  listing.   This  is
	      because  a  file	listing	implies	the --dirs option w/o --recur-
	      sive, and	older rsyncs don't have	that option.   To  avoid  this
	      problem,	either specify the --no-dirs option (if	you don't need
	      to expand	a directory's  content),  or  turn  on	recursion  and
	      exclude the content of subdirectories: -r	--exclude='/*/*'.

	      This  option  allows  you	 to specify a maximum transfer rate in
	      kilobytes	per second. This option	is most	effective  when	 using
	      rsync  with  large  files	(several megabytes and up). Due	to the
	      nature of	rsync transfers, blocks	of  data  are  sent,  then  if
	      rsync  determines	the transfer was too fast, it will wait	before
	      sending the next data block. The result is an  average  transfer
	      rate  equaling the specified limit. A value of zero specifies no

	      Record a file that can later be  applied	to  another  identical
	      destination  with	--read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for
	      details, and also	the --only-write-batch option.

	      Works like --write-batch,	except that no updates are made	on the
	      destination  system  when	 creating  the	batch.	 This lets you
	      transport	the changes to the destination system via  some	 other
	      means and	then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note  that you can feel free to write the	batch directly to some
	      portable media: if this media fills to capacity before  the  end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer	to the
	      destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of  the
	      changes  (as long	as you don't mind a partially updated destina-
	      tion system while	the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note	that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote  system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data	 to be
	      diverted from the	sender into the	batch file without  having  to
	      flow  over the wire to the receiver (when	pulling, the sender is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

	      Apply all	of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously  gen-
	      erated  by  --write-batch.  If FILE is -,	the batch data will be
	      read from	standard input.	 See  the  "BATCH  MODE"  section  for

	      Force  an	older protocol version to be used.  This is useful for
	      creating a batch file that is compatible with an	older  version
	      of  rsync.   For instance, if rsync 2.6.4	is being used with the
	      --write-batch option, but	rsync 2.6.3 is what will  be  used  to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating the batch file to force the older protocol  version  to
	      be  used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync
	      on the reading system).

	      Rsync can	convert	filenames between character  sets  using  this
	      option.	Using a	CONVERT_SPEC of	"." tells rsync	to look	up the
	      default character-set via	the locale setting.  Alternately,  you
	      can  fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a
	      remote   charset	 separated   by	  a   comma   in   the	 order
	      --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE,  e.g.   --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order
	      ensures that the option will stay	the same whether you're	 push-
	      ing   or	 pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can  specify	either
	      --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any  conversion.
	      The  default  setting  of	 this option is	site-specific, and can
	      also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

	      For a list of what charset names your local iconv	 library  sup-
	      ports, you can run "iconv	--list".

	      If you specify the --protect-args	option (-s), rsync will	trans-
	      late the filenames you specify  on  the  command-line  that  are
	      being  sent  to  the  remote  host.   See	 also the --files-from

	      Note that	rsync does not do any conversion of  names  in	filter
	      files  (including	 include/exclude  files).   It is up to	you to
	      ensure that you're specifying matching rules that	can  match  on
	      both sides of the	transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
	      include/exclude rules if there are filename differences  on  the
	      two sides	that need to be	accounted for.

	      When  you	 pass an --iconv option	to an rsync daemon that	allows
	      it, the daemon uses the charset specified	in its "charset"  con-
	      figuration  parameter regardless of the remote charset you actu-
	      ally pass.  Thus,	you may	feel free to specify  just  the	 local
	      charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells  rsync  to	prefer	IPv4/IPv6 when creating	sockets.  This
	      only affects sockets that	rsync has direct control over, such as
	      the  outgoing  socket  when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
	      See also these options in	the --daemon mode section.

	      If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the	--ipv6
	      option  will have	no effect.  The	--version output will tell you
	      if this is the case.

	      Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.	 This 4	byte  checksum
	      seed  is	included  in each block	and file checksum calculation.
	      By default the checksum seed is  generated  by  the  server  and
	      defaults	to  the	current	time() .  This option is used to set a
	      specific checksum	seed, which is useful  for  applications  that
	      want  repeatable	block and file checksums, or in	the case where
	      the user wants a more random checksum seed.  Setting  NUM	 to  0
	      causes rsync to use the default of time()	for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when	starting an rsync daemon are as	follows:

	      This  tells rsync	that it	is to run as a daemon.	The daemon you
	      start running may	be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If  standard input is a socket then rsync	will assume that it is
	      being run	via inetd, otherwise it	will detach from  the  current
	      terminal	and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
	      the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a	client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See	the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon  with  the	 --daemon option.  The --address option	allows
	      you to specify a specific	IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
	      This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
	      --config option.	See also the "address" global  option  in  the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This  option  allows  you	 to specify a maximum transfer rate in
	      kilobytes	per second for the data	the daemon sends.  The	client
	      can still	specify	a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
	      value will be rounded down if they try to	exceed	it.   See  the
	      client version of	this option (above) for	some extra details.

	      This  specifies an alternate config file than the	default.  This
	      is only relevant when --daemon is	 specified.   The  default  is
	      /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf  unless  the daemon is	running	over a
	      remote shell program and the remote user is not the  super-user;
	      in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory
	      (typically $HOME).

	      When running as a	daemon,	this option  instructs	rsync  to  not
	      detach  itself  and become a background process.	This option is
	      required when running as a service on Cygwin, and	 may  also  be
	      useful when rsync	is supervised by a program such	as daemontools
	      or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach	is also	recom-
	      mended  when  rsync is run under a debugger.  This option	has no
	      effect if	rsync is run from inetd	or sshd.

	      This specifies an	alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to
	      listen  on  rather than the default of 873.  See also the	"port"
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

	      This option tells	the rsync daemon to  use  the  given  log-file
	      name instead of using the	"log file" setting in the config file.

	      This option tells	the rsync  daemon  to  use  the	 given	FORMAT
	      string  instead  of using	the "log format" setting in the	config
	      file.  It	also enables "transfer logging"	unless the  string  is
	      empty, in	which case transfer logging is turned off.

	      This  overrides  the  socket  options setting in the rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
	      This option increases the	amount of information the daemon  logs
	      during  its  startup phase.  After the client connects, the dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the	incoming sock-
	      ets  that	 the  rsync daemon will	use to listen for connections.
	      One of these options may be required in older versions of	 Linux
	      to work around an	IPv6 bug in the	kernel (if you see an "address
	      already in use" error when nothing else is using the  port,  try
	      specifying --ipv6	or --ipv4 when starting	the daemon).

	      If  rsync	 was  complied	without	 support  for IPv6, the	--ipv6
	      option will have no effect.  The --version output	will tell  you
	      if this is the case.

       -h, --help
	      When  specified after --daemon, print a short help page describ-
	      ing the options available	for starting an	rsync daemon.

       The filter rules	allow for flexible selection of	which files to	trans-
       fer  (include)  and  which  files  to skip (exclude).  The rules	either
       directly	specify	include/exclude	patterns or  they  specify  a  way  to
       acquire	more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a	file).

       As the list of files/directories	to transfer  is	 built,	 rsync	checks
       each  name  to  be transferred against the list of include/exclude pat-
       terns in	turn, and the first matching pattern is	acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern,	then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then that filename is not skipped; if no	 matching  pattern  is	found,
       then the	filename is not	skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an ordered list of filter	rules as specified on the com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules	have the following syntax:


       You have	your choice of using either  short  or	long  RULE  names,  as
       described below.	 If you	use a short-named rule,	the ','	separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows  (when present) must come after either a single space or an	under-
       score (_).  Here	are the	available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide, H specifies	a pattern for hiding files from	the  transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect,	P  specifies a pattern for protecting files from dele-
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a	file, empty lines are ignored, as  are
       comment lines that start	with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full range of rule parsing as described above --	they  only  allow  the
       specification of	include/exclude	patterns plus a	"!" token to clear the
       list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read	from a	file).
       If  a  pattern  does  not  begin	with "-	" (dash, space)	or "+ "	(plus,
       space), then the	rule will be interpreted as if "+ "  (for  an  include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to	the string.  A
       --filter	option,	on the other hand, must	always contain either a	 short
       or long rule name at the	start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include,	and --exclude options take one
       rule/pattern each. To add multiple ones,	you can	repeat the options  on
       the  command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option, or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns	using the "+",
       "-",  etc.  filter  rules  (as  introduced  in the FILTER RULES section
       above).	The include/exclude rules  each	 specify  a  pattern  that  is
       matched	against	 the  names  of	 the files that	are going to be	trans-
       ferred.	These patterns can take	several	forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is	anchored to a particu-
	      lar  spot	 in  the  hierarchy  of	files, otherwise it is matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is	similar	to a leading ^
	      in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
	      at either	the "root of the transfer" (for	a global rule)	or  in
	      the  merge-file's	 directory  (for  a  per-directory  rule).  An
	      unqualified "foo"	would match a name of "foo"  anywhere  in  the
	      tree  because  the algorithm is applied recursively from the top
	      down; it behaves as if each path component gets a	turn at	 being
	      the  end	of  the	filename.  Even	the unanchored "sub/foo" would
	      match at any point in the	hierarchy  where  a  "foo"  was	 found
	      within  a	 directory  named "sub".  See the section on ANCHORING
	      INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of	how to specify
	      a	pattern	that matches at	the root of the	transfer.

       o      if  the  pattern	ends with a / then it will only	match a	direc-
	      tory, not	a regular file,	symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match	 and  wildcard
	      matching	by checking if the pattern contains one	of these three
	      wildcard characters: '*',	'?', and '[' .

       o      a	'*' matches any	path component,	but it stops at	slashes.

       o      use '**' to match	anything, including slashes.

       o      a	'?' matches any	character except a slash (/).

       o      a	 '['  introduces  a  character	class,	such   as   [a-z]   or

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be	used to	escape a wild-
	      card character, but it is	matched	literally  when	 no  wildcards
	      are present.

       o      if  the  pattern	contains  a / (not counting a trailing /) or a
	      "**", then it is matched against the  full  pathname,  including
	      any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a	/ or a
	      "**", then it is matched only against the	final component	of the
	      filename.	  (Remember  that the algorithm	is applied recursively
	      so "full filename" can actually be any portion of	 a  path  from
	      the starting directory on	down.)

       o      a	 trailing  "dir_name/***" will match both the directory	(as if
	      "dir_name/" had been specified) and everything in	the  directory
	      (as  if  "dir_name/**"  had  been	specified).  This behavior was
	      added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which	is implied  by
       -a),  every subcomponent	of every path is visited from the top down, so
       include/exclude patterns	get applied recursively	to each	subcomponent's
       full  name (e.g.	to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo" and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually	short-
       circuit	the  directory	traversal  stage when rsync finds the files to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent	directory, it can ren-
       der  a deeper include pattern ineffectual because rsync did not descend
       through that excluded section of	the hierarchy.	This  is  particularly
       important  when	using  a  trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't

	      +	/some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      +	/file-is-included
	      -	*

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by  the  '*'
       rule,  so  rsync	 never	visits	any  of	 the  files  in	 the "some" or
       "some/path" directories.	 One solution is to ask	for all	directories in
       the  hierarchy  to  be  included	by using a single rule:	"+ */" (put it
       somewhere   before   the	  "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules for all the parent	dirs that need to be visited.	For  instance,
       this set	of rules works fine:

	      +	/some/
	      +	/some/path/
	      +	/some/path/this-file-is-found
	      +	/file-also-included
	      -	*

       Here are	some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all	names matching *.o

       o      "-  /foo"	 would	exclude	a file (or directory) named foo	in the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at  two
	      levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root	direc-

       o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any	file named  bar	 two  or  more
	      levels  below  a directory named foo in the transfer-root	direc-

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include  all
	      directories  and	C  source files	but nothing else (see also the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+  foo/bar.c",  and	 "-  *"	 would
	      include  only the	foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory
	      must be explicitly included or it	would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+"	or "-":

       o      A	/ specifies that the include/exclude rule  should  be  matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      "-/ /usr/local/etc/passwd" would exclude	the  passwd  file  any
	      time  the	 transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory,
	      and "-/ subdir/foo" would	always exclude "foo" when it is	 in  a
	      dir  named "subdir", even	if "foo" is at the root	of the current

       o      A	! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect	if the
	      pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all

       o      A	C is used to indicate that all the  global  CVS-exclude	 rules
	      should  be  inserted  as	excludes in place of the "-C".	No arg
	      should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the	rule applies  to  the  sending
	      side.   When  a rule affects the sending side, it	prevents files
	      from being transferred.  The default is for  a  rule  to	affect
	      both sides unless	--delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default rules become sender-side only.  See also	the  hide  (H)
	      and  show	(S) rules, which are an	alternate way to specify send-
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the	rule applies to	the  receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it	prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the  protect  (P)	and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A	p indicates that a rule	is  perishable,	 meaning  that	it  is
	      ignored  in  directories	that are being deleted.	 For instance,
	      the -C option's default rules that exclude things	like "CVS" and
	      "*.o" are	marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
	      that was removed on the source from being	deleted	on the	desti-

       You can merge whole files into your filter rules	by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge	(:) filter rule	(as introduced in  the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two kinds of	merged files --	single-instance	('.') and per-
       directory (':').	 A single-instance merge file is read  one  time,  and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.  For per-directory	merge files, rsync will	scan  every  directory
       that  it	 traverses  for	 the named file, merging its contents when the
       file exists into	the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory  rule  files must be created on the	sending	side because it	is the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These  rule files may also need to be transferred to the	receiving side
       if you want them	to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	      merge /usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
	      .	/usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge	.per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	 - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	+ specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 C  is a way to	specify	that the file should be	read in	a CVS-
	      compatible manner.  This turns on	'n', 'w', and  '-',  but  also
	      allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
	      name is provided,	".cvsignore" is	assumed.

       o      A	e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e  .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are	not inherited  by  subdirecto-

       o      A	 w  specifies  that  the  rules	 are  word-split on whitespace
	      instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off  com-
	      ments.   Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule
	      is treated specially, so "- foo +	bar" is	parsed	as  two	 rules
	      (assuming	that prefix-parsing wasn't also	disabled).

       o      You  may	also  specify  any of the modifiers for	the "+"	or "-"
	      rules (above) in order to	have the rules that are	read  in  from
	      the  file	 default  to  having that modifier set.	 For instance,
	      "merge,-/	.excl" would treat the contents	of .excl as  absolute-
	      path  excludes,  while  "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each
	      make all their per-directory rules apply	only  on  the  sending

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the	direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was	 used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed	to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set	of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together	in the spot where the merge-file was specified,	so  it
       is  possible  to	override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read	 from a	per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a	single rule from a dir-merge file  from	 being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file	are relative to	the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo"	would only match the file "foo"	in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter	 file  which  you'd  specify  via  --filter=".

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      -	*.gz
	      dir-merge	.rules
	      +	*.[ch]
	      -	*.o

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the	list and also turns the	".rules" filename into a  per-
       directory  filter  file.	  All  rules read in prior to the start	of the
       directory scan follow the global	anchoring rules	(i.e. a	leading	 slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is	specified with a path that is a	parent
       directory of the	first transfer directory, rsync	will scan all the par-
       ent  dirs  from	that  starting point to	the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is  a	common	filter
       (see -F):

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells	rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all	direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to  the  start  of  the normal directory scan of the file	in the
       directories that	are sent as a part of the  transfer.   (Note:  for  an
       rsync daemon, the root is always	the same as the	module's "path".)

       Some examples of	this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands	above will look	for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and	 its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and	only looks  for	 the  ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part	of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a	".cvsignore" in	your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect where the	--cvs-exclude (-C)  option's  inclusion	 of  the  per-
       directory  .cvsignore  file  gets placed	into your rules	by putting the
       ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would
       add  the	 dir-merge rule	for the	.cvsignore file	at the end of all your
       other rules (giving it a	lower priority than your command-line  rules).
       For example:

	      cat <<EOT	| rsync	-avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      +	foo.o
	      -	*.old
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of	 the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each	one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore	rules in the middle of the list	rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific	rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C	instead	 of  being  subservient	 to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents	of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG-
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"	filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES	section	above).	 The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the	 rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set	of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a	subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the	transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think	of the
       transfer	as a subtree of	names that  are	 being	sent  from  sender  to
       receiver,  the  transfer-root is	where the tree starts to be duplicated
       in the destination directory.  This root	governs	 where	patterns  that
       start with a / match.

       Because	the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing	slash on a source path or changing your	use of the  --relative
       option  affects	the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file	tree is	duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match	two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with	a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note	missing	"me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note	missing	"you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note	full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo	you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz	    (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name	you should filter is to	just  look  at
       the  output  when using --verbose and put a / in	front of the name (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any	files).

       Without a delete	option,	per-directory rules are	only relevant  on  the
       sending	side,  so  you	can feel free to exclude the merge files them-
       selves without affecting	the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier  adds  this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent com-

	      rsync -av	--filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir	/dest
	      rsync -av	--filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you  want
       some  files  to	be excluded from being deleted,	you'll need to be sure
       that the	receiving side knows what files	to exclude.  The  easiest  way
       is  to  include	the  per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
       --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side  gets  all
       the  same  exclude  rules as the	sending	side before it tries to	delete

	      rsync -avF --delete-after	host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand line), or you'll need to maintain  your  own  per-directory	 merge
       files  on  the receiving	side.  An example of the first is this (assume
       that the	remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	  --delete host:src/dir	/dest

       In the above example the	extra.rules file can affect both sides of  the
       transfer,  but  (on  the	sending	side) the rules	are subservient	to the
       rules merged from the .rules files because they	were  specified	 after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In  one	final  example,	the remote side	is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer,	but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically exclude the	per-directory merge files (so that they	 don't
       get  deleted)  and  then	put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete	host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same	set of updates to many identi-
       cal  systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated	on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some	changes	have been made to this source tree and
       those  changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.	In order to do
       this using batch	mode, rsync is run  with  the  write-batch  option  to
       apply  the  changes  made  to the source	tree to	one of the destination
       trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to  store	 in  a
       "batch  file"  all  the	information  needed  to	 repeat	this operation
       against other, identical	destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block	generation more	than once when updating	multi-
       ple destination trees. Multicast	transport protocols  can  be  used  to
       transfer	 the  batch  update  files  in parallel	to many	hosts at once,
       instead of sending the same data	to every host individually.

       To apply	the recorded changes to	another	destination  tree,  run	 rsync
       with the	read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync	updates	the destination	tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For  your  convenience,	a  script file is also created when the	write-
       batch option is used:  it will be named the same	as the batch file with
       ".sh"  appended.	 This script file contains a command-line suitable for
       updating	a destination tree using the associated	batch file. It can  be
       executed	 using	a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing in
       an alternate destination	tree pathname which is then  used  instead  of
       the  original  destination  path.   This	is useful when the destination
       tree path on the	current	host differs from the one used to  create  the
       batch file.


	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $	scp foo* remote:
	      $	ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a /source/dir/	/adest/dir/
	      $	ssh remote rsync --read-batch=-	-a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In   these   examples,	rsync  is  used	 to  update  /adest/dir/  from
       /source/dir/ and	the information	to repeat this operation is stored  in
       "foo" and "".  The	host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data going into the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between  the
       two  examples  reveals some of the flexibility you have in how you deal
       with batches:

       o      The first	example	shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local  --	 you can push or pull data to/from a remote host using
	      either the  remote-shell	syntax	or  rsync  daemon  syntax,  as

       o      The  first  example  uses	 the  created "" file to get the
	      right rsync options when running the read-batch command  on  the
	      remote host.

       o      The  second  example  reads the batch data via standard input so
	      that the batch file doesn't need to  be  copied  to  the	remote
	      machine first.  This example avoids the script because it
	      needed to	use a modified --read-batch option, but	you could edit
	      the  script  file	 if you	wished to make use of it (just be sure
	      that no other option is trying to	use standard  input,  such  as
	      the "--exclude-from=-" option).


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that	it is updating
       to be identical to the destination tree that was	 used  to  create  the
       batch  update fileset.  When a difference between the destination trees
       is encountered the update might be discarded with  a  warning  (if  the
       file  appears  to  be  up-to-date  already)  or	the file-update	may be
       attempted and then, if the file fails to	verify,	the  update  discarded
       with  an	 error.	  This	means that it should be	safe to	re-run a read-
       batch operation if the command got interrupted.	If you wish  to	 force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and date, use the -I option (when reading  the  batch).	 If  an	 error
       occurs,	the  destination  tree will probably be	in a partially updated
       state. In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch)  mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The  rsync  version used	on all destinations must be at least as	new as
       the one used to generate	the batch file.	 Rsync will die	with an	 error
       if  the	protocol  version  in the batch	file is	too new	for the	batch-
       reading rsync to	handle.	 See also the --protocol option	for a  way  to
       have  the  creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will	not work.)

       When  reading  a	 batch	file,  rsync  will  force the value of certain
       options to match	the data in the	batch file if you didn't set  them  to
       the  same as the	batch-writing command.	Other options can (and should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to	 --read-batch,
       --files-from  is	 dropped, and the --filter/--include/--exclude options
       are not needed unless one of the	--delete options is specified.

       The  code  that	creates	 the	file   transforms   any	  fil-
       ter/include/exclude  options  into  a single list that is appended as a
       "here" document to the shell script file.  An  advanced	user  can  use
       this  to	 modify	 the  exclude list if a	change in what gets deleted by
       --delete	is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the  shell  script  as  an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The original batch mode in rsync	was based on "rsync+", but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

       Three  basic  behaviors	are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By default, symbolic links are  not  transferred	 at  all.   A  message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified,	then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.	Note that --archive implies --links.

       If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by  copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       Rsync  can  also	 distinguish  "safe"  and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An
       example where this might	be used	is a web site mirror  that  wishes  to
       ensure  that  the rsync module that is copied does not include symbolic
       links to	/usr/local/etc/passwd in  the  public  section	of  the	 site.
       Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any	links to be copied as the file
       they point to on	the destination.  Using	--safe-links will cause	unsafe
       links  to  be  omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links
       for --safe-links	to have	any effect.)

       Symbolic	links are considered unsafe  if	 they  are  absolute  symlinks
       (start  with  /),  empty,  or if	they contain enough ".." components to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's a	summary	of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list
       is in order of precedence, so if	your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

	      Turn all symlinks	into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
	      other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn  all	unsafe symlinks	into files and duplicate all safe sym-

	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip	all safe  sym-

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate	safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

	      Duplicate	all symlinks.

       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem	a little cryp-
       tic. The	one that seems to cause	the most confusion is  "protocol  ver-
       sion mismatch --	is your	shell clean?".

       This  message is	usually	caused by your startup scripts or remote shell
       facility	producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync  is	 using
       for  its	 transport.  The  way  to diagnose this	problem	is to run your
       remote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If	everything is working correctly	 then  out.dat
       should  be  a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains	some  text  or
       data.  Look  at	the contents and try to	work out what is producing it.
       The most	common cause is	incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
       (such  as  .cshrc  or .profile) that contain output statements for non-
       interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try  specify-
       ing  the	 -vv  option.	At this	level of verbosity rsync will show why
       each individual file is included	or excluded.

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or	usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested	action not supported: an attempt was made  to  manipu-
	      late  64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an
	      option was specified that	is supported by	the client and not  by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

	      The  CVSIGNORE  environment variable supplements any ignore pat-
	      terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more

	      Specify  a  default --iconv setting using	this environment vari-

	      The RSYNC_RSH environment	variable allows	you  to	 override  the
	      default  shell  used  as	the transport for rsync.  Command line
	      options are permitted after the command name, just as in the  -e

	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync client to use a web	proxy when connecting to a rsync  dae-
	      mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

	      Setting  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the required	password allows	you to
	      run authenticated	rsync connections to an	rsync  daemon  without
	      user  intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
	      a	remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to  do	 that,
	      consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The  USER	or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
	      the default username sent	to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is
	      set, the username	defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the	user's default
	      .cvsignore file.

       /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as	*nix time_t values

       When transferring to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may  re-sync  unmodified
       files.  See the comments	on the --modify-window option.

       file  permissions,  devices,  etc.  are transferred as native numerical

       see also	the comments on	the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This man	page is	current	for version 3.0.7 of rsync.

       The options --server and	--sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
       should  never  be  typed	 by  a	user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed	in certain scenarios, such  as
       when  setting  up  a  login  that  can  only run	an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an	 exam-
       ple  script named rrsync	(for restricted	rsync) that can	be used	with a
       restricted ssh login.

       rsync is	distributed under the GNU public license.  See the file	 COPY-
       ING for details.

       A  WEB site is available	at  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may	cover  questions  unanswered  by  this	manual

       The primary ftp site for	rsync is

       We  would  be  delighted	 to  hear  from	 you if	you like this program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly	and Mark Adler.

       Special	thanks	go  out	 to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra,	Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,	 Martin	 Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre,	J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and	David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

       rsync  was  originally  written	by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have	later contributed to it.  It is	 currently  maintained
       by Wayne	Davison.

       Mailing	 lists	 for   support	 and   development  are	 available  at

				  31 Dec 2009			      rsync(1)


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