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rsync(1)							      rsync(1)

NAME
       rsync - faster, flexible	replacement for	rcp

SYNOPSIS
       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC	[DEST]

DESCRIPTION
       rsync is	a program that behaves in much the same	way that rcp does, but
       has many	more options and uses  the  rsync  remote-update  protocol  to
       greatly	speed  up  file	 transfers  when the destination file is being
       updated.

       The rsync remote-update protocol	allows rsync to	transfer just the dif-
       ferences	between	two sets of files across the network connection, using
       an efficient  checksum-search  algorithm	 described  in	the  technical
       report that accompanies this package.

       Some of the additional features of rsync	are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-
	      sions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a	CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS	 would
	      ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or	authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
	      mirroring)

GENERAL
       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current	host  (it  does	 not  support copying files between two	remote
       hosts).

       There are two different ways for	rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
       using  a	 remote-shell program as the transport (such as	ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell	trans-
       port  is	used whenever the source or destination	path contains a	single
       colon (:) separator after a host	specification.	 Contacting  an	 rsync
       daemon  directly	happens	when the source	or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://	 URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this	latter
       rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a	desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format	similar	to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a	remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

SETUP
       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,	 you  can use rsync to any machine that	you can	access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that	you can	access using the rsync
       daemon-mode  protocol).	 For remote transfers, a modern	rsync uses ssh
       for its communications, but it may have been configured to use  a  dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You  can	also specify any remote	shell you like,	either by using	the -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH	environment  variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the	source and destination
       machines.

USAGE
       You use rsync in	the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a	source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best	way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

	      rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the	directory src on the machine foo. If any of the	 files
       already	exist on the remote system then	the rsync remote-update	proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences. See the
       tech report for details.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the machine foo into the	/data/tmp/bar directory	on the local  machine.
       The  files  are	transferred in "archive" mode, which ensures that sym-
       bolic links, devices, attributes,  permissions,	ownerships,  etc.  are
       preserved  in  the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be used to
       reduce the size of data portions	of the transfer.

	      rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A trailing slash	on the source changes this behavior to avoid  creating
       an  additional  directory level at the destination.  You	can think of a
       trailing	/ on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as  opposed  to	"copy  the  directory  by name", but in	both cases the
       attributes of the containing directory are transferred to the  contain-
       ing  directory on the destination.  In other words, each	of the follow-
       ing commands copies the files in	the same way, including	their  setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

	      rsync -av	/src/foo /dest
	      rsync -av	/src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note  also  that	 host  and  module references don't require a trailing
       slash to	copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these	copy the remote	directory's contents into "/dest":

	      rsync -av	host: /dest
	      rsync -av	host::module /dest

       You  can	 also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both	the source and
       destination don't have a	':' in the name. In this case it behaves  like
       an improved copy	command.

       Finally,	 you can list all the (listable) modules available from	a par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

	      rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.

ADVANCED USAGE
       The syntax for requesting multiple files	from a	remote	host  involves
       using quoted spaces in the SRC.	Some examples:

	      rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This  would copy	file1 and file2	into /dest from	an rsync daemon.  Each
       additional arg must include the same "modname/"	prefix	as  the	 first
       one,  and  must	be  preceded  by a single space.  All other spaces are
       assumed to be a part of the filenames.

	      rsync -av	host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest

       This would copy file1 and file2 into /dest using	a remote shell.	  This
       word-splitting  is  done	 by the	remote shell, so if it doesn't work it
       means that the remote shell isn't configured to split its args based on
       whitespace  (a  very  rare  setting,  but not unknown).	If you need to
       transfer	a filename that	contains whitespace,  you'll  need  to	either
       escape  the  whitespace in a way	that the remote	shell will understand,
       or use wildcards	in place of the	spaces.	 Two examples of this are:

	      rsync -av	host:'file\ name\ with\	spaces'	/dest
	      rsync -av	host:file?name?with?spaces /dest

       This latter example assumes that	your shell  passes  through  unmatched
       wildcards.  If it complains about "no match", put the name in quotes.

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON
       It  is  also possible to	use rsync without a remote shell as the	trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to	a remote rsync daemon,
       typically  using	 TCP port 873.	(This obviously	requires the daemon to
       be running on the remote	system,	so refer to the	STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using  rsync  in	 this  way is the same as using	it with	a remote shell
       except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a  single  colon  to
	      separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first	word of	the "path" is actually a module	name.

       o      the remote daemon	may print a message of the day when  you  con-
	      nect.

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
	      of accessible paths on the daemon	will be	shown.

       o      if you specify no	local destination then a listing of the	speci-
	      fied files on the	remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote	module named "src":

	   rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may	require	authentication.	If so,
       you will	receive	a password prompt when you connect. You	can avoid  the
       password	 prompt	 by setting the	environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you	want to	use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:	 On  some  systems  environment	 variables  are	visible	to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is	recommended.

       You may establish the connection	via a web proxy	by setting  the	 envi-
       ronment	variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note	that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA	A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as named	modules) without actually allowing any new socket  connections
       into  a	system	(other	than what is already required to allow remote-
       shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to  a	host  using  a	remote
       shell  and  then	 spawning a single-use "daemon"	server that expects to
       read its	config file in the home	dir of the remote user.	 This  can  be
       useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
       the daemon is started up	fresh by the remote user, you may not be  able
       to  use	features  such as chroot or change the uid used	by the daemon.
       (For another way	to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider	using  ssh  to
       tunnel  a  local	 port to a remote machine and configure	a normal rsync
       daemon on that remote host to only allow	connections from "localhost".)

       From  the user's	perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax	as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon  transfer,  with  the only exception	being that you must explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line	with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.	 (Setting  the	RSYNC_RSH  in the environment will not turn on
       this functionality.)  For example:

	   rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a	different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the  user@  prefix  in  front  of the host is specifying	the rsync-user
       value (for a module that	 requires  user-based  authentication).	  This
       means  that  you	 must give the '-l user' option	to ssh when specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short	version	of the
       --rsh option:

	   rsync -av -e	"ssh -l	ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be
       used to log-in to the "module".

STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS
       In order	to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon	already	running	(or it needs to	have configured	something like
       inetd to	spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).	For  full  information on how to start a daemon	that will han-
       dling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man  page  --
       that  is	 the  config  file  for	 the  daemon, and it contains the full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone	and inetd con-
       figurations).

       If  you're  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer,
       there is	no need	to manually start an rsync daemon.

EXAMPLES
       Here are	some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home	directory, which consists  of  large  MS  Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job	that runs

	      rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection	to a duplicate directory on my machine
       "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following	Makefile  tar-
       gets:

	   get:
		   rsync -avuzb	--exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
	   put:
		   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
	   sync: get put

       this  allows  me	 to  sync with a CVS directory at the other end	of the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of	time as	the remote CVS protocol	isn't very efficient.

       I mirror	a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-
       mand:

       rsync -az -e ssh	--delete ~ftp/pub/samba	nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched	from cron every	few hours.

OPTIONS	SUMMARY
       Here is a short summary of the options available	in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete	description.

	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-q, --quiet		    suppress non-error messages
	    --no-motd		    suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
	-c, --checksum		    skip based on checksum, not	mod-time & size
	-a, --archive		    archive mode; same as -rlptgoD (no -H)
	    --no-OPTION		    turn off an	implied	OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
	-r, --recursive		    recurse into directories
	-R, --relative		    use	relative path names
	    --no-implied-dirs	    don't send implied dirs with --relative
	-b, --backup		    make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
	    --backup-dir=DIR	    make backups into hierarchy	based in DIR
	    --suffix=SUFFIX	    backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
	-u, --update		    skip files that are	newer on the receiver
	    --inplace		    update destination files in-place
	    --append		    append data	onto shorter files
	-d, --dirs		    transfer directories without recursing
	-l, --links		    copy symlinks as symlinks
	-L, --copy-links	    transform symlink into referent file/dir
	    --copy-unsafe-links	    only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
	    --safe-links	    ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
	-k, --copy-dirlinks	    transform symlink to dir into referent dir
	-K, --keep-dirlinks	    treat symlinked dir	on receiver as dir
	-H, --hard-links	    preserve hard links
	-p, --perms		    preserve permissions
	-E, --executability	    preserve executability
	    --chmod=CHMOD	    affect file	and/or directory permissions
	-o, --owner		    preserve owner (super-user only)
	-g, --group		    preserve group
	    --devices		    preserve device files (super-user only)
	    --specials		    preserve special files
	-D			    same as --devices --specials
	-t, --times		    preserve times
	-O, --omit-dir-times	    omit directories when preserving times
	    --super		    receiver attempts super-user activities
	-S, --sparse		    handle sparse files	efficiently
	-n, --dry-run		    show what would have been transferred
	-W, --whole-file	    copy files whole (without rsync algorithm)
	-x, --one-file-system	    don't cross	filesystem boundaries
	-B, --block-size=SIZE	    force a fixed checksum block-size
	-e, --rsh=COMMAND	    specify the	remote shell to	use
	    --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the	rsync to run on	remote machine
	    --existing		    skip creating new files on receiver
	    --ignore-existing	    skip updating files	that exist on receiver
	    --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized	files (non-dir)
	    --del		    an alias for --delete-during
	    --delete		    delete extraneous files from dest dirs
	    --delete-before	    receiver deletes before transfer (default)
	    --delete-during	    receiver deletes during xfer, not before
	    --delete-after	    receiver deletes after transfer, not before
	    --delete-excluded	    also delete	excluded files from dest dirs
	    --ignore-errors	    delete even	if there are I/O errors
	    --force		    force deletion of dirs even	if not empty
	    --max-delete=NUM	    don't delete more than NUM files
	    --max-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file larger than	SIZE
	    --min-size=SIZE	    don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
	    --partial		    keep partially transferred files
	    --partial-dir=DIR	    put	a partially transferred	file into DIR
	    --delay-updates	    put	all updated files into place at	end
	-m, --prune-empty-dirs	    prune empty	directory chains from file-list
	    --numeric-ids	    don't map uid/gid values by	user/group name
	    --timeout=TIME	    set	I/O timeout in seconds
	-I, --ignore-times	    don't skip files that match	size and time
	    --size-only		    skip files that match in size
	    --modify-window=NUM	    compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
	-T, --temp-dir=DIR	    create temporary files in directory	DIR
	-y, --fuzzy		    find similar file for basis	if no dest file
	    --compare-dest=DIR	    also compare received files	relative to DIR
	    --copy-dest=DIR	    ...	and include copies of unchanged	files
	    --link-dest=DIR	    hardlink to	files in DIR when unchanged
	-z, --compress		    compress file data during the transfer
	    --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
	-C, --cvs-exclude	    auto-ignore	files in the same way CVS does
	-f, --filter=RULE	    add	a file-filtering RULE
	-F			    same as --filter='dir-merge	/.rsync-filter'
				    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
	    --exclude=PATTERN	    exclude files matching PATTERN
	    --exclude-from=FILE	    read exclude patterns from FILE
	    --include=PATTERN	    don't exclude files	matching PATTERN
	    --include-from=FILE	    read include patterns from FILE
	    --files-from=FILE	    read list of source-file names from	FILE
	-0, --from0		    all	*from/filter files are delimited by 0s
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind address for outgoing socket to	daemon
	    --port=PORT		    specify double-colon alternate port	number
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	    --blocking-io	    use	blocking I/O for the remote shell
	    --stats		    give some file-transfer stats
	-8, --8-bit-output	    leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
	-h, --human-readable	    output numbers in a	human-readable format
	    --progress		    show progress during transfer
	-P			    same as --partial --progress
	-i, --itemize-changes	    output a change-summary for	all updates
	    --out-format=FORMAT	    output updates using the specified FORMAT
	    --log-file=FILE	    log	what we're doing to the	specified FILE
	    --log-file-format=FMT   log	updates	using the specified FMT
	    --password-file=FILE    read password from FILE
	    --list-only		    list the files instead of copying them
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes	per second
	    --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m	    Stop rsync at year-month-dayThour:minute
	    --time-limit=MINS	    Stop rsync after MINS minutes have elapsed
	    --write-batch=FILE	    write a batched update to FILE
	    --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating	dest
	    --read-batch=FILE	    read a batched update from FILE
	    --protocol=NUM	    force an older protocol version to be used
	    --checksum-seed=NUM	    set	block/file checksum seed (advanced)
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	    --version		    print version number
       (-h) --help		    show this help (see	below for -h comment)

       Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

	    --daemon		    run	as an rsync daemon
	    --address=ADDRESS	    bind to the	specified address
	    --bwlimit=KBPS	    limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes	per second
	    --config=FILE	    specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
	    --no-detach		    do not detach from the parent
	    --port=PORT		    listen on alternate	port number
	    --log-file=FILE	    override the "log file" setting
	    --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
	    --sockopts=OPTIONS	    specify custom TCP options
	-v, --verbose		    increase verbosity
	-4, --ipv4		    prefer IPv4
	-6, --ipv6		    prefer IPv6
	-h, --help		    show this help (if used after --daemon)

OPTIONS
       rsync uses the GNU long options	package.  Many	of  the	 command  line
       options	have  two  variants,  one short	and one	long.  These are shown
       below, separated	by commas. Some	options	only have a long variant.  The
       '='  for	 options  that take a parameter	is optional; whitespace	can be
       used instead.

       --help Print a short help page  describing  the	options	 available  in
	      rsync  and exit.	For backward-compatibility with	older versions
	      of rsync,	the help will also be output if	you use	the -h	option
	      without any other	args.

       --version
	      print the	rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option  increases  the amount of information you are given
	      during the transfer.  By default,	rsync works silently. A	single
	      -v  will	give you information about what	files are being	trans-
	      ferred and a brief summary at the	end. Two -v  flags  will  give
	      you  information	on  what  files	are being skipped and slightly
	      more information at the end. More	than two -v flags should  only
	      be used if you are debugging rsync.

	      Note that	the names of the transferred files that	are output are
	      done using a default --out-format	of  "%n%L",  which  tells  you
	      just  the	 name of the file and, if the item is a	link, where it
	      points.  At the single -v	level of verbosity, this does not men-
	      tion when	a file gets its	attributes changed.  If	you ask	for an
	      itemized list of changed attributes (either --itemize-changes or
	      adding  "%i"  to	the  --out-format setting), the	output (on the
	      client) increases	to mention all items that are changed  in  any
	      way.  See	the --out-format option	for more details.

       -q, --quiet
	      This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
	      during the transfer, notably  suppressing	 information  messages
	      from  the	remote server. This flag is useful when	invoking rsync
	      from cron.

       --no-motd
	      This option affects the information that is output by the	client
	      at the start of a	daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-
	      of-the-day (MOTD)	text, but it also affects the list of  modules
	      that  the	daemon sends in	response to the	"rsync host::" request
	      (due to a	limitation in the rsync	protocol), so omit this	option
	      if you want to request the list of modules from the deamon.

       -I, --ignore-times
	      Normally	rsync  will  skip  any files that are already the same
	      size and have the	same  modification  time-stamp.	  This	option
	      turns  off  this "quick check" behavior, causing all files to be
	      updated.

       --size-only
	      Normally rsync will not transfer any files that are already  the
	      same  size  and  have the	same modification time-stamp. With the
	      --size-only option, files	will not be transferred	if  they  have
	      the  same	 size,	regardless  of	timestamp. This	is useful when
	      starting to use rsync after using	another	mirroring system which
	      may not preserve timestamps exactly.

       --modify-window
	      When  comparing  two  timestamps,	rsync treats the timestamps as
	      being equal if they differ by no	more  than  the	 modify-window
	      value.   This  is	 normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
	      find it useful to	set this to a larger value in some situations.
	      In  particular,  when  transferring to or	from an	MS Windows FAT
	      filesystem (which	represents times with a	2-second  resolution),
	      --modify-window=1	is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1
	      second).

       -c, --checksum
	      This forces the sender to	checksum every regular	file  using  a
	      128-bit MD4 checksum.  It	does this during the initial file-sys-
	      tem scan as it builds the	 list  of  all	available  files.  The
	      receiver	then  checksums	its version of each file (if it	exists
	      and it has the same size	as  its	 sender-side  counterpart)  in
	      order  to	 decide	 which	files  need  to	be updated: files with
	      either a changed size or a changed  checksum  are	 selected  for
	      transfer.	  Since	 this  whole-file checksumming of all files on
	      both sides of the	connection occurs in addition to the automatic
	      checksum verifications that occur	during a file's	transfer, this
	      option can be quite slow.

	      Note that	rsync always verifies that each	transferred  file  was
	      correctly	 reconstructed	on  the	receiving side by checking its
	      whole-file checksum, but that automatic after-the-transfer veri-
	      fication	has nothing to do with this option's before-the-trans-
	      fer "Does	this file need to be updated?" check.

       -a, --archive
	      This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way	of saying  you
	      want  recursion  and want	to preserve almost everything (with -H
	      being a notable omission).  The  only  exception	to  the	 above
	      equivalence  is when --files-from	is specified, in which case -r
	      is not implied.

	      Note that	-a does	not preserve hardlinks,	because	finding	multi-
	      ply-linked  files	is expensive.  You must	separately specify -H.

       --no-OPTION
	      You may turn off one or more implied options  by	prefixing  the
	      option  name with	"no-".	Not all	options	may be prefixed	with a
	      "no-": only options that are  implied  by	 other	options	 (e.g.
	      --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
	      cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file,	--no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
	      You  may	specify	either the short or the	long option name after
	      the "no-"	prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same	as --no-relative).

	      For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
	      (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
	      specify -a --no-o	(or -a --no-owner).

	      The order	of the options is important:  if  you  specify	--no-r
	      -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
	      -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
	      option  are  NOT	positional, as it affects the default state of
	      several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
	      --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
	      This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories	recursively.  See also
	      --dirs (-d).

       -R, --relative
	      Use relative paths. This means that the full path	 names	speci-
	      fied on the command line are sent	to the server rather than just
	      the last parts of	the filenames.	This  is  particularly	useful
	      when  you	want to	send several different directories at the same
	      time. For	example, if you	used this command:

		 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/	on the	remote
	      machine. If instead you used

		 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      then  a  file  named  /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be	created	on the
	      remote machine --	the full path name is preserved.  To limit the
	      amount  of  path	information  that  is  sent, you have a	couple
	      options:	(1) With a modern rsync	on the sending side (beginning
	      with  2.6.7),  you  can insert a dot and a slash into the	source
	      path, like this:

		 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

	      That would create	/tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.	 (Note
	      that  the	dot must be followed by	a slash, so "/foo/." would not
	      be abbreviated.)	(2) For	older rsync versions, you  would  need
	      to  use  a  chdir	 to  limit the source path.  For example, when
	      pushing files:

		 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c	remote:/tmp/)

	      (Note that the parens put	the two	commands into a	sub-shell,  so
	      that  the	 "cd" command doesn't remain in	effect for future com-
	      mands.)  If you're pulling files,	use this idiom (which  doesn't
	      work with	an rsync daemon):

		 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
		     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

       --no-implied-dirs
	      This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of	the --relative
	      option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
	      directories from the source names	are not	included in the	trans-
	      fer.  This means that the	corresponding  path  elements  on  the
	      destination  system  are	left  unchanged	if they	exist, and any
	      missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
	      This even	allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
	      ences, such as being a symlink to	a directory on one side	of the
	      transfer,	and a real directory on	the other side.

	      For  instance,  if a command-line	arg or a files-from entry told
	      rsync to transfer	 the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
	      "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
	      "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
	      receiving	 rsync would ordinarily	delete "path/foo", recreate it
	      as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
	      With    --no-implied-dirs,    the	   receiving   rsync   updates
	      "path/foo/file" using the	existing path  elements,  which	 means
	      that  the	file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
	      to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is	to   use   the
	      --keep-dirlinks  option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks to
	      directories in the rest of the transfer).

	      In  a  similar  but  opposite  scenario,	if  the	 transfer   of
	      "path/foo/file"  is requested and	"path/foo" is a	symlink	on the
	      sending side,  running  without  --no-implied-dirs  would	 cause
	      rsync  to	 transform  "path/foo"	on  the	receiving side into an
	      identical	symlink, and then attempt to transfer "path/foo/file",
	      which  might  fail  if the duplicated symlink did	not point to a
	      directory	on the receiving side.	 Another  way  to  avoid  this
	      sending  of  a  symlink  as  an  implied	directory  is  to  use
	      --copy-unsafe-links, or  --copy-dirlinks	(both  of  which  also
	      affect  symlinks	in  the	 rest  of  the	transfer  -- see their
	      descriptions for full details).

       -b, --backup
	      With this	option,	preexisting destination	files are  renamed  as
	      each  file is transferred	or deleted.  You can control where the
	      backup file goes and what	(if any) suffix	 gets  appended	 using
	      the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

	      Note   that   if	 you   don't  specify  --backup-dir,  (1)  the
	      --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2) if --delete  is
	      also  in	effect	(without  --delete-excluded), rsync will add a
	      "protect"	filter-rule for	the backup suffix to the  end  of  all
	      your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").	This will prevent pre-
	      viously backed-up	files from being deleted.  Note	 that  if  you
	      are  supplying  your  own	filter rules, you may need to manually
	      insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in  the
	      list  so	that  it  has  a  high enough priority to be effective
	      (e.g., if	your rules specify a trailing  inclusion/exclusion  of
	      '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

       --backup-dir=DIR
	      In  combination  with  the  --backup option, this	tells rsync to
	      store all	backups	in the specified directory  on	the  receiving
	      side.   This can be used for incremental backups.	 You can addi-
	      tionally specify a backup	suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
	      erwise  the files	backed up in the specified directory will keep
	      their original filenames).

       --suffix=SUFFIX
	      This option allows you to	override  the  default	backup	suffix
	      used with	the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is	a ~ if
	      no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an	empty  string.

       -u, --update
	      This  forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destina-
	      tion and have a modified time that  is  newer  than  the	source
	      file.   (If an existing destination file has a modify time equal
	      to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes  are  dif-
	      ferent.)

	      In  the current implementation of	--update, a difference of file
	      format between the sender	and receiver is	always	considered  to
	      be important enough for an update, no matter what	date is	on the
	      objects.	In other words,	if the source has  a  directory	 or  a
	      symlink  where  the  destination	has a file, the	transfer would
	      occur regardless of the timestamps.  This	might  change  in  the
	      future  (feel free to comment on this on the mailing list	if you
	      have an opinion).

       --inplace
	      This causes rsync	not to create a	new copy of the	file and  then
	      move  it	into place.  Instead rsync will	overwrite the existing
	      file, meaning that the rsync algorithm can't accomplish the full
	      amount of	network	reduction it might be able to otherwise	(since
	      it does not yet try to sort data	matches).   One	 exception  to
	      this  is if you combine the option with --backup,	since rsync is
	      smart enough to use the backup file as the basis	file  for  the
	      transfer.

	      This  option  is	useful for transfer of large files with	block-
	      based changes or appended	data, and also	on  systems  that  are
	      disk bound, not network bound.

	      The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
	      not delete the  file),  but  conflicts  with  --partial-dir  and
	      --delay-updates.	Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also	incom-
	      patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

	      WARNING: The file's data will be in an inconsistent state	during
	      the transfer (and	possibly afterward if the transfer gets	inter-
	      rupted), so you should not use this option to update files  that
	      are  in  use.   Also  note that rsync will be unable to update a
	      file in-place that is not	writable by the	receiving user.

       --append
	      This causes rsync	to update a file by appending  data  onto  the
	      end  of  the  file,  which  presumes  that the data that already
	      exists on	the receiving side is identical	with the start of  the
	      file  on	the  sending side.  If that is not true, the file will
	      fail the	checksum  test,	 and  the  resend  will	 do  a	normal
	      --inplace	 update	to correct the mismatched data.	 Only files on
	      the receiving side that are shorter than the corresponding  file
	      on  the  sending	side (as well as new files) are	sent.  Implies
	      --inplace, but does  not	conflict  with	--sparse  (though  the
	      --sparse	option	will  be  auto-disabled	 if  a	resend	of the
	      already-existing data is required).

       -d, --dirs
	      Tell the sending	side  to  include  any	directories  that  are
	      encountered.  Unlike --recursive,	a directory's contents are not
	      copied unless the	directory name specified is "."	or ends	with a
	      trailing	slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
	      option or	the --recursive	option,	rsync will skip	 all  directo-
	      ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
	      one).  If	you specify both --dirs	and  --recursive,  --recursive
	      takes precedence.

       -l, --links
	      When  symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the des-
	      tination.

       -L, --copy-links
	      When symlinks are	encountered, the item that they	point to  (the
	      referent)	is copied, rather than the symlink.  In	older versions
	      of rsync,	this option also had the side-effect  of  telling  the
	      receiving	 side to follow	symlinks, such as symlinks to directo-
	      ries.  In	a modern rsync such as this one, you'll	need to	 spec-
	      ify  --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get	this extra behavior.  The only
	      exception	is when	sending	files to an rsync that is too  old  to
	      understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will	still have the
	      side-effect of -K	on that	older receiving	rsync.

       --copy-unsafe-links
	      This tells rsync to copy the referent  of	 symbolic  links  that
	      point  outside  the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks are also
	      treated like ordinary files, and so  are	any  symlinks  in  the
	      source  path itself when --relative is used.  This option	has no
	      additional effect	if --copy-links	was also specified.

       --safe-links
	      This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which  point  out-
	      side  the	 copied	 tree. All absolute symlinks are also ignored.
	      Using this option	in conjunction with --relative may give	 unex-
	      pected results.

       -K, --copy-dirlinks
	      This  option  causes  the	 sending  side to treat	a symlink to a
	      directory	as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
	      you  don't  want	symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
	      they would be using --copy-links.

	      Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a	direc-
	      tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
	      delete anything that is in the way of the	new symlink, including
	      a	 directory  hierarchy  (as  long  as --force or	--delete is in
	      effect).

	      See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the receiv-
	      ing side.

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
	      This  option  causes  the	receiving side to treat	a symlink to a
	      directory	as though it were a real directory,  but  only	if  it
	      matches  a real directory	from the sender.  Without this option,
	      the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with	a real
	      directory.

	      For  example,  suppose  you transfer a directory "foo" that con-
	      tains a file "file", but "foo" is	a symlink to  directory	 "bar"
	      on  the receiver.	 Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes
	      symlink "foo", recreates it as a	directory,  and	 receives  the
	      file into	the new	directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
	      keeps the	symlink	and "file" ends	up in "bar".

	      See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous	option for the sending
	      side.

       -H, --hard-links
	      This  tells  rsync to look for hard-linked files in the transfer
	      and link together	the corresponding files	on the receiving side.
	      Without  this  option,  hard-linked  files  in  the transfer are
	      treated as though	they were separate files.

	      Note that	rsync can only detect hard links if both parts of  the
	      link are in the list of files being sent.

       -p, --perms
	      This  option  causes  the	receiving rsync	to set the destination
	      permissions to be	the same as the	source permissions.  (See also
	      the  --chmod  option for a way to	modify what rsync considers to
	      be the source permissions.)

	      When this	option is off, permissions are set as follows:

	      o	     Existing files (including	updated	 files)	 retain	 their
		     existing  permissions,  though the	--executability	option
		     might change just the execute permission for the file.

	      o	     New files get their "normal" permission bits set  to  the
		     source file's permissions masked with the receiving end's
		     umask setting, and	their special permission bits disabled
		     except  in	the case where a new directory inherits	a set-
		     gid bit from its parent directory.

	      Thus,  when  --perms  and	 --executability  are  both  disabled,
	      rsync's  behavior	 is the	same as	that of	other file-copy	utili-
	      ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

	      In summary: to give destination files (both  old	and  new)  the
	      source permissions, use --perms.	To give	new files the destina-
	      tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing	 files
	      unchanged),  make	 sure  that  the --perms option	is off and use
	      --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all	 non-masked  bits  get
	      enabled).	  If you'd care	to make	this latter behavior easier to
	      type, you	could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
	      line  in	the  file  ~/.popt  (this  defines  the	-s option, and
	      includes --no-g to use the  default  group  of  the  destination
	      dir):

		 rsync alias -s	--no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

	      You  could  then	use  this new option in	a command such as this
	      one:

		 rsync -asv src/ dest/

	      (Caveat: make sure that -a does not follow -s, or	 it  will  re-
	      enable the "--no-*" options.)

	      The  preservation	 of the	destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
	      ated directories when --perms is off was added in	 rsync	2.6.7.
	      Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
	      permission bits for newly-created	files when  --perms  was  off,
	      while  overriding	 the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
	      newly-created directory.	(Keep in mind that it is  the  version
	      of the receiving rsync that affects this behavior.)

       -E, --executability
	      This  option causes rsync	to preserve the	executability (or non-
	      executability) of	regular	files when --perms is not enabled.   A
	      regular  file is considered to be	executable if at least one 'x'
	      is turned	on in its permissions.	When an	 existing  destination
	      file's  executability  differs  from  that  of the corresponding
	      source file, rsync modifies the destination  file's  permissions
	      as follows:

	      o	     To	 make  a  file non-executable, rsync turns off all its
		     'x' permissions.

	      o	     To	make a file executable,	rsync turns on each  'x'  per-
		     mission  that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

	      If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       --chmod
	      This option tells	rsync to apply	one  or	 more  comma-separated
	      "chmod"  strings to the permission of the	files in the transfer.
	      The resulting value is treated as	though it was the  permissions
	      that  the	 sending  side supplied	for the	file, which means that
	      this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
	      --perms is not enabled.

	      In  addition  to	the  normal  parsing  rules  specified	in the
	      chmod(1) manpage,	you can	specify	an item	that should only apply
	      to  a  directory	by prefixing it	with a 'D', or specify an item
	      that should only apply to	a file by prefixing  it	 with  a  'F'.
	      For example:

	      --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

	      It  is  also  legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each
	      additional option	is just	appended to the	 list  of  changes  to
	      make.

	      See  the --perms and --executability options for how the result-
	      ing permission value can be applied to the files in  the	trans-
	      fer.

       -o, --owner
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to set the owner of the destination
	      file to be the same as the source	file, but only if the  receiv-
	      ing  rsync  is being run as the super-user (see also the --super
	      option to	force rsync to attempt super-user activities).	 With-
	      out  this	 option,  the owner is set to the invoking user	on the
	      receiving	side.

	      The preservation of ownership will associate matching  names  by
	      default,	but  may fall back to using the	ID number in some cir-
	      cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full discus-
	      sion).

       -g, --group
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to set the group of the destination
	      file to be the same as the source	file.  If the  receiving  pro-
	      gram  is	not  running  as  the super-user (or if	--no-super was
	      specified), only groups that the invoking	user on	the  receiving
	      side is a	member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
	      group is set to the default group	of the invoking	 user  on  the
	      receiving	side.

	      The  preservation	 of  group information will associate matching
	      names by default,	but may	fall back to using the	ID  number  in
	      some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for	a full
	      discussion).

       --devices
	      This option causes rsync to transfer character and block	device
	      files  to	 the  remote  system  to recreate these	devices.  This
	      option has no effect if the receiving rsync is not  run  as  the
	      super-user and --super is	not specified.

       --specials
	      This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
	      sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
	      This tells rsync to transfer modification	times along  with  the
	      files  and  update them on the remote system.  Note that if this
	      option is	not used, the optimization that	 excludes  files  that
	      have  not	 been  modified	cannot be effective; in	other words, a
	      missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
	      used -I, causing all files to be updated (though the rsync algo-
	      rithm will make the update fairly	efficient if the files haven't
	      actually changed,	you're much better off using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
	      This tells rsync to omit directories when	it is preserving modi-
	      fication times (see --times).  If	NFS is sharing the directories
	      on the receiving side, it	is a good idea to use -O.  This	option
	      is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

       --super
	      This tells the receiving side to attempt	super-user  activities
	      even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by	the super-user.	 These
	      activities include: preserving users  via	 the  --owner  option,
	      preserving  all  groups (not just	the current user's groups) via
	      the --groups option,  and	 copying  devices  via	the  --devices
	      option.	This  is useful	for systems that allow such activities
	      without being the	super-user, and	also  for  ensuring  that  you
	      will get errors if the receiving side isn't being	running	as the
	      super-user.  To turn off super-user activities,  the  super-user
	      can use --no-super.

       -S, --sparse
	      Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
	      space on the destination.	 Conflicts with	--inplace because it's
	      not possible to overwrite	data in	a sparse fashion.

	      NOTE:  Don't  use	 this option when the destination is a Solaris
	      "tmpfs" filesystem. It doesn't seem to handle  seeks  over  null
	      regions correctly	and ends up corrupting the files.

       -n, --dry-run
	      This  tells  rsync to not	do any file transfers, instead it will
	      just report the actions it would have taken.

       -W, --whole-file
	      With this	option the incremental rsync algorithm is not used and
	      the  whole  file	is  sent  as-is	 instead.  The transfer	may be
	      faster if	this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
	      source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
	      disk  (especially	 when  the  "disk"  is	actually  a  networked
	      filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
	      tination are specified as	local paths.

       -x, --one-file-system
	      This tells rsync to avoid	crossing a  filesystem	boundary  when
	      recursing.   This	 does  not limit the user's ability to specify
	      items to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's  recursion
	      through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
	      and also the analogous recursion on the  receiving  side	during
	      deletion.	 Also keep in mind that	rsync treats a "bind" mount to
	      the same device as being on the same filesystem.

	      If this option is	repeated, rsync	omits all mount-point directo-
	      ries  from  the copy.  Otherwise,	it includes an empty directory
	      at each mount-point it encounters	(using the attributes  of  the
	      mounted  directory  because  those of the	underlying mount-point
	      directory	are inaccessible).

	      If rsync has been	told to	collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
	      --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on	another	device
	      is treated like a	mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories  are
	      unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
	      This  tells rsync	to skip	creating files (including directories)
	      that do not exist	yet on the destination.	  If  this  option  is
	      combined	with  the  --ignore-existing  option, no files will be
	      updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is to	delete
	      extraneous files).

       --ignore-existing
	      This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
	      the destination (this does not ignore  existing  directores,  or
	      nothing would get	done).	See also --existing.

       --remove-source-files
	      This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the	sending	side the files
	      (meaning non-directories)	that are a part	of  the	 transfer  and
	      have been	successfully duplicated	on the receiving side.

       --delete
	      This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
	      side (ones that aren't on	the sending side), but	only  for  the
	      directories  that	 are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
	      rsync to send the	whole directory	(e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
	      using  a	wildcard  for  the directory's contents	(e.g. "dir/*")
	      since the	wildcard is expanded by	the shell and rsync thus  gets
	      a	 request  to  transfer individual files, not the files'	parent
	      directory.  Files	that  are  excluded  from  transfer  are  also
	      excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
	      option or	mark the rules as only matching	on  the	 sending  side
	      (see the include/exclude modifiers in the	FILTER RULES section).

	      Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option	would have  no	effect	unless
	      --recursive was in effect.  Beginning with 2.6.7,	deletions will
	      also occur when --dirs (-d) is in	effect,	but only for  directo-
	      ries whose contents are being copied.

	      This  option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is	a very
	      good idea	to run first using the --dry-run option	 (-n)  to  see
	      what  files would	be deleted to make sure	important files	aren't
	      listed.

	      If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
	      any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
	      This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures	(such  as  NFS
	      errors)  on the sending side causing a massive deletion of files
	      on  the  destination.   You   can	  override   this   with   the
	      --ignore-errors option.

	      The   --delete   option	may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
	      --delete-WHEN   options	without	  conflict,   as    well    as
	      --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none	of  the	 --delete-WHEN
	      options  are  specified,	rsync  will   currently	  choose   the
	      --delete-before  algorithm.  A future version may	change this to
	      choose the --delete-during algorithm.  See also  --delete-after.

       --delete-before
	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      before the transfer starts.  This	is the default if --delete  or
	      --delete-excluded	 is specified without one of the --delete-WHEN
	      options.	See --delete (which is implied)	for  more  details  on
	      file-deletion.

	      Deleting	before	the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
	      tight for	space and removing extraneous files would help to make
	      the  transfer  possible.	 However,  it  does  introduce a delay
	      before the start of the transfer,	and this delay might cause the
	      transfer to timeout (if --timeout	was specified).

       --delete-during,	--del
	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      incrementally as the transfer happens.  This is a	faster	method
	      than choosing the	before-	or after-transfer algorithm, but it is
	      only supported beginning with rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete
	      (which is	implied) for more details on file-deletion.

       --delete-after
	      Request  that  the  file-deletions on the	receiving side be done
	      after the	transfer has completed.	 This is  useful  if  you  are
	      sending  new per-directory merge files as	a part of the transfer
	      and you want their exclusions to	take  effect  for  the	delete
	      phase  of	the current transfer.  See --delete (which is implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

       --delete-excluded
	      In addition to deleting the files	on the receiving side that are
	      not  on  the  sending  side, this	tells rsync to also delete any
	      files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
	      See the FILTER RULES section for a way to	make individual	exclu-
	      sions behave this	way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
	      files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
	      for more details on file-deletion.

       --ignore-errors
	      Tells --delete to	go ahead and delete files even when there  are
	      I/O errors.

       --force
	      This  option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it
	      is to be replaced	by a non-directory.  This is only relevant  if
	      deletions	are not	active (see --delete for details).

	      Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
	      when using --delete-after, and  it  used	to  be	non-functional
	      unless the --recursive option was	also enabled.

       --max-delete=NUM
	      This  tells  rsync not to	delete more than NUM files or directo-
	      ries (NUM	must be	non-zero).  This is useful when	mirroring very
	      large trees to prevent disasters.

       --max-size=SIZE
	      This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file	that is	larger
	      than the specified SIZE. The SIZE	value can be suffixed  with  a
	      string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
	      value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

	      The suffixes are as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB")  is  a  kibibyte
	      (1024),  "M"  (or	 "MiB")	is a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or
	      "GiB") is	a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want  the	multi-
	      plier  to	 be  1000  instead  of	1024, use "KB",	"MB", or "GB".
	      (Note: lower-case	is also	accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
	      the suffix ends in either	"+1" or	"-1", the value	will be	offset
	      by one byte in the indicated direction.

	      Examples:	  --max-size=1.5mb-1	is    1499999	 bytes,	   and
	      --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

       --min-size=SIZE
	      This  tells rsync	to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
	      than the specified SIZE, which  can  help	 in  not  transferring
	      small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
	      of SIZE.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
	      This forces the block size used in  the  rsync  algorithm	 to  a
	      fixed  value.  It	is normally selected based on the size of each
	      file being updated.  See the technical report for	details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
	      This option allows you to	choose	an  alternative	 remote	 shell
	      program  to  use	for communication between the local and	remote
	      copies of	rsync. Typically, rsync	is configured to  use  ssh  by
	      default, but you may prefer to use rsh on	a local	network.

	      If  this	option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
	      remote shell COMMAND will	be used	to run an rsync	daemon on  the
	      remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
	      remote shell connection, rather than  through  a	direct	socket
	      connection  to  a	 running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
	      the section "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CON-
	      NECTION" above.

	      Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
	      COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single	 argument.   You  must
	      use  spaces  (not	tabs or	other whitespace) to separate the com-
	      mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-	and/or
	      double-quotes  to	 preserve spaces in an argument	(but not back-
	      slashes).	 Note that doubling a single-quote  inside  a  single-
	      quoted  string  gives  you  a single-quote; likewise for double-
	      quotes (though you need to pay attention to  which  quotes  your
	      shell is parsing and which quotes	rsync is parsing).  Some exam-
	      ples:

		  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
		  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h	%p"'

	      (Note that ssh users  can	 alternately  customize	 site-specific
	      connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

	      You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
	      environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as
	      -e.

	      See  also	 the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this
	      option.

       --rsync-path=PROGRAM
	      Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the	remote
	      machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not	in the
	      default		remote-shell's		 path		 (e.g.
	      --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that	PROGRAM	is run
	      with the help of a shell,	so it can be any program,  script,  or
	      command  sequence	you'd care to run, so long as it does not cor-
	      rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is	using to  com-
	      municate.

	      One  tricky  example  is to set a	different default directory on
	      the remote machine for use  with	the  --relative	 option.   For
	      instance:

		  rsync	-avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" hst:c/d /e/

       -C, --cvs-exclude
	      This  is a useful	shorthand for excluding	a broad	range of files
	      that you often don't want	to transfer between systems.  It  uses
	      the  same	 algorithm that	CVS uses to determine if a file	should
	      be ignored.

	      The exclude list is initialized to:

		     RCS  SCCS	CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG	cvslog.*   tags	  TAGS
		     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$*	*$ *.old *.bak
		     *.BAK *.orig *.rej	.del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so	 *.exe
		     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/

	      then  files  listed  in a	$HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
	      and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment	variable  (all
	      cvsignore	names are delimited by whitespace).

	      Finally, any file	is ignored if it is in the same	directory as a
	      .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
	      Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
	      whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

	      If you're	combining -C with your own --filter rules, you	should
	      note that	these CVS excludes are appended	at the end of your own
	      rules, regardless	of where the -C	was  placed  on	 the  command-
	      line.  This makes	them a lower priority than any rules you spec-
	      ified explicitly.	 If  you  want	to  control  where  these  CVS
	      excludes	get  inserted  into your filter	rules, you should omit
	      the -C as	a command-line option and use a	combination of	--fil-
	      ter=:C  and  --filter=-C	(either	 on  your  command-line	 or by
	      putting the ":C" and "-C"	rules into a  filter  file  with  your
	      other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
	      ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second	option does a one-time
	      import of	the CVS	excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
	      This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
	      tain files from the list of files	to  be	transferred.  This  is
	      most useful in combination with a	recursive transfer.

	      You  may use as many --filter options on the command line	as you
	      like to build up the list	of files to exclude.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this
	      option.

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
	      your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
	      rule:

		 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

	      This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
	      that have	been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use	 their
	      rules  to	 filter	the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
	      it is a shorthand	for this rule:

		 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

	      This filters out the .rsync-filter  files	 themselves  from  the
	      transfer.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES  section for detailed information	on how
	      these options work.

       --exclude=PATTERN
	      This option is a simplified form of  the	--filter  option  that
	      defaults	to  an	exclude	rule and does not allow	the full rule-
	      parsing syntax of	normal filter rules.

	      See the FILTER RULES section for detailed	 information  on  this
	      option.

       --exclude-from=FILE
	      This option is related to	the --exclude option, but it specifies
	      a	FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per	line).	 Blank
	      lines  in	 the  file  and	 lines	starting  with	';' or '#' are
	      ignored.	If FILE	is -, the list	will  be  read	from  standard
	      input.

       --include=PATTERN
	      This  option  is	a  simplified form of the --filter option that
	      defaults to an include rule and does not allow  the  full	 rule-
	      parsing syntax of	normal filter rules.

	      See  the	FILTER	RULES section for detailed information on this
	      option.

       --include-from=FILE
	      This option is related to	the --include option, but it specifies
	      a	 FILE  that  contains  include patterns	(one per line).	 Blank
	      lines in the file	 and  lines  starting  with  ';'  or  '#'  are
	      ignored.	 If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard
	      input.

       --files-from=FILE
	      Using this option	allows you to specify the exact	list of	 files
	      to  transfer  (as	read from the specified	FILE or	- for standard
	      input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
	      transferring just	the specified files and	directories easier:

	      o	     The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
		     the path information that is specified for	each  item  in
		     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
		     that off).

	      o	     The --dirs	(-d) option  is	 implied,  which  will	create
		     directories  specified  in	 the  list  on the destination
		     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use	 --no-dirs  or
		     --no-d if you want	to turn	that off).

	      o	     The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not imply
		     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want
		     it.

	      o	     These  side-effects change	the default state of rsync, so
		     the position of the --files-from option on	 the  command-
		     line has no bearing on how	other options are parsed (e.g.
		     -a	works the same before or after --files-from,  as  does
		     --no-R and	all other options).

	      The  file	 names that are	read from the FILE are all relative to
	      the source dir --	any leading slashes are	removed	 and  no  ".."
	      references  are  allowed	to go higher than the source dir.  For
	      example, take this command:

		 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo	/usr remote:/backup

	      If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even	 "/bin"),  the
	      /usr/bin	directory will be created as /backup/bin on the	remote
	      host.  If	it contains "bin/"  (note  the	trailing  slash),  the
	      immediate	 contents of the directory would also be sent (without
	      needing to be explicitly mentioned in the	file --	this began  in
	      version  2.6.4).	 In  both cases, if the	-r option was enabled,
	      that dir's entire	hierarchy would	also be	transferred  (keep  in
	      mind that	-r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
	      since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
	      the  (enabled by default)	--relative option is to	duplicate only
	      the path info that is read from the file -- it  does  not	 force
	      the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

	      In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the	remote
	      host instead of the local	host if	you specify a "host:" in front
	      of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
	      short-cut, you can specify just a	prefix of ":" to mean "use the
	      remote end of the	transfer".  For	example:

		 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list	src:/ /tmp/copy

	      This  would  copy	all the	files specified	in the /path/file-list
	      file that	was located on the remote "src"	host.

       -0, --from0
	      This tells rsync that the	rules/filenames	it reads from  a  file
	      are  terminated  by  a  null  ('\0') character, not a NL,	CR, or
	      CR+LF.	 This	 affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
	      --files-from, and	any merged files specified in a	--filter rule.
	      It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names	 read  from  a
	      .cvsignore file are split	on whitespace).

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
	      This  option  instructs  rsync to	use DIR	as a scratch directory
	      when creating temporary copies of	the files transferred  on  the
	      receiving	 side.	 The default behavior is to create each	tempo-
	      rary file	in the same directory as  the  associated  destination
	      file.

	      This option is most often	used when the receiving	disk partition
	      does not have enough free	space to hold a	copy  of  the  largest
	      file  in	the  transfer.	 In  this  case	(i.e. when the scratch
	      directory	in on a	different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
	      able  to rename each received temporary file over	the top	of the
	      associated destination file,  but	 instead  must	copy  it  into
	      place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over	the top	of the
	      destination file,	which means that  the  destination  file  will
	      contain  truncated data during this copy.	 If this were not done
	      this way (even if	the destination	file were first	 removed,  the
	      data  locally  copied  to	 a  temporary  file in the destination
	      directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
	      the old file to continue taking up disk space (if	someone	had it
	      open), and thus there might not be enough	room to	 fit  the  new
	      version on the disk at the same time.

	      If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
	      of  disk	space,	you  may  wish	to   combine   it   with   the
	      --delay-updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files
	      get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy,	await-
	      ing  the	end of the transfer.  If you don't have	enough room to
	      duplicate	all the	arriving files on the  destination  partition,
	      another way to tell rsync	that you aren't	overly concerned about
	      disk space is to use the --partial-dir option  with  a  relative
	      path; because this tells rsync that it is	OK to stash off	a copy
	      of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
	      will  use	 the  partial-dir  as a	staging	area to	bring over the
	      copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
	      ing  a  --partial-dir  with  an absolute path does not have this
	      side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
	      This option tells	rsync that it should look for a	basis file for
	      any  destination	file  that  is missing.	 The current algorithm
	      looks in the same	directory as the destination file for either a
	      file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
	      larly-named file.	 If found, rsync uses the fuzzy	basis file  to
	      try to speed up the transfer.

	      Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might	get rid	of any
	      potential	fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
	      specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

       --compare-dest=DIR
	      This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
	      machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination	 files
	      against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the	desti-
	      nation directory).  If a file is found in	DIR that is  identical
	      to  the  sender's	 file, the file	will NOT be transferred	to the
	      destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a	sparse
	      backup of	just files that	have changed from an earlier backup.

	      Beginning	 in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
	      may be provided, which will cause	rsync to search	 the  list  in
	      the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a	match is found
	      that differs only	in attributes, a local copy is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-
	      fer.

	      If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it	is relative to the destination
	      directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

       --copy-dest=DIR
	      This option behaves like --compare-dest,	but  rsync  will  also
	      copy  unchanged  files found in DIR to the destination directory
	      using a local copy.  This	is useful for doing transfers to a new
	      destination  while leaving existing files	intact,	and then doing
	      a	flash-cutover when all files  have  been  successfully	trans-
	      ferred.

	      Multiple	--copy-dest  directories  may  be provided, which will
	      cause rsync to search the	list in	the  order  specified  for  an
	      unchanged	 file.	If a match is not found, a basis file from one
	      of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

       --link-dest=DIR
	      This  option  behaves  like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are
	      hard linked from DIR to the destination  directory.   The	 files
	      must be identical	in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
	      possibly	ownership)  in	order  for  the	 files	to  be	linked
	      together.	 An example:

		rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

	      Beginning	in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
	      be provided, which will cause rsync to search the	 list  in  the
	      order  specified	for  an	exact match.  If a match is found that
	      differs only in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is	made  and  the
	      attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
	      one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the	trans-
	      fer.

	      Note  that if you	combine	this option with --ignore-times, rsync
	      will not link any	files together because it only links identical
	      files  together as a substitute for transferring the file, never
	      as an additional check after the file is updated.

	      If DIR is	a relative path, it is	relative  to  the  destination
	      directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

	      Note  that  rsync	 versions  prior to 2.6.1 had a	bug that could
	      prevent --link-dest from working properly	for  a	non-super-user
	      when  -o	was specified (or implied by -a).  You can work-around
	      this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old	rsync.

       -z, --compress
	      With  this  option, rsync	compresses the file data as it is sent
	      to the destination machine, which	reduces	 the  amount  of  data
	      being  transmitted  -- something that is useful over a slow con-
	      nection.

	      Note that	this  option  typically	 achieves  better  compression
	      ratios  than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
	      or a compressing transport because it  takes  advantage  of  the
	      implicit	information  in	 the matching data blocks that are not
	      explicitly sent over the connection.

       --compress-level=NUM
	      Explicitly set the compression level  to	use  (see  --compress)
	      instead  of  letting it default.	If NUM is non-zero, the	--com-
	      press option is implied.

       --numeric-ids
	      With this	option rsync will transfer numeric group and user  IDs
	      rather  than using user and group	names and mapping them at both
	      ends.

	      By default rsync will use	the username and groupname  to	deter-
	      mine  what  ownership  to	 give files. The special uid 0 and the
	      special group 0 are never	mapped via user/group  names  even  if
	      the --numeric-ids	option is not specified.

	      If a user	or group has no	name on	the source system or it	has no
	      match on the destination system, then the	numeric	 ID  from  the
	      source  system  is  used	instead.  See also the comments	on the
	      "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for  information
	      on how the chroot	setting	affects	rsync's	ability	to look	up the
	      names of the users and groups and	what you can do	about it.

       --timeout=TIMEOUT
	      This option allows you to	set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
	      If no data is transferred	for the	specified time then rsync will
	      exit. The	default	is 0, which means no timeout.

       --address
	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when connect-
	      ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The	--address option allows	you to
	      specify a	specific IP address (or	hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
	      also this	option in the --daemon mode section.

       --port=PORT
	      This  specifies  an alternate TCP	port number to use rather than
	      the default of 873.  This	is only	needed if you  are  using  the
	      double-colon  (::) syntax	to connect with	an rsync daemon	(since
	      the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a	 part  of  the
	      URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

       --sockopts
	      This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
	      their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set	all  sorts  of
	      socket  options  which  may  make	transfers faster (or slower!).
	      Read the man page	for the	setsockopt() system call  for  details
	      on  some	of  the	 options you may be able to set. By default no
	      special socket options are set. This only	affects	direct	socket
	      connections  to  a remote	rsync daemon.  This option also	exists
	      in the --daemon mode section.

       --blocking-io
	      This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a	remote
	      shell  transport.	  If  the remote shell is either rsh or	remsh,
	      rsync defaults to	using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
	      using  non-blocking  I/O.	  (Note	 that ssh prefers non-blocking
	      I/O.)

       -i, --itemize-changes
	      Requests a simple	itemized list of the changes  that  are	 being
	      made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
	      the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you	repeat
	      the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only	if the
	      receiving	rsync is at least version 2.6.7	(you can use -vv  with
	      older  versions  of  rsync, but that also	turns on the output of
	      other verbose messages).

	      The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that	 is  9	letters	 long.
	      The  general  format  is	like  the string YXcstpogz, where Y is
	      replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
	      file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
	      be output	if they	are being modified.

	      The update types that replace the	Y are as follows:

	      o	     A < means that a file is being transferred	to the	remote
		     host (sent).

	      o	     A	>  means that a	file is	being transferred to the local
		     host (received).

	      o	     A c means that a local change/creation is	occurring  for
		     the  item	(such  as  the	creation of a directory	or the
		     changing of a symlink, etc.).

	      o	     A h means that the	item is	a hard link  to	 another  item
		     (requires --hard-links).

	      o	     A	.  means that the item is not being updated (though it
		     might have	attributes that	are being modified).

	      The file-types that replace the X	are: f for a file, a d	for  a
	      directory,  an  L	for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a
	      special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

	      The other	letters	in the string above  are  the  actual  letters
	      that  will be output if the associated attribute for the item is
	      being updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to  this
	      are:  (1)	 a newly created item replaces each letter with	a "+",
	      (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3)  an
	      unknown attribute	replaces each letter with a "?"	(this can hap-
	      pen when talking to an older rsync).

	      The attribute that is associated with each letter	is as follows:

	      o	     A	c means	the checksum of	the file is different and will
		     be	updated	by the file transfer (requires --checksum).

	      o	     A s means the size	of the file is different and  will  be
		     updated by	the file transfer.

	      o	     A t means the modification	time is	different and is being
		     updated to	the sender's  value  (requires	--times).   An
		     alternate	value  of T means that the time	will be	set to
		     the transfer time,	which happens  anytime	a  symlink  is
		     transferred,  or  when  a	file  or device	is transferred
		     without --times.

	      o	     A p means the permissions are  different  and  are	 being
		     updated to	the sender's value (requires --perms).

	      o	     An	o means	the owner is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --owner and super-user priv-
		     ileges).

	      o	     A	g means	the group is different and is being updated to
		     the sender's value	(requires --group and the authority to
		     set the group).

	      o	     The z slot	is reserved for	future use.

	      One  other  output  is  possible:	 when deleting files, the "%i"
	      will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is	 being
	      removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
	      that it logs deletions instead of	outputting them	as  a  verbose
	      message).

       --out-format=FORMAT
	      This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync	client outputs
	      to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is	a text	string
	      containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
	      with a percent (%) character.  For a list	of the possible	escape
	      characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf man-
	      page.

	      Specifying this option will mention each file,  dir,  etc.  that
	      gets  updated in a significant way (a transferred	file, a	recre-
	      ated symlink/device, or a	touched	directory).  In	 addition,  if
	      the  itemize-changes  escape (%i)	is included in the string, the
	      logging of names increases to mention any	item that  is  changed
	      in  any  way  (as	long as	the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).
	      See the --itemize-changes	option for a description of the	output
	      of "%i".

	      The --verbose option implies a format of "%n%L", but you can use
	      --out-format without --verbose if	you like, or you can  override
	      the format of its	per-file output	using this option.

	      Rsync will output	the out-format string prior to a file's	trans-
	      fer unless one of	the transfer-statistic escapes	is  requested,
	      in  which	 case  the  logging  is	 done at the end of the	file's
	      transfer.	 When this late	logging	is in effect and --progress is
	      also  specified,	rsync  will  also  output the name of the file
	      being transferred	prior to its progress  information  (followed,
	      of course, by the	out-format output).

       --log-file=FILE
	      This  option  causes  rsync  to  log what	it is doing to a file.
	      This is similar to the logging that a daemon does,  but  can  be
	      requested	 for  the client side and/or the server	side of	a non-
	      daemon transfer.	If specified as	a client option, transfer log-
	      ging  will  be  enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
	      the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

	      Here's a example command that requests the remote	 side  to  log
	      what is happening:

		rsync -av --rsync-path="rsync --log-file=/tmp/rlog" src/ dest/

	      This  is	very  useful  if you need to debug why a connection is
	      closing unexpectedly.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
	      This allows you to specify exactly what  per-update  logging  is
	      put into the file	specified by the --log-file option (which must
	      also be specified	for this option	to have	any effect).   If  you
	      specify  an empty	string,	updated	files will not be mentioned in
	      the log file.  For a list	of the possible	escape characters, see
	      the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --stats
	      This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics	on the
	      file transfer, allowing you to  tell  how	 effective  the	 rsync
	      algorithm	is for your data.

	      The current statistics are as follows:

	      o	     Number  of	 files	is  the	 count	of all "files" (in the
		     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
		     etc.

	      o	     Number  of	files transferred is the count of normal files
		     that were updated via the rsync algorithm,	which does not
		     include created dirs, symlinks, etc.

	      o	     Total file	size is	the total sum of all file sizes	in the
		     transfer.	This does not count any	size  for  directories
		     or	 special files,	but does include the size of symlinks.

	      o	     Total transferred file size is the	total sum of all files
		     sizes for just the	transferred files.

	      o	     Literal  data  is	how much unmatched file-update data we
		     had to send to  the  receiver  for	 it  to	 recreate  the
		     updated files.

	      o	     Matched  data  is	how much data the receiver got locally
		     when recreating the updated files.

	      o	     File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
		     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
		     in-memory size for	the file list due to some  compressing
		     of	duplicated data	when rsync sends the list.

	      o	     File  list	 generation time is the	number of seconds that
		     the sender	spent creating the file	list.  This requires a
		     modern  rsync on the sending side for this	to be present.

	      o	     File list transfer	time is	the number of seconds that the
		     sender spent sending the file list	to the receiver.

	      o	     Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
		     sent from the client side to the server side.

	      o	     Total bytes received is  the  count  of  all  non-message
		     bytes  that  rsync	 received  by the client side from the
		     server side.  "Non-message" bytes	means  that  we	 don't
		     count  the	 bytes	for  a verbose message that the	server
		     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
	      This tells rsync to leave	all high-bit characters	 unescaped  in
	      the  output  instead  of	trying	to test	them to	see if they're
	      valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.   All
	      control  characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regard-
	      less of this option's setting.

	      The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is	to  output  a  literal
	      backslash	 (\)  and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal dig-
	      its.  For	example, a newline would output	as "\#012".  A literal
	      backslash	that is	in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
	      lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
	      Output numbers in	a more human-readable format.  This makes  big
	      numbers output using larger units, with a	K, M, or G suffix.  If
	      this option was specified	once, these  units  are	 K  (1000),  M
	      (1000*1000),  and	G (1000*1000*1000); if the option is repeated,
	      the units	are powers of 1024 instead of 1000.

       --partial
	      By default, rsync	will delete any	partially transferred file  if
	      the  transfer  is	 interrupted. In some circumstances it is more
	      desirable	to keep	partially transferred files. Using the	--par-
	      tial  option  tells  rsync to keep the partial file which	should
	      make a subsequent	transfer of the	rest of	the file much  faster.

       --partial-dir=DIR
	      A	 better	way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
	      to specify a DIR that will be used  to  hold  the	 partial  data
	      (instead	of  writing  it	 out to	the destination	file).	On the
	      next transfer, rsync will	use a file found in this dir  as  data
	      to  speed	 up  the resumption of the transfer and	then delete it
	      after it has served its purpose.

	      Note that	if --whole-file	is specified (or  implied),  any  par-
	      tial-dir	file  that  is	found for a file that is being updated
	      will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending	files  without
	      using the	incremental rsync algorithm).

	      Rsync will create	the DIR	if it is missing (just the last	dir --
	      not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a	relative  path
	      (such  as	 "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync	create
	      the partial-directory in the destination file's  directory  when
	      needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the partial file is
	      deleted.

	      If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path,	rsync will add
	      an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
	      will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files	that may exist
	      on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
	      of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An	 example:  the
	      above   --partial-dir   option   would  add  the	equivalent  of
	      "--exclude=.rsync-partial/" at  the  end	of  any	 other	filter
	      rules.

	      If you are supplying your	own exclude rules, you may need	to add
	      your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the  partial-dir  because
	      (1)  the	auto-added  rule may be	ineffective at the end of your
	      other rules, or (2) you may wish	to  override  rsync's  exclude
	      choice.	For  instance,	if you want to make rsync clean-up any
	      left-over	partial-dirs that may  be  lying  around,  you	should
	      specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.	 -f 'R
	      .rsync-partial/'.	 (Avoid	using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
	      ing unless you don't need	rsync to use any of the	left-over par-
	      tial-dir data during the current run.)

	      IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not  be  writable  by	 other
	      users or it is a security	risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

	      You  can	also  set  the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
	      environment variable.  Setting this in the environment does  not
	      force  --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where par-
	      tial files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.	For  instance,
	      instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp	along with --progress,
	      you could	set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in  your  environment
	      and  then	 just  use  the	 -P  option  to	turn on	the use	of the
	      .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times  that  the
	      --partial	 option	 does  not look	for this environment value are
	      (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace	conflicts with
	      --partial-dir),  and (2) when --delay-updates was	specified (see
	      below).

	      For the purposes of the daemon-config's  "refuse	options"  set-
	      ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so	that a
	      refusal of the --partial option can  be  used  to	 disallow  the
	      overwriting  of destination files	with a partial transfer, while
	      still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

       --delay-updates
	      This option puts the temporary file from each updated file  into
	      a	holding	directory until	the end	of the transfer, at which time
	      all the files are	renamed	into place in rapid succession.	  This
	      attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
	      By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"
	      in  each	file's	destination directory, but if you've specified
	      the --partial-dir	option,	that directory will be	used  instead.
	      See  the	comments in the	--partial-dir section for a discussion
	      of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded	from the transfer, and
	      what  you	 can do	if you wnat rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs
	      that might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with	--inplace  and
	      --append.

	      This  option uses	more memory on the receiving side (one bit per
	      file transferred)	and also requires enough free  disk  space  on
	      the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
	      files.  Note also	that you should	not use	an  absolute  path  to
	      --partial-dir  unless (1)	there is no chance of any of the files
	      in the transfer having the same  name  (since  all  the  updated
	      files  will  be put into a single	directory if the path is abso-
	      lute) and	(2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy	(since
	      the  delayed  updates  will  fail	 if they can't be renamed into
	      place).

	      See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support"	subdir
	      for  an  update  algorithm  that	is  even  more atomic (it uses
	      --link-dest and a	parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
	      This option tells	the receiving rsync to get rid of empty	direc-
	      tories  from  the	 file-list,  including nested directories that
	      have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
	      creation	of  a  bunch  of  useless directories when the sending
	      rsync  is	 recursively  scanning	a  hierarchy  of  files	 using
	      include/exclude/filter rules.

	      Because the file-list is actually	being pruned, this option also
	      affects what directories get deleted when	a  delete  is  active.
	      However,	keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
	      prevent existing items from being	deleted	 (because  an  exclude
	      hides source files and protects destination files).

	      You  can	prevent	 the pruning of	certain	empty directories from
	      the file-list by using a global "protect"	filter.	 For instance,
	      this  option would ensure	that the directory "emptydir" was kept
	      in the file-list:

	      --filter 'protect	emptydir/'

	      Here's an	example	that copies all	.pdf  files  in	 a  hierarchy,
	      only  creating the necessary destination directories to hold the
	      .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and  directo-
	      ries  in	the  destination  are removed (note the	hide filter of
	      non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

	      rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */'	src/ dest

	      If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files,  the
	      more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'	--exclude='*'"
	      would work fine in place of the hide-filter  (if	that  is  more
	      natural to you).

       --progress
	      This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
	      progress of the transfer.	This gives a bored user	 something  to
	      watch.  Implies --verbose	if it wasn't already specified.

	      While  rsync  is	transferring  a	 regular  file,	 it  updates a
	      progress line that looks like this:

		    782448  63%	 110.64kB/s    0:00:04

	      In this example, the receiver has	reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
	      63% of the sender's file,	which is being reconstructed at	a rate
	      of 110.64	kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
	      4	seconds	if the current rate is maintained until	the end.

	      These  statistics	 can be	misleading if the incremental transfer
	      algorithm	is in use.  For	example, if the	sender's file consists
	      of the basis file	followed by additional data, the reported rate
	      will probably drop dramatically when the receiver	 gets  to  the
	      literal data, and	the transfer will probably take	much longer to
	      finish than the receiver	estimated  as  it  was	finishing  the
	      matched part of the file.

	      When  the	 file  transfer	 finishes, rsync replaces the progress
	      line with	a summary line that looks like this:

		   1238099 100%	 146.38kB/s    0:00:08	(xfer#5, to-check=169/396)

	      In this example, the file	was 1238099 bytes long in  total,  the
	      average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
	      per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
	      the 5th transfer of a regular file during	the current rsync ses-
	      sion, and	there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
	      see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining	out of the 396
	      total files in the file-list.

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.   Its  pur-
	      pose  is to make it much easier to specify these two options for
	      a	long transfer that may be interrupted.

       --password-file
	      This option allows you to	provide	 a  password  in  a  file  for
	      accessing	 a  remote rsync daemon. Note that this	option is only
	      useful when accessing an rsync daemon using the built in	trans-
	      port,  not  when using a remote shell as the transport. The file
	      must not be world	readable. It should contain just the  password
	      as a single line.

       --list-only
	      This  option will	cause the source files to be listed instead of
	      transferred.  This option	is  inferred  if  there	 is  a	single
	      source  arg  and no destination specified, so its	main uses are:
	      (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg  into
	      a	 file-listing command, (2) to be able to specify more than one
	      local source arg (note: be sure to include the destination),  or
	      (3)  to  avoid  the  automatically  added	 "-r --exclude='/*/*'"
	      options that rsync usually uses as a  compatibility  kluge  when
	      generating  a non-recursive listing.  Caution: keep in mind that
	      a	source arg with	a wild-card is expanded	by the shell into mul-
	      tiple args, so it	is never safe to try to	list such an arg with-
	      out using	this option.  For example:

		  rsync	-av --list-only	foo* dest/

       --bwlimit=KBPS
	      This option allows you to	specify	a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
	      kilobytes	 per  second. This option is most effective when using
	      rsync with large files (several megabytes	and up).  Due  to  the
	      nature  of  rsync	 transfers,  blocks  of	data are sent, then if
	      rsync determines the transfer was	too fast, it will wait	before
	      sending  the  next data block. The result	is an average transfer
	      rate equaling the	specified limit. A value of zero specifies  no
	      limit.

       --stop-at=y-m-dTh:m
	      This option allows you to	specify	at what	time to	stop rsync, in
	      year-month-dayThour:minute      numeric	    format	 (e.g.
	      2004-12-31T23:59).   You	can  specify a 2 or 4-digit year.  You
	      can also leave off various items and the result will be the next
	      possible	time  that  matches  the specified data.  For example,
	      "1-30" specifies the next	January	30th  (at  midnight),  "04:00"
	      specifies	 the next 4am, "1" specifies the next 1st of the month
	      at midnight, and ":59" specifies the next	59th minute after  the
	      hour.   If  you  prefer, you may separate	the date numbers using
	      slashes instead of dashes.

       --time-limit=MINS
	      This option allows you to	specify	the maximum number of  minutes
	      rsync will run for.

       --write-batch=FILE
	      Record  a	 file  that  can later be applied to another identical
	      destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
	      details, and also	the --only-write-batch option.

       --only-write-batch=FILE
	      Works like --write-batch,	except that no updates are made	on the
	      destination system when  creating	 the  batch.   This  lets  you
	      transport	 the  changes to the destination system	via some other
	      means and	then apply the changes via --read-batch.

	      Note that	you can	feel free to write the batch directly to  some
	      portable	media:	if this	media fills to capacity	before the end
	      of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer	to the
	      destination  and repeat the whole	process	to get the rest	of the
	      changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
	      tion system while	the multi-update cycle is happening).

	      Also note	that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
	      remote system  because  this  allows  the	 batched  data	to  be
	      diverted	from  the sender into the batch	file without having to
	      flow over	the wire to the	receiver (when pulling,	the sender  is
	      remote, and thus can't write the batch).

       --read-batch=FILE
	      Apply  all of the	changes	stored in FILE,	a file previously gen-
	      erated by	--write-batch.	If FILE	is -, the batch	data  will  be
	      read  from  standard  input.   See  the "BATCH MODE" section for
	      details.

       --protocol=NUM
	      Force an older protocol version to be used.  This	is useful  for
	      creating	a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
	      of rsync.	 For instance, if rsync	2.6.4 is being used  with  the
	      --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
	      run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
	      creating	the  batch file	to force the older protocol version to
	      be used in the batch file	(assuming you can't upgrade the	 rsync
	      on the reading system).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells  rsync  to	prefer	IPv4/IPv6 when creating	sockets.  This
	      only affects sockets that	rsync has direct control over, such as
	      the  outgoing  socket  when directly contacting an rsync daemon.
	      See also these options in	the --daemon mode section.

       --checksum-seed=NUM
	      Set the MD4 checksum seed	to  the	 integer  NUM.	 This  4  byte
	      checksum	seed  is  included in each block and file MD4 checksum
	      calculation.  By default the checksum seed is generated  by  the
	      server and defaults to the current time()	.  This	option is used
	      to set a specific	checksum seed, which is	 useful	 for  applica-
	      tions  that  want	repeatable block and file checksums, or	in the
	      case where the user wants	a more	random	checksum  seed.	  Note
	      that  setting NUM	to 0 causes rsync to use the default of	time()
	      for checksum seed.

DAEMON OPTIONS
       The options allowed when	starting an rsync daemon are as	follows:

       --daemon
	      This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon  you
	      start  running  may  be accessed using an	rsync client using the
	      host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

	      If standard input	is a socket then rsync will assume that	it  is
	      being  run  via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current
	      terminal and become a background daemon.	The daemon  will  read
	      the  config  file	(rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a	client
	      and respond to requests accordingly.  See	the rsyncd.conf(5) man
	      page for more details.

       --address
	      By default rsync will bind to the	wildcard address when run as a
	      daemon with the --daemon option.	The  --address	option	allows
	      you  to  specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to.
	      This makes virtual hosting  possible  in	conjunction  with  the
	      --config	option.	  See  also the	"address" global option	in the
	      rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --bwlimit=KBPS
	      This option allows you to	specify	a  maximum  transfer  rate  in
	      kilobytes	 per second for	the data the daemon sends.  The	client
	      can still	specify	a smaller --bwlimit value, but their requested
	      value  will  be  rounded down if they try	to exceed it.  See the
	      client version of	this option (above) for	some extra details.

       --config=FILE
	      This specifies an	alternate config file than the default.	  This
	      is  only	relevant  when	--daemon is specified.	The default is
	      /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf unless	the daemon is running  over  a
	      remote  shell program and	the remote user	is not the super-user;
	      in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory
	      (typically $HOME).

       --no-detach
	      When  running  as	 a  daemon, this option	instructs rsync	to not
	      detach itself and	become a background process.  This  option  is
	      required	when  running  as a service on Cygwin, and may also be
	      useful when rsync	is supervised by a program such	as daemontools
	      or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach	is also	recom-
	      mended when rsync	is run under a debugger.  This option  has  no
	      effect if	rsync is run from inetd	or sshd.

       --port=PORT
	      This  specifies  an  alternate TCP port number for the daemon to
	      listen on	rather than the	default	of 873.	 See also  the	"port"
	      global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --log-file=FILE
	      This  option  tells  the	rsync daemon to	use the	given log-file
	      name instead of using the	"log file" setting in the config file.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
	      This  option  tells  the	rsync  daemon  to use the given	FORMAT
	      string instead of	using the "log format" setting in  the	config
	      file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
	      empty, in	which case transfer logging is turned off.

       --sockopts
	      This overrides the socket	options	 setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
	      file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
	      This  option increases the amount	of information the daemon logs
	      during its startup phase.	 After the client connects,  the  dae-
	      mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
	      client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
	      fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
	      Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the	incoming sock-
	      ets that the rsync daemon	will use to  listen  for  connections.
	      One  of these options may	be required in older versions of Linux
	      to work around an	IPv6 bug in the	kernel (if you see an "address
	      already  in  use"	error when nothing else	is using the port, try
	      specifying --ipv6	or --ipv4 when starting	the daemon).

       -h, --help
	      When specified after --daemon, print a short help	page  describ-
	      ing the options available	for starting an	rsync daemon.

FILTER RULES
       The  filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to	trans-
       fer (include) and which files to	 skip  (exclude).   The	 rules	either
       directly	 specify  include/exclude  patterns  or	 they specify a	way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them	from a	file).

       As  the	list  of  files/directories to transfer	is built, rsync	checks
       each name to be transferred against the list  of	 include/exclude  pat-
       terns in	turn, and the first matching pattern is	acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern,	then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then  that  filename  is	 not skipped; if no matching pattern is	found,
       then the	filename is not	skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified on  the  com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules	have the following syntax:

	      RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
	      RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]

       You  have  your	choice	of  using  either short	or long	RULE names, as
       described below.	 If you	use a short-named rule,	the ','	separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows (when present) must	come after either a single space or an	under-
       score (_).  Here	are the	available rule prefixes:

	      exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
	      include, + specifies an include pattern.
	      merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
	      dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
	      hide,  H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
	      show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
	      protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files  from	 dele-
	      tion.
	      risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
	      clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored,	as are
       comment lines that start	with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of	rule parsing as	described above	-- they	only allow the
       specification of	include/exclude	patterns plus a	"!" token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules	are read from a	file).
       If a pattern does not begin with	"- " (dash,  space)  or	 "+  "	(plus,
       space),	then  the  rule	will be	interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to	the string.  A
       --filter	 option, on the	other hand, must always	contain	either a short
       or long rule name at the	start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat	the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

INCLUDE/EXCLUDE	PATTERN	RULES
       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns	using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter	rules (as  introduced  in  the	FILTER	RULES  section
       above).	 The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the	files that  are	 going	to  be	trans-
       ferred.	These patterns can take	several	forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is	anchored to a particu-
	      lar spot in the hierarchy	of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
	      against the end of the pathname.	This is	similar	to a leading ^
	      in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match	a  file	 named
	      "foo"  at	 either	the "root of the transfer" (for	a global rule)
	      or in the	merge-file's directory (for a per-directory rule).  An
	      unqualified  "foo" would match any file or directory named "foo"
	      anywhere in the tree because the	algorithm  is  applied	recur-
	      sively  from  the	top down; it behaves as	if each	path component
	      gets a turn at being the end of the file name.  Even  the	 unan-
	      chored "sub/foo" would match at any point	in the hierarchy where
	      a	"foo" was found	within a directory named "sub".	 See the  sec-
	      tion on ANCHORING	INCLUDE/EXCLUDE	PATTERNS for a full discussion
	      of how to	specify	a pattern that matches	at  the	 root  of  the
	      transfer.

       o      if  the  pattern	ends with a / then it will only	match a	direc-
	      tory, not	a file,	link, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match	 and  wildcard
	      matching	by checking if the pattern contains one	of these three
	      wildcard characters: '*',	'?', and '[' .

       o      a	 '*'  matches  any  non-empty  path  component	(it  stops  at
	      slashes).

       o      use '**' to match	anything, including slashes.

       o      a	'?' matches any	character except a slash (/).

       o      a	  '['	introduces   a	character  class,  such	 as  [a-z]  or
	      [[:alpha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be	used to	escape a wild-
	      card  character,	but  it	is matched literally when no wildcards
	      are present.

       o      if the pattern contains a	/ (not counting	a  trailing  /)	 or  a
	      "**",  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
	      any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a	/ or a
	      "**", then it is matched only against the	final component	of the
	      filename.	 (Remember that	the algorithm is  applied  recursively
	      so  "full	 filename"  can	actually be any	portion	of a path from
	      the starting directory on	down.)

       o      a	trailing "dir_name/***"	will match both	the directory  (as  if
	      "dir_name/"  had been specified) and all the files in the	direc-
	      tory (as if "dir_name/**"	had been specified).   (This  behavior
	      is new for version 2.6.7.)

       Note  that, when	using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every	path is	visited	from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns	get applied recursively	to each	subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The exclude patterns actually	short-
       circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync	 finds	the  files  to
       send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent	directory, it can ren-
       der a deeper include pattern ineffectual	because	rsync did not  descend
       through	that  excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is particularly
       important when using a trailing '*' rule.   For	instance,  this	 won't
       work:

	      +	/some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
	      +	/file-is-included
	      -	*

       This  fails  because the	parent directory "some"	is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so	rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  "some"  or
       "some/path" directories.	 One solution is to ask	for all	directories in
       the hierarchy to	be included by using a single rule:  "+	 */"  (put  it
       somewhere   before   the	  "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules  for  all the parent dirs that need to be visited.	 For instance,
       this set	of rules works fine:

	      +	/some/
	      +	/some/path/
	      +	/some/path/this-file-is-found
	      +	/file-also-included
	      -	*

       Here are	some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all	filenames matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or	directory) named  foo  in  the
	      transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "-  /foo/*/bar" would exclude any	file named bar which is	at two
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-
	      tory

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"	would  exclude	any file named bar two or more
	      levels below a directory named foo in the	 transfer-root	direc-
	      tory

       o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
	      directories and C	source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
	      --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination	of  "+	foo/",	"+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
	      include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the	foo  directory
	      must be explicitly included or it	would be excluded by the "*")

MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES
       You can merge whole files into your filter rules	by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge	(:) filter rule	(as introduced in  the	FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two kinds of	merged files --	single-instance	('.') and per-
       directory (':').	 A single-instance merge file is read  one  time,  and
       its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the "."
       rule.  For per-directory	merge files, rsync will	scan  every  directory
       that  it	 traverses  for	 the named file, merging its contents when the
       file exists into	the current list of inherited rules.  These per-direc-
       tory  rule  files must be created on the	sending	side because it	is the
       sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.
       These  rule files may also need to be transferred to the	receiving side
       if you want them	to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIREC-
       TORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

	      merge /usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
	      .	/usr/local/etc/rsync/default.rules
	      dir-merge	.per-dir-filter
	      dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
	      :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A	 - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	+ specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat-
	      terns, with no other rule-parsing	except for in-file comments.

       o      A	 C  is a way to	specify	that the file should be	read in	a CVS-
	      compatible manner.  This turns on	'n', 'w', and  '-',  but  also
	      allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no file-
	      name is provided,	".cvsignore" is	assumed.

       o      A	e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
	      "dir-merge,e  .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are	not inherited  by  subdirecto-
	      ries.

       o      A	 w  specifies  that  the  rules	 are  word-split on whitespace
	      instead of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off  com-
	      ments.   Note: the space that separates the prefix from the rule
	      is treated specially, so "- foo +	bar" is	parsed	as  two	 rules
	      (assuming	that prefix-parsing wasn't also	disabled).

       o      You  may	also  specify  any of the modifiers for	the "+"	or "-"
	      rules (below) in order to	have the rules that are	read  in  from
	      the  file	 default  to  having that modifier set.	 For instance,
	      "merge,-/	.excl" would treat the contents	of .excl as  absolute-
	      path  excludes,  while  "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each
	      make all their per-directory rules apply	only  on  the  sending
	      side.

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+"	or "-":

       o      A	 "/" specifies that the	include/exclude	rule should be matched
	      against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
	      "-/  /usr/local/etc/passwd"  would  exclude  the passwd file any
	      time the transfer	was sending files from the  "/etc"  directory,
	      and  "-/	subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a
	      dir named	"subdir", even if "foo"	is at the root of the  current
	      transfer.

       o      A	 "!"  specifies	that the include/exclude should	take effect if
	      the pattern fails	to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude
	      all non-directories.

       o      A	 C  is	used to	indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules
	      should be	inserted as excludes in	place of  the  "-C".   No  arg
	      should follow.

       o      An  s  is	 used to indicate that the rule	applies	to the sending
	      side.  When a rule affects the sending side, it  prevents	 files
	      from  being  transferred.	  The  default is for a	rule to	affect
	      both sides unless	--delete-excluded was specified, in which case
	      default  rules  become  sender-side only.	 See also the hide (H)
	      and show (S) rules, which	are an alternate way to	specify	 send-
	      ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate	that the rule applies to the receiving
	      side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it	prevents files
	      from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
	      the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which	are an	alternate  way
	      to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the	direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was	 used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed	to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set	of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together	in the spot where the merge-file was specified,	so  it
       is  possible  to	override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read	 from a	per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a	single rule from a dir-merge file  from	 being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file	are relative to	the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo"	would only match the file "foo"	in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter	 file  which  you'd  specify  via  --filter=".
       file":

	      merge /home/user/.global-filter
	      -	*.gz
	      dir-merge	.rules
	      +	*.[ch]
	      -	*.o

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the	list and also turns the	".rules" filename into a  per-
       directory  filter  file.	  All  rules read in prior to the start	of the
       directory scan follow the global	anchoring rules	(i.e. a	leading	 slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is	specified with a path that is a	parent
       directory of the	first transfer directory, rsync	will scan all the par-
       ent  dirs  from	that  starting point to	the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is  a	common	filter
       (see -F):

	      --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells	rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all	direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to  the  start  of  the normal directory scan of the file	in the
       directories that	are sent as a part of the  transfer.   (Note:  for  an
       rsync daemon, the root is always	the same as the	module's "path".)

       Some examples of	this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

	      rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
	      rsync -av	--filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands	above will look	for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for	the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and	 its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and	only looks  for	 the  ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part	of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a	".cvsignore" in	your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect where the	--cvs-exclude (-C)  option's  inclusion	 of  the  per-
       directory  .cvsignore  file  gets placed	into your rules	by putting the
       ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would
       add  the	 dir-merge rule	for the	.cvsignore file	at the end of all your
       other rules (giving it a	lower priority than your command-line  rules).
       For example:

	      cat <<EOT	| rsync	-avC --filter='. -' a/ b
	      +	foo.o
	      :C
	      -	*.old
	      EOT
	      rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both  of	 the  above rsync commands are identical.  Each	one will merge
       all the per-directory .cvsignore	rules in the middle of the list	rather
       than at the end.	 This allows their dir-specific	rules to supersede the
       rules that follow the :C	instead	 of  being  subservient	 to  all  your
       rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of
       exclusions, the contents	of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of  $CVSIG-
       NORE)  you  should omit the -C command-line option and instead insert a
       "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE
       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!"	filter
       rule  (as introduced in the FILTER RULES	section	above).	 The "current"
       list is either the global list of rules (if  the	 rule  is  encountered
       while  parsing  the  filter  options)  or  a set	of per-directory rules
       (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a	subdirectory  can  use
       this to clear out the parent's rules).

ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
       As  mentioned  earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at
       the "root of the	transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which
       are  anchored  at  the  merge-file's  directory).   If you think	of the
       transfer	as a subtree of	names that  are	 being	sent  from  sender  to
       receiver,  the  transfer-root is	where the tree starts to be duplicated
       in the destination directory.  This root	governs	 where	patterns  that
       start with a / match.

       Because	the  matching  is  relative to the transfer-root, changing the
       trailing	slash on a source path or changing your	use of the  --relative
       option  affects	the path you need to use in your matching (in addition
       to changing how much of the file	tree is	duplicated on the  destination
       host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's  say that we want to match	two source files, one with an absolute
       path of "/home/me/foo/bar", and one with	a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".
       Here is how the various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /foo/bar		  (note	missing	"me")
	      +/- pattern: /bar/baz		  (note	missing	"you")
	      Target file: /dest/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
	      +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar	  (note	full path)
	      +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz	  (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

	      Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo	you/ /dest
	      +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar	    (starts at specified path)
	      +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz	    (ditto)
	      Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
	      Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name	you should filter is to	just  look  at
       the  output  when using --verbose and put a / in	front of the name (use
       the --dry-run option if you're not yet ready to copy any	files).

PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND	DELETE
       Without a delete	option,	per-directory rules are	only relevant  on  the
       sending	side,  so  you	can feel free to exclude the merge files them-
       selves without affecting	the transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' mod-
       ifier  adds  this exclude for you, as seen in these two equivalent com-
       mands:

	      rsync -av	--filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir	/dest
	      rsync -av	--filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you  want
       some  files  to	be excluded from being deleted,	you'll need to be sure
       that the	receiving side knows what files	to exclude.  The  easiest  way
       is  to  include	the  per-directory merge files in the transfer and use
       --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side  gets  all
       the  same  exclude  rules as the	sending	side before it tries to	delete
       anything:

	      rsync -avF --delete-after	host:src/dir /dest

       However,	if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need
       to either specify some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the com-
       mand line), or you'll need to maintain  your  own  per-directory	 merge
       files  on  the receiving	side.  An example of the first is this (assume
       that the	remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
	  --delete host:src/dir	/dest

       In the above example the	extra.rules file can affect both sides of  the
       transfer,  but  (on  the	sending	side) the rules	are subservient	to the
       rules merged from the .rules files because they	were  specified	 after
       the per-directory merge rule.

       In  one	final  example,	the remote side	is excluding the .rsync-filter
       files from the transfer,	but we want to use our own .rsync-filter files
       to control what gets deleted on the receiving side.  To do this we must
       specifically exclude the	per-directory merge files (so that they	 don't
       get  deleted)  and  then	put rules into the local files to control what
       else should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

	   rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
	       host:src/dir /dest
	   rsync -avFF --delete	host:src/dir /dest

BATCH MODE
       Batch mode can be used to apply the same	set of updates to many identi-
       cal  systems. Suppose one has a tree which is replicated	on a number of
       hosts.  Now suppose some	changes	have been made to this source tree and
       those  changes need to be propagated to the other hosts.	In order to do
       this using batch	mode, rsync is run  with  the  write-batch  option  to
       apply  the  changes  made  to the source	tree to	one of the destination
       trees.  The write-batch option causes the rsync client to  store	 in  a
       "batch  file"  all  the	information  needed  to	 repeat	this operation
       against other, identical	destination trees.

       To apply	the recorded changes to	another	destination  tree,  run	 rsync
       with the	read-batch option, specifying the name of the same batch file,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync	updates	the destination	tree using the
       information stored in the batch file.

       For  convenience,  one additional file is creating when the write-batch
       option is used.	This file's name is created by appending ".sh" to  the
       batch  filename.	  The  .sh  file  contains a command-line suitable for
       updating	a destination tree using that batch file. It can  be  executed
       using  a	Bourne (or Bourne-like)	shell, optionally passing in an	alter-
       nate destination	tree pathname which is then used instead of the	origi-
       nal  path.  This	 is useful when	the destination	tree path differs from
       the original destination	tree path.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status,
       checksum, and data block	generation more	than once when updating	multi-
       ple destination trees. Multicast	transport protocols  can  be  used  to
       transfer	 the  batch  update  files  in parallel	to many	hosts at once,
       instead of sending the same data	to every host individually.

       Examples:

	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
	      $	scp foo* remote:
	      $	ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/

	      $	rsync --write-batch=foo	-a /source/dir/	/adest/dir/
	      $	ssh remote rsync --read-batch=-	-a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these  examples,  rsync  is	used  to   update   /adest/dir/	  from
       /source/dir/  and the information to repeat this	operation is stored in
       "foo" and "foo.sh".  The	host "remote" is then updated with the batched
       data  going into	the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences between the
       two examples reveals some of the	flexibility you	have in	how  you  deal
       with batches:

       o      The first	example	shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be
	      local -- you can push or pull data to/from a remote  host	 using
	      either  the  remote-shell	 syntax	 or  rsync  daemon  syntax, as
	      desired.

       o      The first	example	uses the created  "foo.sh"  file  to  get  the
	      right  rsync  options when running the read-batch	command	on the
	      remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via  standard  input  so
	      that  the	 batch	file  doesn't  need to be copied to the	remote
	      machine first.  This example avoids the foo.sh script because it
	      needed to	use a modified --read-batch option, but	you could edit
	      the script file if you wished to make use	of it  (just  be  sure
	      that  no	other  option is trying	to use standard	input, such as
	      the "--exclude-from=-" option).

       Caveats:

       The read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is  updating
       to  be  identical  to  the destination tree that	was used to create the
       batch update fileset.  When a difference	between	the destination	 trees
       is  encountered	the  update  might be discarded	with a warning (if the
       file appears to be  up-to-date  already)	 or  the  file-update  may  be
       attempted  and  then, if	the file fails to verify, the update discarded
       with an error.  This means that it should be safe  to  re-run  a	 read-
       batch  operation	 if the	command	got interrupted.  If you wish to force
       the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size
       and  date,  use	the  -I	 option	(when reading the batch).  If an error
       occurs, the destination tree will probably be in	 a  partially  updated
       state.  In that case, rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode
       of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as  new  as
       the  one	used to	generate the batch file.  Rsync	will die with an error
       if the protocol version in the batch file is too	 new  for  the	batch-
       reading	rsync  to handle.  See also the	--protocol option for a	way to
       have the	creating rsync generate	a batch	file that an older  rsync  can
       understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so
       mixing versions older than that with newer versions will	not work.)

       When reading a batch file,  rsync  will	force  the  value  of  certain
       options	to  match the data in the batch	file if	you didn't set them to
       the same	as the batch-writing command.  Other options can (and  should)
       be  changed.   For  instance  --write-batch  changes  to	 --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped,	and the	 --filter/--include/--exclude  options
       are not needed unless one of the	--delete options is specified.

       The   code   that   creates  the	 BATCH.sh  file	 transforms  any  fil-
       ter/include/exclude options into	a single list that is  appended	 as  a
       "here"  document	 to  the  shell	script file.  An advanced user can use
       this to modify the exclude list if a change in  what  gets  deleted  by
       --delete	is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use
       the shell script	as an easy way to  run	the  appropriate  --read-batch
       command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode	in rsync was based on "rsync+",	but the	latest
       version uses a new implementation.

SYMBOLIC LINKS
       Three basic behaviors are possible when	rsync  encounters  a  symbolic
       link in the source directory.

       By  default,  symbolic  links  are  not	transferred at all.  A message
       "skipping non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified,	then symlinks are recreated with the same tar-
       get on the destination.	Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links	is specified, then symlinks are	"collapsed" by copying
       their referent, rather than the symlink.

       rsync also distinguishes	"safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An	 exam-
       ple  where  this	 might be used is a web	site mirror that wishes	ensure
       the  rsync  module  they	 copy  does  not  include  symbolic  links  to
       /usr/local/etc/passwd  in  the  public  section	of  the	 site.	 Using
       --copy-unsafe-links will	cause any links	to be copied as	the file  they
       point  to  on  the  destination.	  Using	--safe-links will cause	unsafe
       links to	be omitted altogether.	(Note that you	must  specify  --links
       for --safe-links	to have	any effect.)

       Symbolic	 links	are  considered	 unsafe	 if they are absolute symlinks
       (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough	 ".."	components  to
       ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's  a summary of how	the symlink options are	interpreted.  The list
       is in order of precedence, so if	your combination of options isn't men-
       tioned, use the first line that is a complete subset of your options:

       --copy-links
	      Turn all symlinks	into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any
	      other options to affect).

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate	all safe  sym-
	      links.

       --copy-unsafe-links
	      Turn  all	unsafe symlinks	into files, noisily skip all safe sym-
	      links.

       --links --safe-links
	      Duplicate	safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

       --links
	      Duplicate	all symlinks.

DIAGNOSTICS
       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem	a little cryp-
       tic.  The  one that seems to cause the most confusion is	"protocol ver-
       sion mismatch --	is your	shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote	 shell
       facility	 producing  unwanted garbage on	the stream that	rsync is using
       for its transport. The way to diagnose this  problem  is	 to  run  your
       remote shell like this:

	      ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then  look  at out.dat. If everything is	working	correctly then out.dat
       should be a zero	length file. If	you are	getting	the above  error  from
       rsync  then  you	 will probably find that out.dat contains some text or
       data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is	producing  it.
       The  most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts
       (such as	.cshrc or .profile) that contain output	 statements  for  non-
       interactive logins.

       If  you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specify-
       ing the -vv option.  At this level of verbosity	rsync  will  show  why
       each individual file is included	or excluded.

EXIT VALUES
       0      Success

       1      Syntax or	usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested	 action	 not supported:	an attempt was made to manipu-
	      late 64-bit files	on a platform that cannot support them;	or  an
	      option  was specified that is supported by the client and	not by
	      the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       CVSIGNORE
	      The CVSIGNORE environment	variable supplements any  ignore  pat-
	      terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more
	      details.

       RSYNC_RSH
	      The RSYNC_RSH environment	variable allows	you  to	 override  the
	      default  shell  used  as	the transport for rsync.  Command line
	      options are permitted after the command name, just as in the  -e
	      option.

       RSYNC_PROXY
	      The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
	      rsync client to use a web	proxy when connecting to a rsync  dae-
	      mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

       RSYNC_PASSWORD
	      Setting  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the required	password allows	you to
	      run authenticated	rsync connections to an	rsync  daemon  without
	      user  intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
	      a	shell transport	such as	ssh.

       USER or LOGNAME
	      The USER or LOGNAME environment variables	are used to  determine
	      the  default  username  sent  to an rsync	daemon.	 If neither is
	      set, the username	defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the	user's default
	      .cvsignore file.

FILES
       /usr/local/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

SEE ALSO
       rsyncd.conf(5)

BUGS
       times are transferred as	*nix time_t values

       When  transferring  to  FAT  filesystems	 rsync	may re-sync unmodified
       files.  See the comments	on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are  transferred	 as  native  numerical
       values

       see also	the comments on	the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the website at http://rsync.samba.org/

VERSION
       This man	page is	current	for version 2.6.9 of rsync.

INTERNAL OPTIONS
       The  options  --server  and  --sender are used internally by rsync, and
       should never be typed by	 a  user  under	 normal	 circumstances.	  Some
       awareness  of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such as
       when setting up a login that  can  only	run  an	 rsync	command.   For
       instance,  the support directory	of the rsync distribution has an exam-
       ple script named	rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with  a
       restricted ssh login.

CREDITS
       rsync  is distributed under the GNU public license.  See	the file COPY-
       ING for details.

       A WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The	site  includes
       an  FAQ-O-Matic	which  may  cover  questions unanswered	by this	manual
       page.

       The primary ftp site for	rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We would	be delighted to	hear from you if you like this program.

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly	and Mark Adler.

THANKS
       Thanks  to  Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell
       and David Bell for helpful suggestions, patches and testing  of	rsync.
       I've probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.

       Especial	 thanks	also to: David Dykstra,	Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer,
       Martin Pool, Wayne Davison, J.W.	Schultz.

AUTHOR
       rsync was originally written by Andrew  Tridgell	 and  Paul  Mackerras.
       Many people have	later contributed to it.

       Mailing	 lists	 for   support	 and   development  are	 available  at
       http://lists.samba.org

				  6 Nov	2006			      rsync(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | GENERAL | SETUP | USAGE | ADVANCED USAGE | CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON | USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION | STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS | EXAMPLES | OPTIONS SUMMARY | OPTIONS | DAEMON OPTIONS | FILTER RULES | INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES | MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES | LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE | ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS | PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE | BATCH MODE | SYMBOLIC LINKS | DIAGNOSTICS | EXIT VALUES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | FILES | SEE ALSO | BUGS | VERSION | INTERNAL OPTIONS | CREDITS | THANKS | AUTHOR

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