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RAL(4)		       FreeBSD Kernel Interfaces Manual			RAL(4)

NAME
     ral -- Ralink Technology IEEE 802.11a/g/n wireless	network	device

SYNOPSIS
     To	compile	this driver into the kernel, place the following lines in your
     kernel configuration file:

	   device ral
	   device ralfw
	   device wlan
	   device wlan_amrr
	   device firmware

     Alternatively, to load the	driver as a module at boot time, place the
     following line in loader.conf(5):

	   if_ral_load="YES"

DESCRIPTION
     The ral driver supports PCI/PCIe/CardBus wireless adapters	based on the
     Ralink RT2500, RT2501, RT2600, RT2700, RT2800 and RT3090 chipsets.

     The RT2500	chipset	is the first generation	of 802.11b/g adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2560 MAC/BBP and an
     RT2525 radio transceiver.

     The RT2501	chipset	is the second generation of 802.11a/b/g	adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2561 MAC/BBP and an
     RT2527 radio transceiver.	This chipset provides support for the IEEE
     802.11e standard with multiple hardware transmission queues and allows
     scatter/gather for	efficient DMA operations.

     The RT2600	chipset	consists of two	integrated chips, an RT2661 MAC/BBP
     and an RT2529 radio transceiver.  This chipset uses the MIMO (multiple-
     input multiple-output) technology with multiple radio transceivers	to
     extend the	operating range	of the adapter and to achieve higher through-
     put.  However, the	RT2600 chipset does not	support	any of the 802.11n
     features.

     The RT2700	chipset	is a low-cost version of the RT2800 chipset.  It sup-
     ports a single transmit path and two receiver paths (1T2R).  It consists
     of	two integrated chips, an RT2760	or RT2790 (PCIe) MAC/BBP and an	RT2720
     (2.4GHz) or RT2750	(2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver.

     The RT2800	chipset	is the first generation	of 802.11n adapters from
     Ralink.  It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2860 or	RT2890 (PCIe)
     MAC/BBP and an RT2820 (2.4GHz) or RT2850 (2.4GHz/5GHz) radio transceiver.
     The RT2800	chipset	supports two transmit paths and	up to three receiver
     paths (2T2R/2T3R).	 It can	achieve	speeds up to 144Mbps (20MHz bandwidth)
     and 300Mbps (40MHz	bandwidth.)

     The RT3090	chipset	is the first generation	of single-chip 802.11n
     adapters from Ralink.  ral	supports station, adhoc, hostap, mesh, wds,
     and monitor mode operation.  Only one hostap or mesh virtual interface
     may be configured at a time.  Any number of wds virtual interfaces	may be
     configured	together with a	hostap interface.  Multiple station interfaces
     may be operated together with a hostap interface to construct a wireless
     repeater device.

     The transmit speed	is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by
     the driver	depending on the number	of hardware transmission retries.  For
     more information on configuring this device, see ifconfig(8).

HARDWARE
     The ral driver supports PCI/PCIe/CardBus wireless adapters	based on
     Ralink Technology chipsets, including:

     Card			  MAC/BBP    Bus
     A-Link WL54H		  RT2560     PCI
     A-Link WL54PC		  RT2560     CardBus
     AirLink101	AWLC5025	  RT2661     CardBus
     AirLink101	AWLH5025	  RT2661     PCI
     Amigo AWI-914W		  RT2560     CardBus
     Amigo AWI-922W		  RT2560     mini-PCI
     Amigo AWI-926W		  RT2560     PCI
     AMIT WL531C		  RT2560     CardBus
     AMIT WL531P		  RT2560     PCI
     AOpen AOI-831		  RT2560     PCI
     ASUS WL-107G		  RT2560     CardBus
     ASUS WL-130g		  RT2560     PCI
     Atlantis Land A02-PCI-W54	  RT2560     PCI
     Atlantis Land A02-PCM-W54	  RT2560     CardBus
     Belkin F5D7000 v3		  RT2560     PCI
     Belkin F5D7010 v2		  RT2560     CardBus
     Billionton	MIWLGRL		  RT2560     mini-PCI
     Canyon CN-WF511		  RT2560     PCI
     Canyon CN-WF513		  RT2560     CardBus
     CC&C WL-2102		  RT2560     CardBus
     CNet CWC-854		  RT2560     CardBus
     CNet CWP-854		  RT2560     PCI
     Compex WL54G		  RT2560     CardBus
     Compex WLP54G		  RT2560     PCI
     Conceptronic C54RC		  RT2560     CardBus
     Conceptronic C54Ri		  RT2560     PCI
     Digitus DN-7001G-RA	  RT2560     CardBus
     Digitus DN-7006G-RA	  RT2560     PCI
     E-Tech WGPC02		  RT2560     CardBus
     E-Tech WGPI02		  RT2560     PCI
     Edimax EW-7108PCg		  RT2560     CardBus
     Edimax EW-7128g		  RT2560     PCI
     Eminent EM3036		  RT2560     CardBus
     Eminent EM3037		  RT2560     PCI
     Encore ENLWI-G-RLAM	  RT2560     PCI
     Encore ENPWI-G-RLAM	  RT2560     CardBus
     Fiberline WL-400P		  RT2560     PCI
     Fibreline WL-400X		  RT2560     CardBus
     Gigabyte GN-WI01GS		  RT2561S    mini-PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WIKG		  RT2560     mini-PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WMKG		  RT2560     CardBus
     Gigabyte GN-WP01GS		  RT2561S    PCI
     Gigabyte GN-WPKG		  RT2560     PCI
     Hawking HWC54GR		  RT2560     CardBus
     Hawking HWP54GR		  RT2560     PCI
     iNexQ CR054g-009 (R03)	  RT2560     PCI
     JAHT WN-4054P		  RT2560     CardBus
     JAHT WN-4054PCI		  RT2560     PCI
     LevelOne WNC-0301 v2	  RT2560     PCI
     LevelOne WPC-0301 v2	  RT2560     CardBus
     Linksys WMP54G v4		  RT2560     PCI
     Micronet SP906GK		  RT2560     PCI
     Micronet SP908GK V3	  RT2560     CardBus
     Minitar MN54GCB-R		  RT2560     CardBus
     Minitar MN54GPC-R		  RT2560     PCI
     MSI CB54G2			  RT2560     CardBus
     MSI MP54G2			  RT2560     mini-PCI
     MSI PC54G2			  RT2560     PCI
     OvisLink EVO-W54PCI	  RT2560     PCI
     PheeNet HWL-PCIG/RA	  RT2560     PCI
     Pro-Nets CB80211G		  RT2560     CardBus
     Pro-Nets PC80211G		  RT2560     PCI
     Repotec RP-WB7108		  RT2560     CardBus
     Repotec RP-WP0854		  RT2560     PCI
     SATech SN-54C		  RT2560     CardBus
     SATech SN-54P		  RT2560     PCI
     Sitecom WL-112		  RT2560     CardBus
     Sitecom WL-115		  RT2560     PCI
     SMC SMCWCB-GM		  RT2661     CardBus
     SMC SMCWPCI-GM		  RT2661     PCI
     SparkLAN WL-685R		  RT2560     CardBus
     Surecom EP-9321-g		  RT2560     PCI
     Surecom EP-9321-g1		  RT2560     PCI
     Surecom EP-9428-g		  RT2560     CardBus
     Sweex LC500050		  RT2560     CardBus
     Sweex LC700030		  RT2560     PCI
     TekComm NE-9321-g		  RT2560     PCI
     TekComm NE-9428-g		  RT2560     CardBus
     Unex CR054g-R02		  RT2560     PCI
     Unex MR054g-R02		  RT2560     CardBus
     Zinwell ZWX-G160		  RT2560     CardBus
     Zinwell ZWX-G360		  RT2560     mini-PCI
     Zinwell ZWX-G361		  RT2560     PCI
     Zonet ZEW1500		  RT2560     CardBus
     Zonet ZEW1600		  RT2560     PCI

EXAMPLES
     Join an existing BSS network (i.e., connect to an access point):

	   ifconfig wlan create	wlandev	ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 netmask
	   0xffffff00

     Join a specific BSS network with network name ``my_net'':

	   ifconfig wlan create	wlandev	ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
	       netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net

     Join a specific BSS network with 40-bit WEP encryption:

	   ifconfig wlan create	wlandev	ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
	       netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
	       wepmode on wepkey 0x1234567890 weptxkey 1

     Join a specific BSS network with 104-bit WEP encryption:

	   ifconfig wlan create	wlandev	ral0 inet 192.168.0.20 \
	       netmask 0xffffff00 ssid my_net \
	       wepmode on wepkey 0x01020304050607080910111213 weptxkey 1

DIAGNOSTICS
     ral%d: could not load 8051	microcode  An error occurred while attempting
     to	upload the microcode to	the onboard 8051 microcontroller unit.

     ral%d: timeout waiting for	MCU to initialize  The onboard 8051 microcon-
     troller unit failed to initialize in time.

     ral%d: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for transmis-
     sion did not complete in time.  The driver	will reset the hardware.  This
     should not	happen.

SEE ALSO
     intro(4), cardbus(4), wlan(4), wlan_ccmp(4), wlan_tkip(4),	wlan_wep(4),
     wlan_xauth(4), hostapd(8),	ifconfig(8), wpa_supplicant(8)

     Ralink Technology,	http://www.ralinktech.com/.

HISTORY
     The ral driver first appeared in OpenBSD 3.7.  Support for	the RT2501 and
     RT2600 chipsets was added in OpenBSD 3.9.	Support	for the	RT2800 chipset
     was added in OpenBSD 4.3.	Support	for the	RT2700 chipset was added in
     OpenBSD 4.4.  Support for the RT3090 chipset was added in OpenBSD 4.9.

AUTHORS
     The original ral driver was written by Damien Bergamini
     <damien@openbsd.org>.

CAVEATS
     The ral driver does not make use of the hardware cryptographic engine.

     The ral driver does not support any of the	802.11n	capabilities offered
     by	the RT2700 and RT2800 chipsets.	 Additional work is required in	before
     those features can	be supported.

     Host AP mode doesn't support power	saving.	 Clients attempting to use
     power saving mode may experience significant packet loss (disabling power
     saving on the client will fix this).

     Some PCI ral adapters seem	to strictly require a system supporting	PCI
     2.2 or greater and	will likely not	work in	systems	based on older revi-
     sions of the PCI specification.  Check the	board's	PCI version before
     purchasing	the card.

FreeBSD	9.3			 May 10, 2012			   FreeBSD 9.3

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | HARDWARE | EXAMPLES | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS | CAVEATS

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ral&manpath=FreeBSD+9.3-RELEASE>

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