Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Man Pages

Man Page or Keyword Search:
Man Architecture
Apropos Keyword Search (all sections) Output format
home | help
QUEUE(3)               FreeBSD Library Functions Manual               QUEUE(3)

NAME
     SLIST_EMPTY, SLIST_ENTRY, SLIST_FIRST, SLIST_FOREACH, SLIST_HEAD,
     SLIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER, SLIST_INIT, SLIST_INSERT_AFTER,
     SLIST_INSERT_HEAD, SLIST_NEXT, SLIST_REMOVE_HEAD, SLIST_REMOVE,
     STAILQ_EMPTY, STAILQ_ENTRY, STAILQ_FIRST, STAILQ_FOREACH, STAILQ_HEAD,
     STAILQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER, STAILQ_INIT, STAILQ_INSERT_AFTER,
     STAILQ_INSERT_HEAD, STAILQ_INSERT_TAIL, STAILQ_LAST, STAILQ_NEXT,
     STAILQ_REMOVE_HEAD, STAILQ_REMOVE, LIST_EMPTY, LIST_ENTRY, LIST_FIRST,
     LIST_FOREACH, LIST_HEAD, LIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER, LIST_INIT,
     LIST_INSERT_AFTER, LIST_INSERT_BEFORE, LIST_INSERT_HEAD, LIST_NEXT,
     LIST_REMOVE, TAILQ_EMPTY, TAILQ_ENTRY, TAILQ_FIRST, TAILQ_FOREACH,
     TAILQ_FOREACH_REVERSE, TAILQ_HEAD, TAILQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER, TAILQ_INIT,
     TAILQ_INSERT_AFTER, TAILQ_INSERT_BEFORE, TAILQ_INSERT_HEAD,
     TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL, TAILQ_LAST, TAILQ_NEXT, TAILQ_PREV, TAILQ_REMOVE,
     CIRCLEQ_EMPTY, CIRCLEQ_ENTRY, CIRCLEQ_FIRST, CIRCLEQ_FOREACH,
     CIRCLEQ_FOREACH_REVERSE, CIRCLEQ_HEAD, CIRCLEQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER,
     CIRCLEQ_INIT, CIRCLEQ_INSERT_AFTER, CIRCLEQ_INSERT_BEFORE,
     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_HEAD, CIRCLEQ_INSERT_TAIL, CIRCLE_LAST, CIRCLE_NEXT,
     CIRCLE_PREV, CIRCLEQ_REMOVE -- implementations of singly-linked lists,
     singly-linked tail queues, lists, tail queues, and circular queues

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/queue.h>

     SLIST_EMPTY(SLIST_HEAD *head);

     SLIST_ENTRY(TYPE);

     SLIST_FIRST(SLIST_HEAD *head);

     SLIST_FOREACH(TYPE *var, SLIST_HEAD *head, SLIST_ENTRY NAME);

     SLIST_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

     SLIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER(SLIST_HEAD head);

     SLIST_INIT(SLIST_HEAD *head);

     SLIST_INSERT_AFTER(TYPE *listelm, TYPE *elm, SLIST_ENTRY NAME);

     SLIST_INSERT_HEAD(SLIST_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, SLIST_ENTRY NAME);

     SLIST_NEXT(TYPE *elm, SLIST_ENTRY NAME);

     SLIST_REMOVE_HEAD(SLIST_HEAD *head, SLIST_ENTRY NAME);

     SLIST_REMOVE(SLIST_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, TYPE, SLIST_ENTRY NAME);

     STAILQ_EMPTY(STAILQ_HEAD *head);

     STAILQ_ENTRY(TYPE);

     STAILQ_FIRST(STAILQ_HEAD *head);

     STAILQ_FOREACH(TYPE *var, STAILQ_HEAD *head, STAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     STAILQ_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

     STAILQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER(STAILQ_HEAD head);

     STAILQ_INIT(STAILQ_HEAD *head);

     STAILQ_INSERT_AFTER(STAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *listelm, TYPE *elm,
         STAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     STAILQ_INSERT_HEAD(STAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, STAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     STAILQ_INSERT_TAIL(STAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, STAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     STAILQ_LAST(STAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE, STAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     STAILQ_NEXT(TYPE *elm, STAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     STAILQ_REMOVE_HEAD(STAILQ_HEAD *head, STAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     STAILQ_REMOVE(STAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, TYPE, STAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     LIST_EMPTY(LIST_HEAD *head);

     LIST_ENTRY(TYPE);

     LIST_FIRST(LIST_HEAD *head);

     LIST_FOREACH(TYPE *var, LIST_HEAD *head, LIST_ENTRY NAME);

     LIST_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

     LIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER(LIST_HEAD head);

     LIST_INIT(LIST_HEAD *head);

     LIST_INSERT_AFTER(TYPE *listelm, TYPE *elm, LIST_ENTRY NAME);

     LIST_INSERT_BEFORE(TYPE *listelm, TYPE *elm, LIST_ENTRY NAME);

     LIST_INSERT_HEAD(LIST_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, LIST_ENTRY NAME);

     LIST_NEXT(TYPE *elm, LIST_ENTRY NAME);

     LIST_REMOVE(TYPE *elm, LIST_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_EMPTY(TAILQ_HEAD *head);

     TAILQ_ENTRY(TYPE);

     TAILQ_FIRST(TAILQ_HEAD *head);

     TAILQ_FOREACH(TYPE *var, TAILQ_HEAD *head, TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_FOREACH_REVERSE(TYPE *var, TAILQ_HEAD *head, HEADNAME,
         TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

     TAILQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER(TAILQ_HEAD head);

     TAILQ_INIT(TAILQ_HEAD *head);

     TAILQ_INSERT_AFTER(TAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *listelm, TYPE *elm,
         TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_INSERT_BEFORE(TYPE *listelm, TYPE *elm, TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_INSERT_HEAD(TAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL(TAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_LAST(TAILQ_HEAD *head, HEADNAME);

     TAILQ_NEXT(TYPE *elm, TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_PREV(TYPE *elm, HEADNAME, TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     TAILQ_REMOVE(TAILQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, TAILQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_EMPTY(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head);

     CIRCLEQ_ENTRY(TYPE);

     CIRCLEQ_FIRST(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head);

     CIRCLEQ_FOREACH(TYPE *var, CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head, CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_FOREACH_REVERSE(TYPE *var, CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head,
         CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE);

     CIRCLEQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER(CIRCLEQ_HEAD head);

     CIRCLEQ_INIT(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head);

     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_AFTER(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *listelm, TYPE *elm,
         CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_BEFORE(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *listelm, TYPE *elm,
         CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_HEAD(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_TAIL(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_LAST(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head);

     CIRCLEQ_NEXT(TYPE *elm, CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLE_PREV(TYPE *elm, CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

     CIRCLEQ_REMOVE(CIRCLEQ_HEAD *head, TYPE *elm, CIRCLEQ_ENTRY NAME);

DESCRIPTION
     These macros define and operate on five types of data structures: singly-
     linked lists, singly-linked tail queues, lists, tail queues, and circular
     queues.  All five structures support the following functionality:
           1.   Insertion of a new entry at the head of the list.
           2.   Insertion of a new entry after any element in the list.
           3.   O(1) removal of an entry from the head of the list.
           4.   O(n) removal of any entry in the list.
           5.   Forward traversal through the list.

     Singly-linked lists are the simplest of the five data structures and sup-
     port only the above functionality.  Singly-linked lists are ideal for
     applications with large datasets and few or no removals, or for imple-
     menting a LIFO queue.

     Singly-linked tail queues add the following functionality:
           1.   Entries can be added at the end of a list.
     However:
           1.   All list insertions must specify the head of the list.
           2.   Each head entry requires two pointers rather than one.
           3.   Code size is about 15% greater and operations run about 20%
                slower than singly-linked lists.

     Singly-linked tailqs are ideal for applications with large datasets and
     few or no removals, or for implementing a FIFO queue.

     All doubly linked types of data structures (lists, tail queues, and cir-
     cle queues) additionally allow:
           1.   Insertion of a new entry before any element in the list.
           2.   O(1) removal of any entry in the list.
     However:
           1.   Each elements requires two pointers rather than one.
           2.   Code size and execution time of operations (except for
                removal) is about twice that of the singly-linked data-struc-
                tures.

     Linked lists are the simplest of the doubly linked data structures and
     support only the above functionality over singly-linked lists.

     Tail queues add the following functionality:
           1.   Entries can be added at the end of a list.
           2.   They may be traversed backwards, from tail to head.
     However:
           1.   All list insertions and removals must specify the head of the
                list.
           2.   Each head entry requires two pointers rather than one.
           3.   Code size is about 15% greater and operations run about 20%
                slower than singly-linked lists.

     Circular queues add the following functionality:
           1.   Entries can be added at the end of a list.
           2.   They may be traversed backwards, from tail to head.
     However:
           1.   All list insertions and removals must specify the head of the
                list.
           2.   Each head entry requires two pointers rather than one.
           3.   The termination condition for traversal is more complex.
           4.   Code size is about 40% greater and operations run about 45%
                slower than lists.

     In the macro definitions, TYPE is the name of a user defined structure,
     that must contain a field of type SLIST_ENTRY, STAILQ_ENTRY, LIST_ENTRY,
     TAILQ_ENTRY, or CIRCLEQ_ENTRY, named NAME.  The argument HEADNAME is the
     name of a user defined structure that must be declared using the macros
     SLIST_HEAD, STAILQ_HEAD, LIST_HEAD, TAILQ_HEAD, or CIRCLEQ_HEAD.  See the
     examples below for further explanation of how these macros are used.

SINGLY-LINKED LISTS
     A singly-linked list is headed by a structure defined by the SLIST_HEAD
     macro.  This structure contains a single pointer to the first element on
     the list.  The elements are singly linked for minimum space and pointer
     manipulation overhead at the expense of O(n) removal for arbitrary ele-
     ments.  New elements can be added to the list after an existing element
     or at the head of the list.  An SLIST_HEAD structure is declared as fol-
     lows:

           SLIST_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

     where HEADNAME is the name of the structure to be defined, and TYPE is
     the type of the elements to be linked into the list.  A pointer to the
     head of the list can later be declared as:

           struct HEADNAME *headp;

     (The names head and headp are user selectable.)

     The macro SLIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER evaluates to an initializer for the list
     head.

     The macro SLIST_EMPTY evaluates to true if there are no elements in the
     list.

     The macro SLIST_ENTRY declares a structure that connects the elements in
     the list.

     The macro SLIST_FIRST returns the first element in the list or NULL if
     the list is empty.

     The macro SLIST_FOREACH traverses the list referenced by head in the for-
     ward direction, assigning each element in turn to var.

     The macro SLIST_INIT initializes the list referenced by head.

     The macro SLIST_INSERT_HEAD inserts the new element elm at the head of
     the list.

     The macro SLIST_INSERT_AFTER inserts the new element elm after the ele-
     ment listelm.

     The macro SLIST_NEXT returns the next element in the list.

     The macro SLIST_REMOVE_HEAD removes the element elm from the head of the
     list.  For optimum efficiency, elements being removed from the head of
     the list should explicitly use this macro instead of the generic
     SLIST_REMOVE macro.

     The macro SLIST_REMOVE removes the element elm from the list.

SINGLY-LINKED LIST EXAMPLE
     SLIST_HEAD(slisthead, entry) head =
         SLIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER(head);
     struct slisthead *headp;                /* Singly-linked List head. */
     struct entry {
             ...
             SLIST_ENTRY(entry) entries;     /* Singly-linked List. */
             ...
     } *n1, *n2, *n3, *np;

     SLIST_INIT(&head);                      /* Initialize the list. */

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the head. */
     SLIST_INSERT_HEAD(&head, n1, entries);

     n2 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert after. */
     SLIST_INSERT_AFTER(n1, n2, entries);

     SLIST_REMOVE(&head, n2, entry, entries);/* Deletion. */
     free(n2);

     n3 = SLIST_FIRST(&head);
     SLIST_REMOVE_HEAD(&head, entries);      /* Deletion from the head. */
     free(n3);
                                             /* Forward traversal. */
     SLIST_FOREACH(np, &head, entries)
             np-> ...

     while (!SLIST_EMPTY(&head)) {           /* List Deletion. */
             n1 = SLIST_FIRST(&head);
             SLIST_REMOVE_HEAD(&head, entries);
             free(n1);
     }

SINGLY-LINKED TAIL QUEUES
     A singly-linked tail queue is headed by a structure defined by the
     STAILQ_HEAD macro.  This structure contains a pair of pointers, one to
     the first element in the tail queue and the other to the last element in
     the tail queue.  The elements are singly linked for minimum space and
     pointer manipulation overhead at the expense of O(n) removal for arbi-
     trary elements.  New elements can be added to the tail queue after an
     existing element, at the head of the tail queue, or at the end of the
     tail queue.  A STAILQ_HEAD structure is declared as follows:

           STAILQ_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

     where HEADNAME is the name of the structure to be defined, and TYPE is
     the type of the elements to be linked into the tail queue.  A pointer to
     the head of the tail queue can later be declared as:

           struct HEADNAME *headp;

     (The names head and headp are user selectable.)

     The macro STAILQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER evaluates to an initializer for the
     tail queue head.

     The macro STAILQ_EMPTY evaluates to true if there are no items on the
     tail queue.

     The macro STAILQ_ENTRY declares a structure that connects the elements in
     the tail queue.

     The macro STAILQ_FIRST returns the first item on the tail queue or NULL
     if the tail queue is empty.

     The macro STAILQ_FOREACH traverses the tail queue referenced by head in
     the forward direction, assigning each element in turn to var.

     The macro STAILQ_INIT initializes the tail queue referenced by head.

     The macro STAILQ_INSERT_HEAD inserts the new element elm at the head of
     the tail queue.

     The macro STAILQ_INSERT_TAIL inserts the new element elm at the end of
     the tail queue.

     The macro STAILQ_INSERT_AFTER inserts the new element elm after the ele-
     ment listelm.

     The macro STAILQ_LAST returns the last item on the tail queue.  If the
     tail queue is empty the return value is undefined.

     The macro STAILQ_NEXT returns the next item on the tail queue, or NULL
     this item is the last.

     The macro STAILQ_REMOVE_HEAD removes the element at the head of the tail
     queue.  For optimum efficiency, elements being removed from the head of
     the tail queue should use this macro explicitly rather than the generic
     STAILQ_REMOVE macro.

     The macro STAILQ_REMOVE removes the element elm from the tail queue.

SINGLY-LINKED TAIL QUEUE EXAMPLE
     STAILQ_HEAD(stailhead, entry) head =
         STAILQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER(head);
     struct stailhead *headp;                /* Singly-linked tail queue head. */
     struct entry {
             ...
             STAILQ_ENTRY(entry) entries;    /* Tail queue. */
             ...
     } *n1, *n2, *n3, *np;

     STAILQ_INIT(&head);                     /* Initialize the queue. */

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the head. */
     STAILQ_INSERT_HEAD(&head, n1, entries);

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the tail. */
     STAILQ_INSERT_TAIL(&head, n1, entries);

     n2 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert after. */
     STAILQ_INSERT_AFTER(&head, n1, n2, entries);
                                             /* Deletion. */
     STAILQ_REMOVE(&head, n2, entry, entries);
     free(n2);
                                             /* Deletion from the head. */
     n3 = STAILQ_FIRST(&head);
     STAILQ_REMOVE_HEAD(&head, entries);
     free(n3);
                                             /* Forward traversal. */
     STAILQ_FOREACH(np, &head, entries)
             np-> ...
                                             /* TailQ Deletion. */
     while (!STAILQ_EMPTY(&head)) {
             n1 = STAILQ_FIRST(&head);
             STAILQ_REMOVE_HEAD(&head, entries);
             free(n1);
     }
                                             /* Faster TailQ Deletion. */
     n1 = STAILQ_FIRST(&head);
     while (n1 != NULL) {
             n2 = STAILQ_NEXT(n1, entries);
             free(n1);
             n1 = n2;
     }
     STAILQ_INIT(&head);

LISTS
     A list is headed by a structure defined by the LIST_HEAD macro.  This
     structure contains a single pointer to the first element on the list.
     The elements are doubly linked so that an arbitrary element can be
     removed without traversing the list.  New elements can be added to the
     list after an existing element, before an existing element, or at the
     head of the list.  A LIST_HEAD structure is declared as follows:

           LIST_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

     where HEADNAME is the name of the structure to be defined, and TYPE is
     the type of the elements to be linked into the list.  A pointer to the
     head of the list can later be declared as:

           struct HEADNAME *headp;

     (The names head and headp are user selectable.)

     The macro LIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER evaluates to an initializer for the list
     head.

     The macro LIST_EMPTY evaluates to true if their are no elements in the
     list.

     The macro LIST_ENTRY declares a structure that connects the elements in
     the list.

     The macro LIST_FIRST returns the first element in the list or NULL if the
     list is empty.

     The macro LIST_FOREACH traverses the list referenced by head in the for-
     ward direction, assigning each element in turn to var.

     The macro LIST_INIT initializes the list referenced by head.

     The macro LIST_INSERT_HEAD inserts the new element elm at the head of the
     list.

     The macro LIST_INSERT_AFTER inserts the new element elm after the element
     listelm.

     The macro LIST_INSERT_BEFORE inserts the new element elm before the ele-
     ment listelm.

     The macro LIST_NEXT returns the next element in the list, or NULL if this
     is the last.

     The macro LIST_REMOVE removes the element elm from the list.

LIST EXAMPLE
     LIST_HEAD(listhead, entry) head =
         LIST_HEAD_INITIALIZER(head);
     struct listhead *headp;                 /* List head. */
     struct entry {
             ...
             LIST_ENTRY(entry) entries;      /* List. */
             ...
     } *n1, *n2, *n3, *np;

     LIST_INIT(&head);                       /* Initialize the list. */

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the head. */
     LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&head, n1, entries);

     n2 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert after. */
     LIST_INSERT_AFTER(n1, n2, entries);

     n3 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert before. */
     LIST_INSERT_BEFORE(n2, n3, entries);

     LIST_REMOVE(n2, entries);               /* Deletion. */
     free(n2);
                                             /* Forward traversal. */
     LIST_FOREACH(np, &head, entries)
             np-> ...

     while (!LIST_EMPTY(&head)) {            /* List Deletion. */
             n1 = LIST_FIRST(&head);
             LIST_REMOVE(n1, entries);
             free(n1);
     }

     n1 = LIST_FIRST(&head);                 /* Faster List Deletion. */
     while (n1 != NULL) {
             n2 = LIST_NEXT(n1, entries);
             free(n1);
             n1 = n2;
     }
     LIST_INIT(&head);

TAIL QUEUES
     A tail queue is headed by a structure defined by the TAILQ_HEAD macro.
     This structure contains a pair of pointers, one to the first element in
     the tail queue and the other to the last element in the tail queue.  The
     elements are doubly linked so that an arbitrary element can be removed
     without traversing the tail queue.  New elements can be added to the tail
     queue after an existing element, before an existing element, at the head
     of the tail queue, or at the end of the tail queue.  A TAILQ_HEAD struc-
     ture is declared as follows:

           TAILQ_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

     where HEADNAME is the name of the structure to be defined, and TYPE is
     the type of the elements to be linked into the tail queue.  A pointer to
     the head of the tail queue can later be declared as:

           struct HEADNAME *headp;

     (The names head and headp are user selectable.)

     The macro TAILQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER evaluates to an initializer for the tail
     queue head.

     The macro TAILQ_EMPTY evaluates to true if there are no items on the tail
     queue.

     The macro TAILQ_ENTRY declares a structure that connects the elements in
     the tail queue.

     The macro TAILQ_FIRST returns the first item on the tail queue or NULL if
     the tail queue is empty.

     The macro TAILQ_FOREACH traverses the tail queue referenced by head in
     the forward direction, assigning each element in turn to var.

     The macro TAILQ_FOREACH_REVERSE traverses the tail queue referenced by
     head in the reverse direction, assigning each element in turn to var.

     The macro TAILQ_INIT initializes the tail queue referenced by head.

     The macro TAILQ_INSERT_HEAD inserts the new element elm at the head of
     the tail queue.

     The macro TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL inserts the new element elm at the end of the
     tail queue.

     The macro TAILQ_INSERT_AFTER inserts the new element elm after the ele-
     ment listelm.

     The macro TAILQ_INSERT_BEFORE inserts the new element elm before the ele-
     ment listelm.

     The macro TAILQ_LAST returns the last item on the tail queue.  If the
     tail queue is empty the return value is undefined.

     The macro TAILQ_NEXT returns the next item on the tail queue, or NULL if
     this item is the last.

     The macro TAILQ_PREV returns the previous item on the tail queue, or NULL
     if this item is the first.

     The macro TAILQ_REMOVE removes the element elm from the tail queue.

TAIL QUEUE EXAMPLE
     TAILQ_HEAD(tailhead, entry) head =
         TAILQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER(head);
     struct tailhead *headp;                 /* Tail queue head. */
     struct entry {
             ...
             TAILQ_ENTRY(entry) entries;     /* Tail queue. */
             ...
     } *n1, *n2, *n3, *np;

     TAILQ_INIT(&head);                      /* Initialize the queue. */

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the head. */
     TAILQ_INSERT_HEAD(&head, n1, entries);

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the tail. */
     TAILQ_INSERT_TAIL(&head, n1, entries);

     n2 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert after. */
     TAILQ_INSERT_AFTER(&head, n1, n2, entries);

     n3 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert before. */
     TAILQ_INSERT_BEFORE(n2, n3, entries);

     TAILQ_REMOVE(&head, n2, entries);       /* Deletion. */
     free(n2);
                                             /* Forward traversal. */
     TAILQ_FOREACH(np, &head, entries)
             np-> ...
                                             /* Reverse traversal. */
     TAILQ_FOREACH_REVERSE(np, &head, tailhead, entries)
             np-> ...
                                             /* TailQ Deletion. */
     while (!TAILQ_EMPTY(&head)) {
             n1 = TAILQ_FIRST(&head);
             TAILQ_REMOVE(&head, n1, entries);
             free(n1);
     }
                                             /* Faster TailQ Deletion. */
     n1 = TAILQ_FIRST(&head);
     while (n1 != NULL) {
             n2 = TAILQ_NEXT(n1, entries);
             free(n1);
             n1 = n2;
     }
     TAILQ_INIT(&head);

CIRCULAR QUEUES
     A circular queue is headed by a structure defined by the CIRCLEQ_HEAD
     macro.  This structure contains a pair of pointers, one to the first ele-
     ment in the circular queue and the other to the last element in the cir-
     cular queue.  The elements are doubly linked so that an arbitrary element
     can be removed without traversing the queue.  New elements can be added
     to the queue after an existing element, before an existing element, at
     the head of the queue, or at the end of the queue.  A CIRCLEQ_HEAD struc-
     ture is declared as follows:

           CIRCLEQ_HEAD(HEADNAME, TYPE) head;

     where HEADNAME is the name of the structure to be defined, and TYPE is
     the type of the elements to be linked into the circular queue.  A pointer
     to the head of the circular queue can later be declared as:

           struct HEADNAME *headp;

     (The names head and headp are user selectable.)

     The macro CIRCLEQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER evaluates to an initializer for the
     circle queue head.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_EMPTY evaluates to true if there are no items on the
     circle queue.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_ENTRY declares a structure that connects the elements
     in the circular queue.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_FIRST returns the first item on the circle queue.

     The macro CICRLEQ_FOREACH traverses the circle queue referenced by head
     in the forward direction, assigning each element in turn to var.

     The macro CICRLEQ_FOREACH_REVERSE traverses the circle queue referenced
     by head in the reverse direction, assigning each element in turn to var.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_INIT initializes the circular queue referenced by head.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_INSERT_HEAD inserts the new element elm at the head of
     the circular queue.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_INSERT_TAIL inserts the new element elm at the end of
     the circular queue.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_INSERT_AFTER inserts the new element elm after the ele-
     ment listelm.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_INSERT_BEFORE inserts the new element elm before the
     element listelm.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_LAST returns the last item on the circle queue.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_NEXT returns the next item on the circle queue.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_PREV returns the previous item on the circle queue.

     The macro CIRCLEQ_REMOVE removes the element elm from the circular queue.

CIRCULAR QUEUE EXAMPLE
     CIRCLEQ_HEAD(circlehead, entry) head =
         CIRCLEQ_HEAD_INITIALIZER(head);
     struct circlehead *headp;               /* Circular queue head. */
     struct entry {
             ...
             CIRCLEQ_ENTRY(entry) entries;   /* Circular queue. */
             ...
     } *n1, *n2, *np;

     CIRCLEQ_INIT(&head);                    /* Initialize the circular queue. */

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the head. */
     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_HEAD(&head, n1, entries);

     n1 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert at the tail. */
     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_TAIL(&head, n1, entries);

     n2 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert after. */
     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_AFTER(&head, n1, n2, entries);

     n2 = malloc(sizeof(struct entry));      /* Insert before. */
     CIRCLEQ_INSERT_BEFORE(&head, n1, n2, entries);

     CIRCLEQ_REMOVE(&head, n1, entries);     /* Deletion. */
     free(n1);
                                             /* Forward traversal. */
     CIRCLEQ_FOREACH(np, &head, entries)
             np-> ...
                                             /* Reverse traversal. */
     CIRCLEQ_FOREACH_REVERSE(np, &head, entries)
             np-> ...
                                             /* CircleQ Deletion. */
     while (CIRCLEQ_FIRST(&head) != (void *)&head) {
             n1 = CIRCLEQ_HEAD(&head);
             CIRCLEQ_REMOVE(&head, n1, entries);
             free(n1);
     }
                                             /* Faster CircleQ Deletion. */
     n1 = CIRCLEQ_FIRST(&head);
     while (n1 != (void *)&head) {
             n2 = CIRCLEQ_NEXT(n1, entries);
             free(n1);
             n1 = n2;
     }
     CIRCLEQ_INIT(&head);

HISTORY
     The queue functions first appeared in 4.4BSD.

FreeBSD 4.10                   January 24, 1994                   FreeBSD 4.10

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SINGLY-LINKED LISTS | SINGLY-LINKED LIST EXAMPLE | SINGLY-LINKED TAIL QUEUES | SINGLY-LINKED TAIL QUEUE EXAMPLE | LISTS | LIST EXAMPLE | TAIL QUEUES | TAIL QUEUE EXAMPLE | CIRCULAR QUEUES | CIRCULAR QUEUE EXAMPLE | HISTORY

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=queue&sektion=3&manpath=FreeBSD+4.10-RELEASE>

home | help