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PS(1)                   FreeBSD General Commands Manual                  PS(1)

NAME
     ps -- process status

SYNOPSIS
     ps [-aCcefhjlmrSTuvwXx] [-G gid[,gid...]] [-M core] [-N system] [-O fmt]
        [-o fmt] [-p pid[,pid...]] [-t tty[,tty...]] [-U
        username[,username...]]
     ps [-L]

DESCRIPTION
     The ps utility displays a header line, followed by lines containing
     information about all of your processes that have controlling terminals.

     A different set of processes can be selected for display by using any
     combination of the -a, -G, -p, -T, -t and -U options.  If more than one
     of these options are given, then ps will select all processes which are
     matched by at least one of the given options.

     For the processes which have been selected for display, ps will display
     one line per process.  By default all of these output lines are sorted
     first by controlling terminal, then by process ID.  The -m, -r, -u, and
     -v options will change the sort order.  If more than one sorting option
     was given, then the selected processes will be sorted by the last sorting
     option which was specified.

     For the processes which have been selected for display, the information
     to display is selected based on a set of keywords (see the -L -O and -o
     options).  The default output format includes, for each process, the
     process' ID, controlling terminal, cpu time (including both user and sys-
     tem time), state, and associated command.

     The process file system (see procfs(5)) should be mounted when ps is exe-
     cuted, otherwise not all information will be available.

     The options are as follows:

     -a      Display information about other users' processes as well as your
             own.  This will skip any processes which do not have a control-
             ling teminal, unless the -x option is also specified.  This can
             be disabled by setting the kern.ps_showallprocs sysctl to zero.

     -c      Change the ``command'' column output to just contain the exe-
             cutable name, rather than the full command line.

     -C      Change the way the cpu percentage is calculated by using a
             ``raw'' cpu calculation that ignores ``resident'' time (this nor-
             mally has no effect).

     -e      Display the environment as well.

     -f      Show commandline and environment information about swapped out
             processes.  This option is honored only if the uid of the user is
             0.

     -G      Display information about processes which are running with the
             specified real group ID(s).

     -h      Repeat the information header as often as necessary to guarantee
             one header per page of information.

     -j      Print information associated with the following keywords: user,
             pid, ppid, pgid, sess, jobc, state, tt, time and command.

     -L      List the set of keywords available for the -O and -o options.

     -l      Display information associated with the following keywords: uid,
             pid, ppid, cpu, pri, nice, vsz, rss, wchan, state, tt, time and
             command.

     -M      Extract values associated with the name list from the specified
             core instead of the currently running system.

     -m      Sort by memory usage, instead of the combination of controlling
             terminal and process ID.

     -N      Extract the name list from the specified system instead of the
             default /kernel.

     -O      Add the information associated with the space or comma separated
             list of keywords specified, after the process ID, in the default
             information display.  Keywords may be appended with an equals
             (``='') sign and a string.  This causes the printed header to use
             the specified string instead of the standard header.

     -o      Display information associated with the space or comma separated
             list of keywords specified.  Multiple keywords may also be given
             in the form of more than one -o option.  Keywords may be appended
             with an equals (``='') sign and a string.  This causes the
             printed header to use the specified string instead of the stan-
             dard header.

     -p      Display information about processes which match the specified
             process ID(s).

     -r      Sort by current cpu usage, instead of the combination of control-
             ling terminal and process ID.

     -S      Change the way the process time is calculated by summing all
             exited children to their parent process.

     -T      Display information about processes attached to the device asso-
             ciated with the standard input.

     -t      Display information about processes attached to the specified
             terminal device(s).

     -U      Display the processes belonging to the specified username(s).

     -u      Display information associated with the following keywords: user,
             pid, %cpu, %mem, vsz, rss, tt, state, start, time and command.
             The -u option implies the -r option.

     -v      Display information associated with the following keywords: pid,
             state, time, sl, re, pagein, vsz, rss, lim, tsiz, %cpu, %mem and
             command.  The -v option implies the -m option.

     -w      Use 132 columns to display information, instead of the default
             which is your window size.  If the -w option is specified more
             than once, ps will use as many columns as necessary without
             regard for your window size.

     -X      When displaying processes matched by other options, skip any pro-
             cesses which do not have a controlling terminal.

     -x      When displaying processes matched by other options, include pro-
             cesses which do not have a controlling terminal.  This is the
             opposite of the -X option.  If both -X and -x are specified in
             the same command, then ps will use the one which was specified
             last.

     A complete list of the available keywords are listed below.  Some of
     these keywords are further specified as follows:

     %cpu    The cpu utilization of the process; this is a decaying average
             over up to a minute of previous (real) time.  Since the time base
             over which this is computed varies (since processes may be very
             young) it is possible for the sum of all %CPU fields to exceed
             100%.

     %mem    The percentage of real memory used by this process.

     flags   The flags associated with the process as in the include file
             <sys/proc.h>:

             P_ADVLOCK      0x00001        Process may hold a POSIX advisory
                                           lock
             P_CONTROLT     0x00002        Has a controlling terminal
             P_INMEM        0x00004        Loaded into memory
             P_PPWAIT       0x00010        Parent is waiting for child to
                                           exec/exit
             P_PROFIL       0x00020        Has started profiling
             P_SELECT       0x00040        Selecting; wakeup/waiting danger
             P_SINTR        0x00080        Sleep is interruptible
             P_SUGID        0x00100        Had set id privileges since last
                                           exec
             P_SYSTEM       0x00200        System proc: no sigs, stats or
                                           swapping
             P_TIMEOUT      0x00400        Timing out during sleep
             P_TRACED       0x00800        Debugged process being traced
             P_WAITED       0x01000        Debugging process has waited for
                                           child
             P_WEXIT        0x02000        Working on exiting
             P_EXEC         0x04000        Process called exec
             P_OWEUPC       0x20000        Owe process an addupc() call at
                                           next ast
             P_SWAPPING     0x40000        Process is being swapped
             P_SWAPINREQ    0x80000        Swapin request due to wakeup
             P_KTHREADP     0x200000       Process is really a kernel thread
             P_DEADLKTREAT  0x800000       Lock acquisition - deadlock
                                           treatment
             P_JAILED       0x1000000      Process is in jail
             P_OLDMASK      0x2000000      Need to restore mask before pause
             P_ALTSTACK     0x4000000      Have alternate signal stack
             P_INEXEC       0x8000000      Process is in execve()

     lim     The soft limit on memory used, specified via a call to
             setrlimit(2).

     lstart  The exact time the command started, using the ``%c'' format
             described in strftime(3).

     nice    The process scheduling increment (see setpriority(2)).

     rss     the real memory (resident set) size of the process (in 1024 byte
             units).

     start   The time the command started.  If the command started less than
             24 hours ago, the start time is displayed using the ``%l:ps.1p''
             format described in strftime(3).  If the command started less
             than 7 days ago, the start time is displayed using the
             ``%a6.15p'' format.  Otherwise, the start time is displayed using
             the ``%e%b%y'' format.

     state   The state is given by a sequence of characters, for example,
             ``RWNA''.  The first character indicates the run state of the
             process:

             D       Marks a process in disk (or other short term, uninter-
                     ruptible) wait.
             I       Marks a process that is idle (sleeping for longer than
                     about 20 seconds).
             R       Marks a runnable process.
             S       Marks a process that is sleeping for less than about 20
                     seconds.
             T       Marks a stopped process.
             Z       Marks a dead process (a ``zombie'').

             Additional characters after these, if any, indicate additional
             state information:

             +       The process is in the foreground process group of its
                     control terminal.
             <       The process has raised CPU scheduling priority.
             E       The process is trying to exit.
             J       Marks a process which is in jail(2).  The hostname of the
                     prison can be found in `/proc/<pid>/status'.
             L       The process has pages locked in core (for example, for
                     raw I/O).
             N       The process has reduced CPU scheduling priority (see
                     setpriority(2)).
             s       The process is a session leader.
             V       The process is suspended during a vfork(2).
             W       The process is swapped out.
             X       The process is being traced or debugged.

     tt      An abbreviation for the pathname of the controlling terminal, if
             any.  The abbreviation consists of the three letters following
             /dev/tty, or, for the console, ``con''.  This is followed by a
             ``-'' if the process can no longer reach that controlling termi-
             nal (i.e., it has been revoked).

     wchan   The event (an address in the system) on which a process waits.
             When printed numerically, the initial part of the address is
             trimmed off and the result is printed in hex, for example,
             0x80324000 prints as 324000.

     When printing using the command keyword, a process that has exited and
     has a parent that has not yet waited for the process (in other words, a
     zombie) is listed as ``<defunct>'', and a process which is blocked while
     trying to exit is listed as ``<exiting>''.  The ps utility makes an edu-
     cated guess as to the file name and arguments given when the process was
     created by examining memory or the swap area.  The method is inherently
     somewhat unreliable and in any event a process is entitled to destroy
     this information, so the names cannot be depended on too much.  The ucomm
     (accounting) keyword can, however, be depended on.

KEYWORDS
     The following is a complete list of the available keywords and their
     meanings.  Several of them have aliases (keywords which are synonyms).

     %cpu       percentage cpu usage (alias pcpu)
     %mem       percentage memory usage (alias pmem)
     acflag     accounting flag (alias acflg)
     command    command and arguments
     cpu        short-term cpu usage factor (for scheduling)
     flags      the process flags, in hexadecimal (alias f)
     inblk      total blocks read (alias inblock)
     jobc       job control count
     ktrace     tracing flags
     ktracep    tracing vnode
     lim        memoryuse limit
     logname    login name of user who started the process
     lstart     time started
     majflt     total page faults
     minflt     total page reclaims
     msgrcv     total messages received (reads from pipes/sockets)
     msgsnd     total messages sent (writes on pipes/sockets)
     nice       nice value (alias ni)
     nivcsw     total involuntary context switches
     nsigs      total signals taken (alias nsignals)
     nswap      total swaps in/out
     nvcsw      total voluntary context switches
     nwchan     wait channel (as an address)
     oublk      total blocks written (alias oublock)
     p_ru       resource usage (valid only for zombie)
     paddr      swap address
     pagein     pageins (same as majflt)
     pgid       process group number
     pid        process ID
     poip       pageouts in progress
     ppid       parent process ID
     pri        scheduling priority
     re         core residency time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
     rgid       real group ID
     rlink      reverse link on run queue, or 0
     rss        resident set size
     rsz        resident set size + (text size / text use count) (alias
                rssize)
     rtprio     realtime priority (101 = not a realtime process)
     ruid       real user ID
     ruser      user name (from ruid)
     sess       session pointer
     sig        pending signals (alias pending)
     sigcatch   caught signals (alias caught)
     sigignore  ignored signals (alias ignored)
     sigmask    blocked signals (alias blocked)
     sl         sleep time (in seconds; 127 = infinity)
     start      time started
     state      symbolic process state (alias stat)
     svgid      saved gid from a setgid executable
     svuid      saved uid from a setuid executable
     tdev       control terminal device number
     time       accumulated cpu time, user + system (alias cputime)
     tpgid      control terminal process group ID
     tsess      control terminal session pointer
     tsiz       text size (in Kbytes)
     tt         control terminal name (two letter abbreviation)
     tty        full name of control terminal
     uprocp     process pointer
     ucomm      name to be used for accounting
     uid        effective user ID
     upr        scheduling priority on return from system call (alias usrpri)
     user       user name (from uid)
     vsz        virtual size in Kbytes (alias vsize)
     wchan      wait channel (as a symbolic name)
     xstat      exit or stop status (valid only for stopped or zombie process)

FILES
     /dev/kmem              default kernel memory
     /var/run/dev.db        /dev name database
     /var/db/kvm_kernel.db  system namelist database
     /kernel                default system namelist
     /proc                  the mount point of procfs(5)

SEE ALSO
     kill(1), w(1), kvm(3), strftime(3), procfs(5), pstat(8), sysctl(8)

STANDARDS
     For historical reasons, ps utility under FreeBSD supports a different set
     of options from what is described by IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2''), and
     what is supported on non-BSD operating systems.

HISTORY
     The ps command appeared in Version 4 AT&T UNIX.

BUGS
     Since ps cannot run faster than the system and is run as any other sched-
     uled process, the information it displays can never be exact.

     The ps utility does not correctly display argument lists containing
     multibyte characters.

FreeBSD 4.10                    March 27, 2004                    FreeBSD 4.10

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | KEYWORDS | FILES | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS | HISTORY | BUGS

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