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PPPD(8)								       PPPD(8)

NAME
       pppd - Point to Point Protocol daemon

SYNOPSIS
       pppd [ tty_name ] [ speed ] [ options ]

DESCRIPTION
       The  Point-to-Point  Protocol  (PPP) provides a method for transmitting
       datagrams over serial point-to-point links.  PPP	is composed  of	 three
       parts:  a  method  for  encapsulating  datagrams	 over serial links, an
       extensible Link Control Protocol	(LCP), and a family of Network Control
       Protocols  (NCP)	 for  establishing  and	configuring different network-
       layer protocols.

       The encapsulation scheme	is provided by	driver	code  in  the  kernel.
       Pppd  provides  the  basic  LCP,	authentication support,	and an NCP for
       establishing and	configuring the	Internet Protocol (IP) (called the  IP
       Control Protocol, IPCP).

FREQUENTLY USED	OPTIONS
       _tty_name_
	      Communicate  over	 the  named  device.   The  string  "/dev/" is
	      prepended	if necessary.  If no device name is given, or  if  the
	      name  of	the terminal connected to the standard input is	given,
	      pppd will	use that terminal, and will not	fork to	put itself  in
	      the  background.	This option is privileged if the noauth	option
	      is used.

       _speed_
	      Set the baud rate	to <speed> (a  decimal	number).   On  systems
	      such as 4.4BSD and NetBSD, any speed can be specified, providing
	      that it is supported by the serial device	driver.	 Other systems
	      (e.g. SunOS, Linux) allow	only a limited set of speeds.

       active-filter filter-expression
	      Specifies	 a  packet  filter  to	be  applied to data packets to
	      determine	which packets are to be	regarded as link activity, and
	      therefore	 reset the idle	timer, or cause	the link to be brought
	      up in demand-dialling mode.  This	option is useful  in  conjunc-
	      tion  with  the  idle  option if there are packets being sent or
	      received regularly over the link (for example, routing  informa-
	      tion  packets)  which would otherwise prevent the	link from ever
	      appearing	to  be	idle.	The  filter-expression	syntax	is  as
	      described	for tcpdump(1),	except that qualifiers which are inap-
	      propriate	for a PPP link,	such as	ether and arp, are not permit-
	      ted.  Generally the filter expression should be enclosed in sin-
	      gle-quotes to prevent whitespace in the  expression  from	 being
	      interpreted  by  the  shell.  This option	only available if both
	      the kernel and pppd were compiled	with PPP_FILTER	defined.

       asyncmap	_map_
	      Set the async character map to <map>.  This map describes	 which
	      control  characters  cannot  be  successfully  received over the
	      serial line.  Pppd will ask the peer to send these characters as
	      a	 2-byte	 escape	sequence.  The argument	is a 32	bit hex	number
	      with each	 bit  representing  a  character  to  escape.	Bit  0
	      (00000001) represents the	character 0x00;	bit 31 (80000000) rep-
	      resents the character 0x1f or ^_.	 If multiple asyncmap  options
	      are  given, the values are ORed together.	 If no asyncmap	option
	      is given,	no async character map	will  be  negotiated  for  the
	      receive direction; the peer should then escape all control char-
	      acters.	To  escape  transmitted	 characters,  use  the	escape
	      option.

       auth   Require  the peer	to authenticate	itself before allowing network
	      packets to be sent or received.

       call name
	      Read options from	the file /etc/ppp/peers/name.  This  file  may
	      contain  privileged options, such	as noauth, even	if pppd	is not
	      being run	by root.  The name string may  not  begin  with	 /  or
	      include  ..  as a	pathname component.  The format	of the options
	      file is described	below.

       connect script
	      Use the executable or shell command specified by script  to  set
	      up the serial line.  This	script would typically use the chat(8)
	      program to dial the modem	and  start  the	 remote	 ppp  session.
	      This option is privileged	if the noauth option is	used.

       connect-max-attempts _n_
	      Attempt dial-out connection to remote system no more than	speci-
	      fied number of times (default = 1).  If the  connection  is  not
	      made, pppd will exit.  Requires that persist has been specified.

       crtscts
	      Use hardware flow	control	(i.e. RTS/CTS) to control the flow  of
	      data  on	the  serial  port.   If	 neither  the  crtscts nor the
	      nocrtscts	option is given, the hardware flow control setting for
	      the serial port is left unchanged.

       defaultroute
	      Add a default route to the system	routing	tables,	using the peer
	      as the gateway, when IPCP	negotiation is successfully completed.
	      This  entry  is removed when the PPP connection is broken.  This
	      option is	privileged if the nodefaultroute option	has been spec-
	      ified.

       disconnect script
	      Run  the	executable  or shell command specified by script after
	      pppd has terminated the link.  This script could,	 for  example,
	      issue  commands  to the modem to cause it	to hang	up if hardware
	      modem control signals were not available.	 The disconnect	script
	      is  not  run  if	the modem has already hung up.	This option is
	      privileged if the	noauth option is used.

       escape xx,yy,...
	      Specifies	that certain characters	should be escaped on transmis-
	      sion (regardless of whether the peer requests them to be escaped
	      with its async control character map).   The  characters	to  be
	      escaped are specified as a list of hex numbers separated by com-
	      mas.  Note that almost any character can be  specified  for  the
	      escape option, unlike the	asyncmap option	which only allows con-
	      trol characters to be specified.	The characters which  may  not
	      be escaped are those with	hex values 0x20	- 0x3f or 0x5e.

       file name
	      Read  options  from  file	 name (the format is described below).
	      The file must be readable	by the user who	has invoked pppd.

       lock   Specifies	that pppd should create	a UUCP-style lock file for the
	      serial device to ensure exclusive	access to the device.

       mru n  Set  the	MRU  [Maximum Receive Unit] value to n.	 Pppd will ask
	      the peer to send packets of no more than n bytes.	  The  minimum
	      MRU  value  is  128.  The	default	MRU value is 1500.  A value of
	      296 is recommended for slow links	(40 bytes for TCP/IP header  +
	      256  bytes  of  data).  (Note that for IPv6 MRU must be at least
	      1280)

       mtu n  Set the MTU [Maximum Transmit Unit] value	to n.  Unless the peer
	      requests	a smaller value	via MRU	negotiation, pppd will request
	      that the kernel networking code send data	 packets  of  no  more
	      than  n bytes through the	PPP network interface.	(Note that for
	      IPv6 MTU must be at least	1280)

       passive
	      Enables the "passive" option in the LCP.	With this option, pppd
	      will  attempt  to	initiate a connection; if no reply is received
	      from the peer, pppd will then just wait passively	 for  a	 valid
	      LCP  packet from the peer, instead of exiting, as	it would with-
	      out this option.

OPTIONS
       _local_IP_address_:_remote_IP_address_
	      Set the local and/or remote interface IP addresses.  Either  one
	      may  be  omitted.	 The IP	addresses can be specified with	a host
	      name or in  decimal  dot	notation  (e.g.	 150.234.56.78).   The
	      default  local  address  is the (first) IP address of the	system
	      (unless the noipdefault option is	given).	  The  remote  address
	      will  be	obtained from the peer if not specified	in any option.
	      Thus, in simple cases, this option is not	required.  If a	 local
	      and/or  remote  IP  address  is specified	with this option, pppd
	      will not accept a	different value	from  the  peer	 in  the  IPCP
	      negotiation,  unless  the	 ipcp-accept-local and/or ipcp-accept-
	      remote options are given,	respectively.

       ipv6 _local_interface_identifier_,_remote_interface_identifier_
	      Set the local and/or remote 64-bit interface identifier.	Either
	      one may be omitted. The identifier must be specified in standard
	      ascii notation of	IPv6  addresses	 (e.g.	::dead:beef).  If  the
	      ipv6cp-use-ipaddr	 option	 is given, the local identifier	is the
	      local IPv4 address (see above).  On  systems  which  supports  a
	      unique  persistent  id, such as EUI-48 derived from the Ethernet
	      MAC address, ipv6cp-use-persistent option	can be used to replace
	      the  ipv6	 _local_,_remote_  option. Otherwise the identifier is
	      randomized.

       bsdcomp nr,nt
	      Request that the peer compress packets that it sends, using  the
	      BSD-Compress  scheme,  with  a maximum code size of nr bits, and
	      agree to compress	packets	sent to	the peer with a	 maximum  code
	      size  of	nt  bits.   If nt is not specified, it defaults	to the
	      value given for nr.  Values in the range 9 to 15 may be used for
	      nr  and  nt;  larger  values give	better compression but consume
	      more kernel memory for compression dictionaries.	Alternatively,
	      a	 value	of  0  for nr or nt disables compression in the	corre-
	      sponding direction.  Use nobsdcomp or bsdcomp 0 to disable  BSD-
	      Compress compression entirely.

       callback	phone_number
	      Request a	call-back to the phone_number.	This only works	if the
	      peer is speaking the Call	Back Configuration Protocol.   Do  not
	      put  this	into the main options file if you sometimes connect to
	      servers that don't support it.

       chap-interval n
	      If this option is	given, pppd will rechallenge the peer every  n
	      seconds.

       chap-max-challenge n
	      Set  the	maximum	 number	 of  CHAP challenge transmissions to n
	      (default 10).

       chap-restart n
	      Set the CHAP restart interval (retransmission timeout for	 chal-
	      lenges) to n seconds (default 3).

       debug  Enables  connection  debugging  facilities.   If	this option is
	      given, pppd will log the contents	of all control packets sent or
	      received	in  a  readable	 form.	The packets are	logged through
	      syslog with facility daemon and level debug.   This  information
	      can  be directed to a file by setting up /etc/syslog.conf	appro-
	      priately (see syslog.conf(5)).

       default-asyncmap
	      Disable asyncmap negotiation, forcing all	control	characters  to
	      be escaped for both the transmit and the receive direction.

       default-mru
	      Disable  MRU  [Maximum  Receive  Unit]  negotiation.   With this
	      option, pppd will	use the	default	MRU value of  1500  bytes  for
	      both the transmit	and receive direction.

       deflate nr,nt
	      Request  that the	peer compress packets that it sends, using the
	      Deflate scheme, with a maximum window size of 2**nr  bytes,  and
	      agree to compress	packets	sent to	the peer with a	maximum	window
	      size of 2**nt bytes.  If nt is not specified, it defaults	to the
	      value given for nr.  Values in the range 8 to 15 may be used for
	      nr and nt; larger	values give  better  compression  but  consume
	      more kernel memory for compression dictionaries.	Alternatively,
	      a	value of 0 for nr or nt	disables  compression  in  the	corre-
	      sponding	direction.   Use  nodeflate  or	 deflate  0 to disable
	      Deflate compression entirely.  (Note: pppd requests Deflate com-
	      pression	in  preference	to  BSD-Compress  if  the  peer	can do
	      either.)

       demand Initiate the link	only on	demand,	 i.e.  when  data  traffic  is
	      present.	With this option, the remote IP	address	must be	speci-
	      fied by the user on the command line  or	in  an	options	 file.
	      Pppd will	initially configure the	interface and enable it	for IP
	      traffic without connecting to the	peer.  When traffic is	avail-
	      able,  pppd  will	 connect  to the peer and perform negotiation,
	      authentication, etc.  When this is completed, pppd will commence
	      passing data packets (i.e., IP packets) across the link.

	      The demand option	implies	the persist option.  If	this behaviour
	      is not desired,  use  the	 nopersist  option  after  the	demand
	      option.	The  idle  and holdoff options are also	useful in con-
	      junction with the	demand option.

       domain d
	      Append the domain	name d to the local host name for  authentica-
	      tion  purposes.	For example, if	gethostname() returns the name
	      porsche,	 but   the   fully   qualified	  domain    name    is
	      porsche.Quotron.COM, you could specify domain Quotron.COM.  Pppd
	      would then use  the  name	 porsche.Quotron.COM  for  looking  up
	      secrets  in the secrets file, and	as the default name to send to
	      the peer when authenticating itself to the peer.	This option is
	      privileged.

       holdoff n
	      Specifies	how many seconds to wait before	re-initiating the link
	      after it terminates.  This option	only has  any  effect  if  the
	      persist  or  demand  option  is used.  The holdoff period	is not
	      applied if the link was terminated because it was	idle.

       idle n Specifies	that pppd should disconnect if the link	is idle	for  n
	      seconds.	 The  link is idle when	no data	packets	(i.e. IP pack-
	      ets) are being sent or received.	Note: it is not	 advisable  to
	      use  this	 option	 with  the  persist  option without the	demand
	      option.  If the active-filter  option  is	 given,	 data  packets
	      which  are  rejected by the specified activity filter also count
	      as the link being	idle.

       ipcp-accept-local
	      With this	option,	pppd will accept the peer's idea of our	 local
	      IP  address,  even  if  the local	IP address was specified in an
	      option.

       ipcp-accept-remote
	      With this	option,	pppd  will  accept  the	 peer's	 idea  of  its
	      (remote) IP address, even	if the remote IP address was specified
	      in an option.

       ipcp-max-configure n
	      Set the maximum number of	IPCP  configure-request	 transmissions
	      to n (default 10).

       ipcp-max-failure	n
	      Set  the	maximum	 number	of IPCP	configure-NAKs returned	before
	      starting to send configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       ipcp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum number of	IPCP  terminate-request	 transmissions
	      to n (default 3).

       ipcp-restart n
	      Set the IPCP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to	n sec-
	      onds (default 3).

       ipparam string
	      Provides an extra	parameter to the ip-up	and  ip-down  scripts.
	      If this option is	given, the string supplied is given as the 6th
	      parameter	to those scripts.

       ipv6cp-max-configure n
	      Set the maximum number of	IPv6CP configure-request transmissions
	      to n (default 10).

       ipv6cp-max-failure n
	      Set  the maximum number of IPv6CP	configure-NAKs returned	before
	      starting to send configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       ipv6cp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum number of	IPv6CP terminate-request transmissions
	      to n (default 3).

       ipv6cp-restart n
	      Set  the	IPv6CP	restart	interval (retransmission timeout) to n
	      seconds (default 3).

       ipx    Enable the IPXCP and IPX protocols.  This	 option	 is  presently
	      only  supported  under  Linux,  and only if your kernel has been
	      configured to include IPX	support.

       ipx-network n
	      Set the IPX network number in the	IPXCP configure	request	 frame
	      to  n, a hexadecimal number (without a leading 0x).  There is no
	      valid default.  If this option is	 not  specified,  the  network
	      number is	obtained from the peer.	 If the	peer does not have the
	      network number, the IPX protocol will not	be started.

       ipx-node	n:m
	      Set the IPX node numbers.	 The two node  numbers	are  separated
	      from  each  other	with a colon character.	 The first number n is
	      the local	node number.  The second number	m is the  peer's  node
	      number.	Each  node  number is a	hexadecimal number, at most 10
	      digits long.  The	 node  numbers	on  the	 ipx-network  must  be
	      unique.  There is	no valid default.  If this option is not spec-
	      ified then the node numbers are obtained from the	peer.

       ipx-router-name _string_
	      Set the name of the router.  This	is a string and	is sent	to the
	      peer as information data.

       ipx-routing n
	      Set  the	routing	 protocol to be	received by this option.  More
	      than one instance	of ipx-routing may be specified.   The	'none'
	      option (0) may be	specified as the only instance of ipx-routing.
	      The values may be	0 for NONE, 2 for RIP/SAP, and 4 for NLSP.

       ipxcp-accept-local
	      Accept the peer's	NAK for	the node number	specified in the  ipx-
	      node  option.  If	a node number was specified, and non-zero, the
	      default is to insist that	the value be  used.   If  you  include
	      this  option then	you will permit	the peer to override the entry
	      of the node number.

       ipxcp-accept-network
	      Accept the peer's	NAK for	the network number  specified  in  the
	      ipx-network option.  If a	network	number was specified, and non-
	      zero, the	default	is to insist that the value be used.   If  you
	      include  this  option  then you will permit the peer to override
	      the entry	of the node number.

       ipxcp-accept-remote
	      Use the peer's network number specified in the configure request
	      frame.   If  a  node  number was specified for the peer and this
	      option was not specified,	the peer will be  forced  to  use  the
	      value which you have specified.

       ipxcp-max-configure n
	      Set  the	maximum	number of IPXCP	configure request frames which
	      the system will send to n.  The default is 10.

       ipxcp-max-failure n
	      Set the maximum number of	IPXCP NAK frames which the local  sys-
	      tem  will	send before it rejects the options.  The default value
	      is 3.

       ipxcp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum number of	IPXCP terminate	request	frames	before
	      the  local  system  considers  that the peer is not listening to
	      them.  The default value is 3.

       kdebug n
	      Enable debugging code in the kernel-level	PPP driver.  The argu-
	      ment  n  is a number which is the	sum of the following values: 1
	      to enable	general	debug messages,	2 to request that the contents
	      of  received  packets be printed,	and 4 to request that the con-
	      tents of transmitted packets be printed.	On most	systems,  mes-
	      sages printed by the kernel are logged by	syslog(1) to a file as
	      directed in the /etc/syslog.conf configuration file.

       lcp-echo-failure	n
	      If this option is	given, pppd will presume the peer to  be  dead
	      if  n  LCP  echo-requests	are sent without receiving a valid LCP
	      echo-reply.  If this happens, pppd will  terminate  the  connec-
	      tion.  Use of this option	requires a non-zero value for the lcp-
	      echo-interval parameter.	This option can	be used	to enable pppd
	      to  terminate  after  the	 physical  connection  has been	broken
	      (e.g., the modem has hung	up) in situations  where  no  hardware
	      modem control lines are available.

       lcp-echo-interval n
	      If  this	option	is  given,  pppd will send an LCP echo-request
	      frame to the peer	every n	seconds.   Normally  the  peer	should
	      respond  to  the	echo-request  by  sending an echo-reply.  This
	      option can be used with the lcp-echo-failure  option  to	detect
	      that the peer is no longer connected.

       lcp-max-configure n
	      Set the maximum number of	LCP configure-request transmissions to
	      n	(default 10).

       lcp-max-failure n
	      Set the maximum number of	 LCP  configure-NAKs  returned	before
	      starting to send configure-Rejects instead to n (default 10).

       lcp-max-terminate n
	      Set the maximum number of	LCP terminate-request transmissions to
	      n	(default 3).

       lcp-restart n
	      Set the LCP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to n  sec-
	      onds (default 3).

       local  Don't  use the modem control lines.  With	this option, pppd will
	      ignore the state of the CD  (Carrier  Detect)  signal  from  the
	      modem  and  will	not change the state of	the DTR	(Data Terminal
	      Ready) signal.

       login  Use the system password database	for  authenticating  the  peer
	      using  PAP,  and	record the user	in the system wtmp file.  Note
	      that the peer must have an  entry	 in  the  /etc/ppp/pap-secrets
	      file  as	well  as  the  system  password	database to be allowed
	      access.

       maxconnect n
	      Terminate	the connection when it has been	available for  network
	      traffic  for  n  seconds (i.e. n seconds after the first network
	      control protocol comes up).

       modem  Use the modem control lines.  This option	is the default.	  With
	      this  option,  pppd will wait for	the CD (Carrier	Detect)	signal
	      from the modem to	be asserted when  opening  the	serial	device
	      (unless a	connect	script is specified), and it will drop the DTR
	      (Data Terminal Ready) signal briefly when	the connection is ter-
	      minated  and  before  executing  the connect script.  On Ultrix,
	      this option implies hardware flow	control, as  for  the  crtscts
	      option.

       ms-dns _addr_
	      If  pppd	is  acting  as a server	for Microsoft Windows clients,
	      this option allows pppd to supply	one or two  DNS	 (Domain  Name
	      Server)  addresses  to  the clients.  The	first instance of this
	      option specifies the primary DNS address;	 the  second  instance
	      (if  given)  specifies  the secondary DNS	address.  (This	option
	      was present in some older	versions of pppd under the  name  dns-
	      addr.)

       ms-wins _addr_
	      If  pppd	is acting as a server for Microsoft Windows or "Samba"
	      clients, this option allows pppd to supply one or	two WINS (Win-
	      dows  Internet  Name  Services) server addresses to the clients.
	      The first	instance of this option	 specifies  the	 primary  WINS
	      address;	the second instance (if	given) specifies the secondary
	      WINS address.

       name name
	      Set the name of the local	system for authentication purposes  to
	      name.  This is a privileged option.  With	this option, pppd will
	      use lines	in the secrets files which have	 name  as  the	second
	      field  when  looking  for	 a secret to use in authenticating the
	      peer.  In	addition, unless overridden with the user option, name
	      will be used as the name to send to the peer when	authenticating
	      the local	system to the peer.  (Note that	pppd does  not	append
	      the domain name to name.)

       netmask n
	      Set  the	interface  netmask  to n, a 32 bit netmask in "decimal
	      dot" notation (e.g. 255.255.255.0).  If this  option  is	given,
	      the  value  specified  is	 ORed  with  the default netmask.  The
	      default netmask is chosen	based  on  the	negotiated  remote  IP
	      address; it is the appropriate network mask for the class	of the
	      remote IP	address, ORed with the netmasks	for any	non  point-to-
	      point  network  interfaces  in  the system which are on the same
	      network.

       noaccomp
	      Disable Address/Control compression in both directions (send and
	      receive).

       noauth Do  not require the peer to authenticate itself.	This option is
	      privileged if the	auth option is specified in  /etc/ppp/options.

       nobsdcomp
	      Disables	BSD-Compress  compression;  pppd  will	not request or
	      agree to compress	packets	using the BSD-Compress scheme.

       noccp  Disable CCP (Compression Control	Protocol)  negotiation.	  This
	      option  should  only  be	required if the	peer is	buggy and gets
	      confused by requests from	pppd for CCP negotiation.

       nocrtscts
	      Disable hardware flow control (i.e. RTS/CTS) on the serial port.
	      If  neither  the	crtscts	nor the	nocrtscts option is given, the
	      hardware flow control  setting  for  the	serial	port  is  left
	      unchanged.

       nodefaultroute
	      Disable  the  defaultroute option.  The system administrator who
	      wishes to	prevent	users from creating default routes  with  pppd
	      can do so	by placing this	option in the /etc/ppp/options file.

       nodeflate
	      Disables	Deflate	compression; pppd will not request or agree to
	      compress packets using the Deflate scheme.

       nodetach
	      Don't  detach  from  the	controlling  terminal.	 Without  this
	      option,  if a serial device other	than the terminal on the stan-
	      dard input is specified, pppd will fork to become	 a  background
	      process.

       noip   Disable  IPCP  negotiation  and  IP  communication.  This	option
	      should only be required if the peer is buggy and	gets  confused
	      by requests from pppd for	IPCP negotiation.

       noipv6 Disable  IPv6CP  negotiation and IPv6 communication. This	option
	      should only be required if the peer is buggy and	gets  confused
	      by requests from pppd for	IPv6CP negotiation.

       noipdefault
	      Disables the default behaviour when no local IP address is spec-
	      ified, which is to determine (if possible) the local IP  address
	      from the hostname.  With this option, the	peer will have to sup-
	      ply the local IP address	during	IPCP  negotiation  (unless  it
	      specified	explicitly on the command line or in an	options	file).

       noipx  Disable the IPXCP	and IPX	protocols.  This option	should only be
	      required if the peer is buggy and	gets confused by requests from
	      pppd for IPXCP negotiation.

       nomagic
	      Disable magic number negotiation.	 With this option, pppd	cannot
	      detect a looped-back line.  This option should only be needed if
	      the peer is buggy.

       nopcomp
	      Disable protocol	field  compression  negotiation	 in  both  the
	      receive and the transmit direction.

       nopersist
	      Exit  once  a  connection	has been made and terminated.  This is
	      the default unless the persist or	demand option has been	speci-
	      fied.

       nopredictor1
	      Do not accept or agree to	Predictor-1 compression.

       noproxyarp
	      Disable  the  proxyarp  option.	The  system  administrator who
	      wishes to	prevent	users from creating  proxy  ARP	 entries  with
	      pppd  can	 do  so	by placing this	option in the /etc/ppp/options
	      file.

       novj   Disable Van Jacobson style TCP/IP	header compression in both the
	      transmit and the receive direction.

       novjccomp
	      Disable  the  connection-ID  compression	option in Van Jacobson
	      style TCP/IP header compression.	With this  option,  pppd  will
	      not  omit	 the  connection-ID  byte from Van Jacobson compressed
	      TCP/IP headers, nor ask the peer to do so.

       papcrypt
	      Indicates	that all  secrets  in  the  /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  file
	      which  are  used	for  checking  the  identity  of  the peer are
	      encrypted, and thus pppd should not  accept  a  password	which,
	      before   encryption,   is	 identical  to	the  secret  from  the
	      /etc/ppp/pap-secrets file.

       pap-max-authreq n
	      Set the maximum number of	PAP authenticate-request transmissions
	      to n (default 10).

       pap-restart n
	      Set  the PAP restart interval (retransmission timeout) to	n sec-
	      onds (default 3).

       pap-timeout n
	      Set the maximum time that	pppd will wait for the peer to authen-
	      ticate itself with PAP to	n seconds (0 means no limit).

       pass-filter filter-expression
	      Specifies	 a packet filter to applied to data packets being sent
	      or received to determine which  packets  should  be  allowed  to
	      pass.   Packets  which  are  rejected by the filter are silently
	      discarded.  This option can be used to prevent specific  network
	      daemons  (such as	routed)	using up link bandwidth, or to provide
	      a	basic firewall capability.  The	filter-expression syntax is as
	      described	for tcpdump(1),	except that qualifiers which are inap-
	      propriate	for a PPP link,	such as	ether and arp, are not permit-
	      ted.  Generally the filter expression should be enclosed in sin-
	      gle-quotes to prevent whitespace in the  expression  from	 being
	      interpreted  by  the  shell.   Note that it is possible to apply
	      different	constraints to incoming	and outgoing packets using the
	      inbound  and outbound qualifiers.	 This option is	currently only
	      available	under NetBSD, and then only if	both  the  kernel  and
	      pppd were	compiled with PPP_FILTER defined.

       persist
	      Do  not  exit  after  a connection is terminated;	instead	try to
	      reopen the connection.

       predictor1
	      Request that the peer compress frames that it sends  using  Pre-
	      dictor-1	compression,  and agree	to compress transmitted	frames
	      with Predictor-1 if requested.  This option has no effect	unless
	      the kernel driver	supports Predictor-1 compression.

       proxyarp
	      Add  an entry to this system's ARP [Address Resolution Protocol]
	      table with the IP	address	of the peer and	the  Ethernet  address
	      of  this	system.	  This will have the effect of making the peer
	      appear to	other systems to be on the local ethernet.

       remotename name
	      Set the assumed name of the  remote  system  for	authentication
	      purposes to name.

       refuse-chap
	      With  this option, pppd will not agree to	authenticate itself to
	      the peer using CHAP.

       refuse-pap
	      With this	option,	pppd will not agree to authenticate itself  to
	      the peer using PAP.

       require-chap
	      Require  the  peer  to authenticate itself using CHAP [Challenge
	      Handshake	Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       require-pap
	      Require the peer to  authenticate	 itself	 using	PAP  [Password
	      Authentication Protocol] authentication.

       silent With this	option,	pppd will not transmit LCP packets to initiate
	      a	connection until a valid LCP packet is received	from the  peer
	      (as for the `passive' option with	ancient	versions of pppd).

       usehostname
	      Enforce  the  use	of the hostname	(with domain name appended, if
	      given) as	the name of the	local system for  authentication  pur-
	      poses (overrides the name	option).

       user name
	      Sets  the	 name  used for	authenticating the local system	to the
	      peer to name.

       vj-max-slots n
	      Sets the number of connection slots to be	used by	the Van	Jacob-
	      son TCP/IP header	compression and	decompression code to n, which
	      must be between 2	and 16 (inclusive).

       welcome script
	      Run the executable or shell command specified by	script	before
	      initiating  PPP  negotiation,  after the connect script (if any)
	      has completed.  This option is privileged	if the	noauth	option
	      is used.

       xonxoff
	      Use software flow	control	(i.e. XON/XOFF)	to control the flow of
	      data on the serial port.

OPTIONS	FILES
       Options can be taken from files as well	as  the	 command  line.	  Pppd
       reads   options	 from	the   files   /etc/ppp/options,	 ~/.ppprc  and
       /etc/ppp/options.ttyname	(in that order)	before processing the  options
       on the command line.  (In fact, the command-line	options	are scanned to
       find the	terminal name before the options.ttyname file  is  read.)   In
       forming	the  name  of  the  options.ttyname file, the initial /dev/ is
       removed from the	terminal name, and  any	 remaining  /  characters  are
       replaced	with dots.

       An  options  file is parsed into	a series of words, delimited by	white-
       space.  Whitespace can be included in a word by enclosing the  word  in
       double-quotes  (").  A backslash	(\) quotes the following character.  A
       hash (#)	starts a comment, which	continues until	the end	of  the	 line.
       There  is  no  restriction  on using the	file or	call options within an
       options file.

SECURITY
       pppd provides system administrators with	sufficient access control that
       PPP  access  to	a  server  machine can be provided to legitimate users
       without fear of compromising the	security of the	server or the  network
       it's  on.  In part this is provided by the /etc/ppp/options file, where
       the administrator can place options to restrict the ways	in which  pppd
       can  be	used, and in part by the PAP and CHAP secrets files, where the
       administrator can restrict the set of  IP  addresses  which  individual
       users may use.

       The normal way that pppd	should be set up is to have the	auth option in
       the /etc/ppp/options file.  (This  may  become  the  default  in	 later
       releases.)   If users wish to use pppd to dial out to a peer which will
       refuse to authenticate itself (such as an internet  service  provider),
       the   system   administrator   should  create  an  options  file	 under
       /etc/ppp/peers containing the noauth option, the	 name  of  the	serial
       port  to	 use,  and  the	 connect  option (if required),	plus any other
       appropriate options.  In	this way, pppd can be set  up  to  allow  non-
       privileged  users  to  make unauthenticated connections only to trusted
       peers.

       As indicated above, some	 security-sensitive  options  are  privileged,
       which  means  that  they	 may not be used by an ordinary	non-privileged
       user running a setuid-root pppd,	either on the  command	line,  in  the
       user's ~/.ppprc file, or	in an options file read	using the file option.
       Privileged options may be  used	in  /etc/ppp/options  file  or	in  an
       options	file  read using the call option.  If pppd is being run	by the
       root user, privileged options can be used without restriction.

AUTHENTICATION
       Authentication is the process whereby one peer convinces	the  other  of
       its  identity.	This  involves	the first peer sending its name	to the
       other, together with some kind of secret	information which  could  only
       come  from  the	genuine	 authorized  user  of  that  name.  In such an
       exchange, we will call the first	peer the "client" and  the  other  the
       "server".   The	client has a name by which it identifies itself	to the
       server, and the server also has a name by which it identifies itself to
       the  client.  Generally the genuine client shares some secret (or pass-
       word) with the server, and authenticates	 itself	 by  proving  that  it
       knows  that secret.  Very often,	the names used for authentication cor-
       respond to the internet hostnames of the	peers, but this	is not	essen-
       tial.

       At  present,  pppd  supports two	authentication protocols: the Password
       Authentication Protocol (PAP) and the Challenge	Handshake  Authentica-
       tion  Protocol  (CHAP).	PAP involves the client	sending	its name and a
       cleartext password to the server	to authenticate	itself.	 In  contrast,
       the  server  initiates  the  CHAP  authentication exchange by sending a
       challenge to the	client (the challenge  packet  includes	 the  server's
       name).  The client must respond with a response which includes its name
       plus a hash value derived from the shared secret	and the	challenge,  in
       order to	prove that it knows the	secret.

       The  PPP	 protocol, being symmetrical, allows both peers	to require the
       other to	authenticate itself.  In that case, two	separate and  indepen-
       dent  authentication exchanges will occur.  The two exchanges could use
       different authentication	protocols, and in principle,  different	 names
       could be	used in	the two	exchanges.

       The default behaviour of	pppd is	to agree to authenticate if requested,
       and to not require authentication from the peer.	  However,  pppd  will
       not  agree  to authenticate itself with a particular protocol if	it has
       no secrets which	could be used to do so.

       Pppd  stores  secrets  for  use	in  authentication  in	secrets	 files
       (/etc/ppp/pap-secrets  for  PAP,	/etc/ppp/chap-secrets for CHAP).  Both
       secrets files have the same format.   The  secrets  files  can  contain
       secrets	for  pppd to use in authenticating itself to other systems, as
       well as secrets for pppd	to use when authenticating  other  systems  to
       itself.

       Each  line  in  a  secrets file contains	one secret.  A given secret is
       specific	to a particular	combination of client and server - it can only
       be  used	 by  that  client to authenticate itself to that server.  Thus
       each line in a secrets file has at least	3  fields:  the	 name  of  the
       client,	the  name  of the server, and the secret.  These fields	may be
       followed	by a list of the IP addresses that the	specified  client  may
       use when	connecting to the specified server.

       A  secrets  file	 is  parsed  into words	as for an options file,	so the
       client name, server name	and secrets fields must	each be	one word, with
       any embedded spaces or other special characters quoted or escaped.  Any
       following words on the same line	are taken to be	a list	of  acceptable
       IP  addresses  for  that	 client,  or  an  override  for	"local:remote"
       addresses (the same format used on the command line or in  the  options
       file)  when on a	line that contains a specific client name (not a wild-
       card nor	empty).	 If there are only 3 words on  the  line,  or  if  the
       first  word is "-", then	all IP addresses are disallowed.  To allow any
       address,	use "*".  A word starting with "!" indicates that  the	speci-
       fied  address is	not acceptable.	 An address may	be followed by "/" and
       a number	n, to indicate a whole subnet, i.e. all	addresses  which  have
       the  same value in the most significant n bits.	Note that case is sig-
       nificant	in the client and server names and in the secret.

       If the secret starts with an `@', what follows is  assumed  to  be  the
       name  of	 a file	from which to read the secret.	A "*" as the client or
       server name matches any name.  When selecting a secret, pppd takes  the
       best match, i.e.	 the match with	the fewest wildcards.

       Thus  a	secrets	 file  contains	both secrets for use in	authenticating
       other hosts, plus secrets which we use for authenticating ourselves  to
       others.	 When  pppd  is	 authenticating	 the peer (checking the	peer's
       identity), it chooses a secret with the peer's name in the first	 field
       and  the	name of	the local system in the	second field.  The name	of the
       local system defaults to	the hostname, with the domain name appended if
       the  domain  option  is	used.  This default can	be overridden with the
       name option, except when	the usehostname	option is used.

       When pppd is choosing a secret to use in	authenticating itself  to  the
       peer,  it  first	 determines  what  name	it is going to use to identify
       itself to the peer.  This name can be specified by the  user  with  the
       user option.  If	this option is not used, the name defaults to the name
       of the local system, determined as described in the previous paragraph.
       Then  pppd looks	for a secret with this name in the first field and the
       peer's name in the second field.	 Pppd will know	the name of  the  peer
       if  CHAP	 authentication	is being used, because the peer	will have sent
       it in the challenge packet.  However, if	PAP is being used,  pppd  will
       have  to	 determine  the	 peer's	name from the options specified	by the
       user.  The user can specify the peer's name directly with  the  remote-
       name  option.   Otherwise,  if the remote IP address was	specified by a
       name (rather than in numeric form), that	 name  will  be	 used  as  the
       peer's name.  Failing that, pppd	will use the null string as the	peer's
       name.

       When authenticating the peer with PAP, the supplied password  is	 first
       compared	 with  the  secret  from  the  secrets	file.  If the password
       doesn't match the secret, the password is encrypted using  crypt()  and
       checked	against	the secret again.  Thus	secrets	for authenticating the
       peer can	be stored in encrypted	form  if  desired.   If	 the  papcrypt
       option  is  given,  the	first (unencrypted) comparison is omitted, for
       better security.

       Furthermore, if the login option	was specified, the username and	 pass-
       word  are also checked against the system password database.  Thus, the
       system administrator can	set up	the  pap-secrets  file	to  allow  PPP
       access  only  to	certain	users, and to restrict the set of IP addresses
       that each user can use.	Typically, when	using the  login  option,  the
       secret  in /etc/ppp/pap-secrets would be	"", which will match any pass-
       word supplied by	the peer.  This	avoids	the  need  to  have  the  same
       secret in two places.

       Additional  checks are performed	when the login option is used.	If the
       file /etc/ppp/ppp.deny exists, and  the	user  is  listed  in  it,  the
       authentication  fails.	If the file /etc/ppp/ppp.shells	exists and the
       user's normal login shell is not	listed,	the authentication fails.

       Authentication must be satisfactorily completed	before	IPCP  (or  any
       other  Network  Control	Protocol)  can	be  started.   If  the peer is
       required	to authenticate	itself,	and fails to do	so, pppd  will	termi-
       nated the link (by closing LCP).	 If IPCP negotiates an unacceptable IP
       address for the remote host, IPCP will be closed.  IP packets can  only
       be sent or received when	IPCP is	open.

       In some cases it	is desirable to	allow some hosts which can't authenti-
       cate themselves to connect and use  one	of  a  restricted  set	of  IP
       addresses,  even	when the local host generally requires authentication.
       If the peer refuses to authenticate itself when requested,  pppd	 takes
       that  as	 equivalent  to	authenticating with PAP	using the empty	string
       for the username	and password.  Thus, by	adding	a  line	 to  the  pap-
       secrets	file which specifies the empty string for the client and pass-
       word, it	is possible to allow restricted	access to hosts	 which	refuse
       to authenticate themselves.

ROUTING
       When  IPCP  negotiation is completed successfully, pppd will inform the
       kernel of the local and remote IP  addresses  for  the  ppp  interface.
       This  is	 sufficient  to	 create	 a host	route to the remote end	of the
       link, which will	enable the peers to exchange IP	 packets.   Communica-
       tion  with  other  machines  generally requires further modification to
       routing tables and/or ARP (Address  Resolution  Protocol)  tables.   In
       most  cases the defaultroute and/or proxyarp options are	sufficient for
       this,  but  in  some  cases  further  intervention  is  required.   The
       /etc/ppp/ip-up script can be used for this.

       Sometimes  it  is  desirable  to	add a default route through the	remote
       host, as	in the case of a machine whose only connection to the Internet
       is  through  the	ppp interface.	The defaultroute option	causes pppd to
       create such a default route when	IPCP comes up, and delete it when  the
       link is terminated.

       In some cases it	is desirable to	use proxy ARP, for example on a	server
       machine connected to a LAN, in order to allow other hosts  to  communi-
       cate with the remote host.  The proxyarp	option causes pppd to look for
       a network interface on the same subnet as the remote host (an interface
       supporting  broadcast  and ARP, which is	up and not a point-to-point or
       loopback	interface).  If	found, pppd creates a permanent, published ARP
       entry  with  the	IP address of the remote host and the hardware address
       of the network interface	found.

       When the	demand option is used, the interface IP	addresses have already
       been set	at the point when IPCP comes up.  If pppd has not been able to
       negotiate the same addresses that it used to  configure	the  interface
       (for  example  when  the	 peer  is  an ISP that uses dynamic IP address
       assignment), pppd has to	change the interface IP	addresses to the nego-
       tiated  addresses.   This may disrupt existing connections, and the use
       of demand dialling with peers that do dynamic IP	address	assignment  is
       not recommended.

EXAMPLES
       The  following  examples	assume that the	/etc/ppp/options file contains
       the auth	option (as in the default /etc/ppp/options  file  in  the  ppp
       distribution).

       Probably	 the  most  common use of pppd is to dial out to an ISP.  This
       can be done with	a command such as

	      pppd call	isp

       where the /etc/ppp/peers/isp file is set	up by the system administrator
       to contain something like this:

	      ttyS0 19200 crtscts
	      connect '/usr/sbin/chat -v -f /etc/ppp/chat-isp'
	      noauth

       In  this	 example,  we  are  using  chat	to dial	the ISP's modem	and go
       through any logon sequence required.  The /etc/ppp/chat-isp  file  con-
       tains  the  script used by chat;	it could for example contain something
       like this:

	      ABORT "NO	CARRIER"
	      ABORT "NO	DIALTONE"
	      ABORT "ERROR"
	      ABORT "NO	ANSWER"
	      ABORT "BUSY"
	      ABORT "Username/Password Incorrect"
	      "" "at"
	      OK "at&d0&c1"
	      OK "atdt2468135"
	      "name:" "^Umyuserid"
	      "word:" "\qmypassword"
	      "ispts" "\q^Uppp"
	      "~-^Uppp-~"

       See the chat(8) man page	for details of chat scripts.

       Pppd can	also be	used to	provide	a dial-in ppp service for  users.   If
       the  users  already have	login accounts,	the simplest way to set	up the
       ppp service is to let the users log in to their accounts	and  run  pppd
       (installed setuid-root) with a command such as

	      pppd proxyarp

       To  allow  a user to use	the PPP	facilities, you	need to	allocate an IP
       address for that	user's machine and create an  entry  in	 /etc/ppp/pap-
       secrets	or  /etc/ppp/chap-secrets  (depending  on which	authentication
       method the PPP implementation on	the user's machine supports), so  that
       the  user's machine can authenticate itself.  For example, if Joe has a
       machine called "joespc" which is	to  be	allowed	 to  dial  in  to  the
       machine called "server" and use the IP address joespc.my.net, you would
       add an  entry  like  this  to  /etc/ppp/pap-secrets  or	/etc/ppp/chap-
       secrets:

	      joespc	server	  "joe's secret" joespc.my.net

       Alternatively,  you  can	 create	a username called (for example)	"ppp",
       whose login shell  is  pppd  and	 whose	home  directory	 is  /etc/ppp.
       Options	to  be	used  when  pppd  is  run  this	 way  can  be  put  in
       /etc/ppp/.ppprc.

       If your serial connection is any	more complicated than a	piece of wire,
       you  may	need to	arrange	for some control characters to be escaped.  In
       particular, it is often useful to escape	XON (^Q) and XOFF (^S),	 using
       asyncmap	 a0000.	  If  the  path	includes a telnet, you probably	should
       escape ^] as well (asyncmap 200a0000).  If the path includes an rlogin,
       you  will  need to use the escape ff option on the end which is running
       the rlogin client, since	many rlogin implementations are	not  transpar-
       ent; they will remove the sequence [0xff, 0xff, 0x73, 0x73, followed by
       any 8 bytes] from the stream.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Messages	are sent to  the  syslog  daemon  using	 facility  LOG_DAEMON.
       (This  can  be  overriden  by  recompiling  pppd	with the macro LOG_PPP
       defined as the desired facility.)  In order to see the error and	 debug
       messages,  you  will  need to edit your /etc/syslog.conf	file to	direct
       the messages to the desired output device or file.

       The debug option	causes the contents of all  control  packets  sent  or
       received	 to  be	 logged,  that is, all LCP, PAP, CHAP or IPCP packets.
       This can	be useful if the  PPP  negotiation  does  not  succeed	or  if
       authentication  fails.	If  debugging  is enabled at compile time, the
       debug option also causes	other debugging	messages to be logged.

       Debugging can also be enabled or	disabled by sending a  SIGUSR1	signal
       to the pppd process.  This signal acts as a toggle.

SCRIPTS
       Pppd  invokes  scripts at various stages	in its processing which	can be
       used to perform site-specific ancillary processing.  These scripts  are
       usually	shell  scripts,	 but  could  be	executable code	files instead.
       Pppd does not wait for the scripts to finish.  The scripts are executed
       as  root	 (with	the real and effective user-id set to 0), so that they
       can do things such as update routing tables or run privileged  daemons.
       Be  careful  that  the contents of these	scripts	do not compromise your
       system's	security.  Pppd	runs the scripts with standard	input,	output
       and  error  redirected  to  /dev/null,  and with	an environment that is
       empty except for	some environment variables that	give information about
       the link.  The environment variables that pppd sets are:

       DEVICE The name of the serial tty device	being used.

       IFNAME The name of the network interface	being used.

       IPLOCAL
	      The  IP address for the local end	of the link.  This is only set
	      when IPCP	has come up.

       IPREMOTE
	      The IP address for the remote end	of the link.  This is only set
	      when IPCP	has come up.

       PEERNAME
	      The  authenticated  name	of  the	peer.  This is only set	if the
	      peer authenticates itself.

       SPEED  The baud rate of the tty device.

       UID    The real user-id of the user who invoked pppd.

       Pppd invokes the	following scripts, if they exist.  It is not an	 error
       if they don't exist.

       /etc/ppp/auth-up
	      A	 program  or  script which is executed after the remote	system
	      successfully authenticates itself.   It  is  executed  with  the
	      parameters

	      interface-name peer-name user-name tty-device speed

	      Note  that  this	script	is  not	 executed  if the peer doesn't
	      authenticate itself, for example when the	noauth option is used.

       /etc/ppp/auth-down
	      A	 program  or script which is executed when the link goes down,
	      if /etc/ppp/auth-up was previously executed.  It is executed  in
	      the same manner with the same parameters as /etc/ppp/auth-up.

       /etc/ppp/ip-up
	      A	program	or script which	is executed when the link is available
	      for sending and receiving	IP packets (that  is,  IPCP  has  come
	      up).  It is executed with	the parameters

	      interface-name   tty-device  speed  local-IP-address  remote-IP-
	      address ipparam

       /etc/ppp/ip-down
	      A	program	or script which	is executed when the link is no	longer
	      available	for sending and	receiving IP packets.  This script can
	      be used for undoing the effects of  the  /etc/ppp/ip-up  script.
	      It is invoked in the same	manner and with	the same parameters as
	      the ip-up	script.

       /etc/ppp/ipv6-up
	      Like /etc/ppp/ip-up, except that it is executed when the link is
	      available	for sending and	receiving IPv6 packets.	It is executed
	      with the parameters

	      interface-name tty-device	speed local-link-local-address remote-
	      link-local-address ipparam

       /etc/ppp/ipv6-down
	      Similar  to /etc/ppp/ip-down, but	it is executed when IPv6 pack-
	      ets can no longer	be transmitted on the  link.  It  is  executed
	      with the same parameters as the ipv6-up script.

       /etc/ppp/ipx-up
	      A	program	or script which	is executed when the link is available
	      for sending and receiving	IPX packets (that is, IPXCP  has  come
	      up).  It is executed with	the parameters

	      interface-name  tty-device  speed	network-number local-IPX-node-
	      address	 remote-IPX-node-address    local-IPX-routing-protocol
	      remote-IPX-routing-protocol   local-IPX-router-name  remote-IPX-
	      router-name ipparam pppd-pid

	      The local-IPX-routing-protocol  and  remote-IPX-routing-protocol
	      field may	be one of the following:

	      NONE	to indicate that there is no routing protocol
	      RIP	to indicate that RIP/SAP should	be used
	      NLSP	to indicate that Novell	NLSP should be used
	      RIP NLSP	to indicate that both RIP/SAP and NLSP should be used

       /etc/ppp/ipx-down
	      A	program	or script which	is executed when the link is no	longer
	      available	for sending and	receiving IPX  packets.	  This	script
	      can  be  used  for  undoing  the	effects	of the /etc/ppp/ipx-up
	      script.  It is invoked in	the same  manner  and  with  the  same
	      parameters as the	ipx-up script.

FILES
       /var/run/pppn.pid (BSD or Linux), /etc/ppp/pppn.pid (others)
	      Process-ID for pppd process on ppp interface unit	n.

       /etc/ppp/pap-secrets
	      Usernames,  passwords  and  IP addresses for PAP authentication.
	      This file	should be owned	by root	and not	readable  or  writable
	      by  any  other user.  Pppd will log a warning if this is not the
	      case.

       /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
	      Names, secrets and IP addresses for CHAP authentication.	As for
	      /etc/ppp/pap-secrets,  this file should be owned by root and not
	      readable or writable by any other	user.  Pppd will log a warning
	      if this is not the case.

       /etc/ppp/options
	      System  default  options	for  pppd,  read  before  user default
	      options or command-line options.

       ~/.ppprc
	      User default options, read before	/etc/ppp/options.ttyname.

       /etc/ppp/options.ttyname
	      System default options for the  serial  port  being  used,  read
	      after  ~/.ppprc.	 In forming the	ttyname	part of	this filename,
	      an initial /dev/ is stripped from	the port  name	(if  present),
	      and any slashes in the remaining part are	converted to dots.

       /etc/ppp/peers
	      A	 directory  containing	options	files which may	contain	privi-
	      leged options, even if pppd was invoked by  a  user  other  than
	      root.  The system	administrator can create options files in this
	      directory	to permit non-privileged users	to  dial  out  without
	      requiring	 the peer to authenticate, but only to certain trusted
	      peers.

       /etc/ppp/ppp.deny
	      Lists users who may not use the system password PAP  authentica-
	      tion.

       /etc/ppp/ppp.shells
	      Lists  user  shells  which  are approved for system password PAP
	      authentication logins.

       /usr/share/examples/pppd/
	      Sample pppd configuration	files.

SEE ALSO
       chat(8),	ppp(8)

       RFC1144
	      Jacobson,	V.  Compressing	TCP/IP headers	for  low-speed	serial
	      links.  February 1990.

       RFC1321
	      Rivest, R.  The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm.  April 1992.

       RFC1332
	      McGregor,	 G.   PPP  Internet  Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP).
	      May 1992.

       RFC1334
	      Lloyd, B.; Simpson, W.A.	PPP authentication protocols.  October
	      1992.

       RFC1661
	      Simpson, W.A.  The Point-to-Point	Protocol (PPP).	 July 1994.

       RFC1662
	      Simpson, W.A.  PPP in HDLC-like Framing.	July 1994.

NOTES
       The following signals have the specified	effect when sent to pppd.

       SIGINT, SIGTERM
	      These signals cause pppd to terminate the	link (by closing LCP),
	      restore the serial device	settings, and exit.

       SIGHUP This signal causes pppd  to  terminate  the  link,  restore  the
	      serial  device  settings,	 and  close the	serial device.	If the
	      persist or demand	option has been	specified, pppd	 will  try  to
	      reopen the serial	device and start another connection (after the
	      holdoff period).	Otherwise pppd will exit.  If this  signal  is
	      received	during	the  holdoff period, it	causes pppd to end the
	      holdoff period immediately.

       SIGUSR1
	      This signal toggles the state of the debug option.

       SIGUSR2
	      This signal causes pppd to renegotiate compression.  This	can be
	      useful  to re-enable compression after it	has been disabled as a
	      result of	a fatal	 decompression	error.	 (Fatal	 decompression
	      errors generally indicate	a bug in one or	other implementation.)

AUTHORS
       Paul Mackerras (Paul.Mackerras@cs.anu.edu.au), based on earlier work by
       Drew Perkins, Brad Clements, Karl Fox, Greg Christy, and	Brad Parker.

								       PPPD(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FREQUENTLY USED OPTIONS | OPTIONS | OPTIONS FILES | SECURITY | AUTHENTICATION | ROUTING | EXAMPLES | DIAGNOSTICS | SCRIPTS | FILES | SEE ALSO | NOTES | AUTHORS

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