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PPP(8)			FreeBSD	System Manager's Manual			PPP(8)

NAME
     ppp -- Point to Point Protocol (a.k.a. user-ppp)

SYNOPSIS
     ppp [-mode] [-nat]	[-quiet] [-unitN] [system ...]

DESCRIPTION
     This is a user process PPP	software package.  Normally, PPP is imple-
     mented as a part of the kernel (e.g., as managed by pppd(8)) and it is
     thus somewhat hard	to debug and/or	modify its behaviour.  However,	in
     this implementation PPP is	done as	a user process with the	help of	the
     tunnel device driver (tun).

     The -nat flag does	the equivalent of a ``nat enable yes'',	enabling ppp's
     network address translation features.  This allows	ppp to act as a	NAT or
     masquerading engine for all machines on an	internal LAN.  Refer to
     libalias(3) for details on	the technical side of the NAT engine.  Refer
     to	the NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION	(PACKET	ALIASING) section of this man-
     ual page for details on how to configure NAT in ppp.

     The -quiet	flag tells ppp to be silent at startup rather than displaying
     the mode and interface to standard	output.

     The -unit flag tells ppp to only attempt to open /dev/tunN.  Normally,
     ppp will start with a value of 0 for N, and keep trying to	open a tunnel
     device by incrementing the	value of N by one each time until it succeeds.
     If	it fails three times in	a row because the device file is missing, it
     gives up.

     The following modes are understood	by ppp:

	-auto
	     ppp opens the tun interface, configures it	then goes into the
	     background.  The link is not brought up until outgoing data is
	     detected on the tun interface at which point ppp attempts to
	     bring up the link.	 Packets received (including the first one)
	     while ppp is trying to bring the link up will remain queued for a
	     default of	2 minutes.  See	the ``set choked'' command below.

	     In	-auto mode, at least one ``system'' must be given on the com-
	     mand line (see below) and a ``set ifaddr''	must be	done in	the
	     system profile that specifies a peer IP address to	use when con-
	     figuring the interface.  Something	like ``10.0.0.1/0'' is usually
	     appropriate.  See the ``pmdemand''	system in
	     /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample for an example.

	-background
	     Here, ppp attempts	to establish a connection with the peer	imme-
	     diately.  If it succeeds, ppp goes	into the background and	the
	     parent process returns an exit code of 0.	If it fails, ppp exits
	     with a non-zero result.

	-foreground
	     In	foreground mode, ppp attempts to establish a connection	with
	     the peer immediately, but never becomes a daemon.	The link is
	     created in	background mode.  This is useful if you	wish to	con-
	     trol ppp's	invocation from	another	process.

	-direct
	     This is used for communicating over an already established	con-
	     nection, usually when receiving incoming connections accepted by
	     getty(8).	ppp ignores the	``set device'' line and	uses descrip-
	     tor 0 as the link.	 ppp will also ignore any configured chat
	     scripts unless the	``force-scripts'' option has been enabled.

	     If	callback is configured,	ppp will use the ``set device''	infor-
	     mation when dialing back.

	-dedicated
	     This option is designed for machines connected with a dedicated
	     wire.  ppp	will always keep the device open and will ignore any
	     configured	chat scripts unless the	``force-scripts'' option has
	     been enabled.

	-ddial
	     This mode is equivalent to	-auto mode except that ppp will	bring
	     the link back up any time it is dropped for any reason.

	-interactive
	     This is a no-op, and gives	the same behaviour as if none of the
	     above modes have been specified.  ppp loads any sections speci-
	     fied on the command line then provides an interactive prompt.

     One or more configuration entries or systems (as specified	in
     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf)	may also be specified on the command line.  ppp	will
     read the ``default'' system from /etc/ppp/ppp.conf	at startup, followed
     by	each of	the systems specified on the command line.

Major Features
     Provides an interactive user interface.  Using its	command	mode, the user
     can easily	enter commands to establish the	connection with	the remote
     end, check	the status of connection and close the connection.  All	func-
     tions can also be optionally password protected for security.

     Supports both manual and automatic	dialing.  Interactive mode has a
     ``term'' command which enables you	to talk	to the device directly.	 When
     you are connected to the remote peer and it starts	to talk	PPP, ppp
     detects it	and switches to	packet mode automatically.  Once you have
     determined	the proper sequence for	connecting with	the remote host, you
     can write a chat script to	define the necessary dialing and login proce-
     dure for later convenience.

     Supports on-demand	dialup capability.  By using -auto mode, ppp will act
     as	a daemon and wait for a	packet to be sent over the PPP link.  When
     this happens, the daemon automatically dials and establishes the connec-
     tion.  In almost the same manner -ddial mode (direct-dial mode) also
     automatically dials and establishes the connection.  However, it differs
     in	that it	will dial the remote site any time it detects the link is
     down, even	if there are no	packets	to be sent.  This mode is useful for
     full-time connections where we worry less about line charges and more
     about being connected full	time.  A third -dedicated mode is also avail-
     able.  This mode is targeted at a dedicated link between two machines.
     ppp will never voluntarily	quit from dedicated mode - you must send it
     the ``quit	all'' command via its diagnostic socket.  A SIGHUP will	force
     an	LCP renegotiation, and a SIGTERM will force it to exit.

     Supports client callback.	ppp can	use either the standard	LCP callback
     protocol or the Microsoft CallBack	Control	Protocol
     (ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/developr/rfc/cbcp.txt).

     Supports NAT or packet aliasing.  Packet aliasing (a.k.a. IP masquerad-
     ing) allows computers on a	private, unregistered network to access	the
     Internet.	The PPP	host acts as a masquerading gateway.  IP addresses as
     well as TCP and UDP port numbers are NAT'd	for outgoing packets and de-
     NAT'd for returning packets.

     Supports background PPP connections.  In background mode, if ppp success-
     fully establishes the connection, it will become a	daemon.	 Otherwise, it
     will exit with an error.  This allows the setup of	scripts	that wish to
     execute certain commands only if the connection is	successfully estab-
     lished.

     Supports server-side PPP connections.  In direct mode, ppp	acts as	server
     which accepts incoming PPP	connections on stdin/stdout.

     Supports PAP and CHAP (rfc	1994, 2433 and 2759) authentication.  With PAP
     or	CHAP, it is possible to	skip the Unix style login(1) procedure,	and
     use the PPP protocol for authentication instead.  If the peer requests
     Microsoft CHAP authentication and ppp is compiled with DES	support, an
     appropriate MD4/DES response will be made.

     Supports RADIUS (rfc 2138 & 2548) authentication.	An extension to	PAP
     and CHAP, Remote Access Dial In User Service allows authentication	infor-
     mation to be stored in a central or distributed database along with vari-
     ous per-user framed connection characteristics.  If libradius(3) is
     available at compile time,	ppp will use it	to make	RADIUS requests	when
     configured	to do so.

     Supports Proxy Arp.  ppp can be configured	to make	one or more proxy arp
     entries on	behalf of the peer.  This allows routing from the peer to the
     LAN without configuring each machine on that LAN.

     Supports packet filtering.	 User can define four kinds of filters:	the in
     filter for	incoming packets, the out filter for outgoing packets, the
     dial filter to define a dialing trigger packet and	the alive filter for
     keeping a connection alive	with the trigger packet.

     Tunnel driver supports bpf.  The user can use tcpdump(1) to check the
     packet flow over the PPP link.

     Supports PPP over TCP and PPP over	UDP.  If a device name is specified as
     host:port[/tcp|udp], ppp will open	a TCP or UDP connection	for transport-
     ing data rather than using	a conventional serial device.  UDP connections
     force ppp into synchronous	mode.

     Supports PPP over ISDN.  If ppp is	given a	raw B-channel i4b device to
     open as a link, it	is able	to talk	to the isdnd(8)	daemon to establish an
     ISDN connection.

     Supports PPP over Ethernet	(rfc 2516).  If	ppp is given a device specifi-
     cation of the format PPPoE:iface[:provider] and if	netgraph(4) is avail-
     able, ppp will attempt talk PPP over Ethernet to provider using the iface
     network interface.

     On	systems	that do	not support netgraph(4), an external program such as
     pppoed(8) may be used.

     Supports IETF draft Predictor-1 (rfc 1978)	and DEFLATE (rfc 1979)
     compression.  ppp supports	not only VJ-compression	but also Predictor-1
     and DEFLATE compression.  Normally, a modem has built-in compression
     (e.g., v42.bis) and the system may	receive	higher data rates from it as a
     result of such compression.  While	this is	generally a good thing in most
     other situations, this higher speed data imposes a	penalty	on the system
     by	increasing the number of serial	interrupts the system has to process
     in	talking	to the modem and also increases	latency.  Unlike VJ-compres-
     sion, Predictor-1 and DEFLATE compression pre-compresses all network
     traffic flowing through the link, thus reducing overheads to a minimum.

     Supports Microsoft's IPCP extensions (rfc 1877).  Name Server Addresses
     and NetBIOS Name Server Addresses can be negotiated with clients using
     the Microsoft PPP stack (i.e., Win95, WinNT)

     Supports Multi-link PPP (rfc 1990)	 It is possible	to configure ppp to
     open more than one	physical connection to the peer, combining the band-
     width of all links	for better throughput.

     Supports MPPE (draft-ietf-pppext-mppe)  MPPE is Microsoft Point to	Point
     Encryption	scheme.	 It is possible	to configure ppp to participate	in
     Microsoft's Windows VPN.  For now,	ppp can	only get encryption keys from
     CHAP 81 authentication.  ppp must be compiled with	DES for	MPPE to	oper-
     ate.

     Supports IPV6CP (rfc 2023).  An IPv6 connection can be made in addition
     to	or instead of the normal IPv4 connection.

PERMISSIONS
     ppp is installed as user root and group network, with permissions 04554.
     By	default, ppp will not run if the invoking user id is not zero.	This
     may be overridden by using	the ``allow users'' command in
     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf.	 When running as a normal user,	ppp switches to	user
     id	0 in order to alter the	system routing table, set up system lock files
     and read the ppp configuration files.  All	external commands (executed
     via the "shell" or	"!bg" commands)	are executed as	the user id that
     invoked ppp.  Refer to the	`ID0' logging facility if you are interested
     in	what exactly is	done as	user id	zero.

GETTING	STARTED
     When you first run	ppp you	may need to deal with some initial configura-
     tion details.

     +o	 Make sure that	your system has	a group	named ``network'' in the
	 /etc/group file and that the group contains the names of all users
	 expected to use ppp.  Refer to	the group(5) manual page for details.
	 Each of these users must also be given	access using the ``allow
	 users'' command in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf.

     +o	 Create	a log file.  ppp uses syslog(3)	to log information.  A common
	 log file name is /var/log/ppp.log.  To	make output go to this file,
	 put the following lines in the	/etc/syslog.conf file:

	       !ppp
	       *.*<TAB>/var/log/ppp.log

	 It is possible	to have	more than one PPP log file by creating a link
	 to the	ppp executable:

	       # cd /usr/sbin
	       # ln ppp	ppp0

	 and using

	       !ppp0
	       *.*<TAB>/var/log/ppp0.log

	 in /etc/syslog.conf.  Do not forget to	send a HUP signal to
	 syslogd(8) after altering /etc/syslog.conf.

     +o	 Although not strictly relevant	to ppp's operation, you	should config-
	 ure your resolver so that it works correctly.	This can be done by
	 configuring a local DNS (using	named(8)) or by	adding the correct
	 `nameserver' lines to the file	/etc/resolv.conf.  Refer to the
	 resolv.conf(5)	manual page for	details.

	 Alternatively,	if the peer supports it, ppp can be configured to ask
	 the peer for the nameserver address(es) and to	update
	 /etc/resolv.conf automatically.  Refer	to the ``enable	dns'' and
	 ``resolv'' commands below for details.

MANUAL DIALING
     In	the following examples,	we assume that your machine name is awfulhak.
     when you invoke ppp (see PERMISSIONS above) with no arguments, you	are
     presented with a prompt:

	   ppp ON awfulhak>

     The `ON' part of your prompt should always	be in upper case.  If it is in
     lower case, it means that you must	supply a password using	the ``passwd''
     command.  This only ever happens if you connect to	a running version of
     ppp and have not authenticated yourself using the correct password.

     You can start by specifying the device name and speed:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> set	device /dev/cuaa0
	   ppp ON awfulhak> set	speed 38400

     Normally, hardware	flow control (CTS/RTS) is used.	 However, under	cer-
     tain circumstances	(as may	happen when you	are connected directly to cer-
     tain PPP-capable terminal servers), this may result in ppp	hanging	as
     soon as it	tries to write data to your communications link	as it is wait-
     ing for the CTS (clear to send) signal - which will never come.  Thus, if
     you have a	direct line and	cannot seem to make a connection, try turning
     CTS/RTS off with ``set ctsrts off''.  If you need to do this, check the
     ``set accmap'' description	below too - you	will probably need to ``set
     accmap 000a0000''.

     Usually, parity is	set to ``none'', and this is ppp's default.  Parity is
     a rather archaic error checking mechanism that is no longer used because
     modern modems do their own	error checking,	and most link-layer protocols
     (that is what ppp is) use much more reliable checking mechanisms.	Parity
     has a relatively huge overhead (a 12.5% increase in traffic) and as a
     result, it	is always disabled (set	to ``none'') when PPP is opened.  How-
     ever, some	ISPs (Internet Service Providers) may use specific parity set-
     tings at connection time (before PPP is opened).  Notably,	Compuserve
     insist on even parity when	logging	in:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> set	parity even

     You can now see what your current device settings look like:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> show physical
	   Name: deflink
	    State:	     closed
	    Device:	     N/A
	    Link Type:	     interactive
	    Connect Count:   0
	    Queued Packets:  0
	    Phone Number:    N/A

	   Defaults:
	    Device List:     /dev/cuaa0
	    Characteristics: 38400bps, cs8, even parity, CTS/RTS on

	   Connect time: 0 secs
	   0 octets in,	0 octets out
	   Overall 0 bytes/sec
	   ppp ON awfulhak>

     The term command can now be used to talk directly to the device:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> term
	   at
	   OK
	   atdt123456
	   CONNECT
	   login: myispusername
	   Password: myisppassword
	   Protocol: ppp

     When the peer starts to talk in PPP, ppp detects this automatically and
     returns to	command	mode.

	   ppp ON awfulhak>		  # No link has	been established
	   Ppp ON awfulhak>		  # We've connected & finished LCP
	   PPp ON awfulhak>		  # We've authenticated
	   PPP ON awfulhak>		  # We've agreed IP numbers

     If	it does	not, it	is probable that the peer is waiting for your end to
     start negotiating.	 To force ppp to start sending PPP configuration pack-
     ets to the	peer, use the ``~p'' command to	drop out of terminal mode and
     enter packet mode.

     If	you never even receive a login prompt, it is quite likely that the
     peer wants	to use PAP or CHAP authentication instead of using Unix-style
     login/password authentication.  To	set things up properly,	drop back to
     the prompt	and set	your authentication name and key, then reconnect:

	   ~.
	   ppp ON awfulhak> set	authname myispusername
	   ppp ON awfulhak> set	authkey	myisppassword
	   ppp ON awfulhak> term
	   at
	   OK
	   atdt123456
	   CONNECT

     You may need to tell ppp to initiate negotiations with the	peer here too:

	   ~p
	   ppp ON awfulhak>		  # No link has	been established
	   Ppp ON awfulhak>		  # We've connected & finished LCP
	   PPp ON awfulhak>		  # We've authenticated
	   PPP ON awfulhak>		  # We've agreed IP numbers

     You are now connected!  Note that `PPP' in	the prompt has changed to cap-
     ital letters to indicate that you have a peer connection.	If only	some
     of	the three Ps go	uppercase, wait	until either everything	is uppercase
     or	lowercase.  If they revert to lowercase, it means that ppp could not
     successfully negotiate with the peer.  A good first step for trou-
     bleshooting at this point would be	to

	   ppp ON awfulhak> set	log local phase	lcp ipcp

     and try again.  Refer to the ``set	log'' command description below	for
     further details.  If things fail at this point, it	is quite important
     that you turn logging on and try again.  It is also important that	you
     note any prompt changes and report	them to	anyone trying to help you.

     When the link is established, the show command can	be used	to see how
     things are	going:

	   PPP ON awfulhak> show physical
	   * Modem related information is shown	here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show ccp
	   * CCP (compression) related information is shown here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show lcp
	   * LCP (line control)	related	information is shown here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show ipcp
	   * IPCP (IP) related information is shown here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show ipv6cp
	   * IPV6CP (IPv6) related information is shown	here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show link
	   * Link (high	level) related information is shown here *
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show bundle
	   * Logical (high level) connection related information is shown here *

     At	this point, your machine has a host route to the peer.	This means
     that you can only make a connection with the host on the other side of
     the link.	If you want to add a default route entry (telling your machine
     to	send all packets without another routing entry to the other side of
     the PPP link), enter the following	command:

	   PPP ON awfulhak> add	default	HISADDR

     The string	`HISADDR' represents the IP address of the connected peer.  If
     the ``add'' command fails due to an existing route, you can overwrite the
     existing route using:

	   PPP ON awfulhak> add! default HISADDR

     This command can also be executed before actually making the connection.
     If	a new IP address is negotiated at connection time, ppp will update
     your default route	accordingly.

     You can now use your network applications (ping, telnet, ftp, etc.)  in
     other windows or terminals	on your	machine.  If you wish to reuse the
     current terminal, you can put ppp into the	background using your standard
     shell suspend and background commands (usually ``^Z'' followed by
     ``bg'').

     Refer to the PPP COMMAND LIST section for details on all available	com-
     mands.

AUTOMATIC DIALING
     To	use automatic dialing, you must	prepare	some Dial and Login chat
     scripts.  See the example definitions in
     /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample (the format of /etc/ppp/ppp.conf
     is	pretty simple).	 Each line contains one	comment, inclusion, label or
     command:

     +o	 A line	starting with a	(``#'')	character is treated as	a comment
	 line.	Leading	whitespace are ignored when identifying	comment	lines.

     +o	 An inclusion is a line	beginning with the word	`!include'.  It	must
	 have one argument - the file to include.  You may wish	to ``!include
	 ~/.ppp.conf'' for compatibility with older versions of	ppp.

     +o	 A label name starts in	the first column and is	followed by a colon
	 (``:'').

     +o	 A command line	must contain a space or	tab in the first column.

     +o	 A string starting with	the ``$'' character is substituted with	the
	 value of the environment variable by the same name.  Likewise,	a
	 string	starting with the ``~''	character is substituted with the full
	 path to the home directory of the user	account	by the same name, and
	 the ``~'' character by	itself is substituted with the full path to
	 the home directory of the current user.  If you want to include a
	 literal ``$'' or ``~''	character in a command or argument, enclose
	 them in double	quotes,	e.g.,

	       set password "pa$ss~word"

     The /etc/ppp/ppp.conf file	should consist of at least a ``default'' sec-
     tion.  This section is always executed.  It should	also contain one or
     more sections, named according to their purpose, for example, ``MyISP''
     would represent your ISP, and ``ppp-in'' would represent an incoming ppp
     configuration.  You can now specify the destination label name when you
     invoke ppp.  Commands associated with the ``default'' label are executed,
     followed by those associated with the destination label provided.	When
     ppp is started with no arguments, the ``default'' section is still	exe-
     cuted.  The load command can be used to manually load a section from the
     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf file:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> load MyISP

     Note, no action is	taken by ppp after a section is	loaded,	whether	it is
     the result	of passing a label on the command line or using	the ``load''
     command.  Only the	commands specified for that label in the configuration
     file are executed.	 However, when invoking	ppp with the -background,
     -ddial, or	-dedicated switches, the link mode tells ppp to	establish a
     connection.  Refer	to the ``set mode'' command below for further details.

     Once the connection is made, the `ppp' portion of the prompt will change
     to	`PPP':

	   # ppp MyISP
	   ...
	   ppp ON awfulhak> dial
	   Ppp ON awfulhak>
	   PPp ON awfulhak>
	   PPP ON awfulhak>

     The Ppp prompt indicates that ppp has entered the authentication phase.
     The PPp prompt indicates that ppp has entered the network phase.  The PPP
     prompt indicates that ppp has successfully	negotiated a network layer
     protocol and is in	a usable state.

     If	the /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup	file is	available, its contents	are executed
     when the PPP connection is	established.  See the provided ``pmdemand''
     example in	/usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample	which runs a script in
     the background after the connection is established	(refer to the
     ``shell'' and ``bg'' commands below for a description of possible substi-
     tution strings).  Similarly, when a connection is closed, the contents of
     the /etc/ppp/ppp.linkdown file are	executed.  Both	of these files have
     the same format as	/etc/ppp/ppp.conf.

     In	previous versions of ppp, it was necessary to re-add routes such as
     the default route in the ppp.linkup file.	ppp supports `sticky routes',
     where all routes that contain the HISADDR,	MYADDR,	HISADDR6 or MYADDR6
     literals will automatically be updated when the values of these variables
     change.

BACKGROUND DIALING
     If	you want to establish a	connection using ppp non-interactively (such
     as	from a crontab(5) entry	or an at(1) job) you should use	the
     -background option.  When -background is specified, ppp attempts to
     establish the connection immediately.  If multiple	phone numbers are
     specified,	each phone number will be tried	once.  If the attempt fails,
     ppp exits immediately with	a non-zero exit	code.  If it succeeds, then
     ppp becomes a daemon, and returns an exit status of zero to its caller.
     The daemon	exits automatically if the connection is dropped by the	remote
     system, or	it receives a TERM signal.

DIAL ON	DEMAND
     Demand dialing is enabled with the	-auto or -ddial	options.  You must
     also specify the destination label	in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf to	use.  It must
     contain the ``set ifaddr''	command	to define the remote peers IP address.
     (refer to /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample)

	   # ppp -auto pmdemand

     When -auto	or -ddial is specified,	ppp runs as a daemon but you can still
     configure or examine its configuration by using the ``set server''	com-
     mand in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf,	(for example, ``set server +3000 mypasswd'')
     and connecting to the diagnostic port as follows:

	   # pppctl 3000   (assuming tun0)
	   Password:
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show who
	   tcp (127.0.0.1:1028)	*

     The ``show	who'' command lists users that are currently connected to ppp
     itself.  If the diagnostic	socket is closed or changed to a different
     socket, all connections are immediately dropped.

     In	-auto mode, when an outgoing packet is detected, ppp will perform the
     dialing action (chat script) and try to connect with the peer.  In	-ddial
     mode, the dialing action is performed any time the	line is	found to be
     down.  If the connect fails, the default behaviour	is to wait 30 seconds
     and then attempt to connect when another outgoing packet is detected.
     This behaviour can	be changed using the ``set redial'' command:

     set redial	secs[+inc[-max]][.next]	[attempts]

     secs      is the number of	seconds	to wait	before attempting to connect
	       again.  If the argument is the literal string `random', the
	       delay period is a random	value between 1	and 30 seconds inclu-
	       sive.
     inc       is the number of	seconds	that secs should be incremented	each
	       time a new dial attempt is made.	 The timeout reverts to	secs
	       only after a successful connection is established.  The default
	       value for inc is	zero.
     max       is the maximum number of	times ppp should increment secs.  The
	       default value for max is	10.
     next      is the number of	seconds	to wait	before attempting to dial the
	       next number in a	list of	numbers	(see the ``set phone'' com-
	       mand).  The default is 3	seconds.  Again, if the	argument is
	       the literal string `random', the	delay period is	a random value
	       between 1 and 30	seconds.
     attempts  is the maximum number of	times to try to	connect	for each out-
	       going packet that triggers a dial.  The previous	value is
	       unchanged if this parameter is omitted.	If a value of zero is
	       specified for attempts, ppp will	keep trying until a connection
	       is made.

     So, for example:

	   set redial 10.3 4

     will attempt to connect 4 times for each outgoing packet that causes a
     dial attempt with a 3 second delay	between	each number and	a 10 second
     delay after all numbers have been tried.  If multiple phone numbers are
     specified,	the total number of attempts is	still 4	(it does not attempt
     each number 4 times).

     Alternatively,

	   set redial 10+10-5.3	20

     tells ppp to attempt to connect 20	times.	After the first	attempt, ppp
     pauses for	10 seconds.  After the next attempt it pauses for 20 seconds
     and so on until after the sixth attempt it	pauses for 1 minute.  The next
     14	pauses will also have a	duration of one	minute.	 If ppp	connects, dis-
     connects and fails	to connect again, the timeout starts again at 10 sec-
     onds.

     Modifying the dial	delay is very useful when running ppp in -auto mode on
     both ends of the link.  If	each end has the same timeout, both ends wind
     up	calling	each other at the same time if the link	drops and both ends
     have packets queued.  At some locations, the serial link may not be reli-
     able, and carrier may be lost at inappropriate times.  It is possible to
     have ppp redial should carrier be unexpectedly lost during	a session.

	   set reconnect timeout ntries

     This command tells	ppp to re-establish the	connection ntries times	on
     loss of carrier with a pause of timeout seconds before each try.  For
     example,

	   set reconnect 3 5

     tells ppp that on an unexpected loss of carrier, it should	wait 3 seconds
     before attempting to reconnect.  This may happen up to 5 times before ppp
     gives up.	The default value of ntries is zero (no	reconnect).  Care
     should be taken with this option.	If the local timeout is	slightly
     longer than the remote timeout, the reconnect feature will	always be
     triggered (up to the given	number of times) after the remote side times
     out and hangs up.	NOTE: In this context, losing too many LQRs consti-
     tutes a loss of carrier and will trigger a	reconnect.  If the -background
     flag is specified,	all phone numbers are dialed at	most once until	a con-
     nection is	made.  The next	number redial period specified with the	``set
     redial'' command is honoured, as is the reconnect tries value.  If	your
     redial value is less than the number of phone numbers specified, not all
     the specified numbers will	be tried.  To terminate	the program, type

	   PPP ON awfulhak> close
	   ppp ON awfulhak> quit all

     A simple ``quit'' command will terminate the pppctl(8) or telnet(1) con-
     nection but not the ppp program itself.  You must use ``quit all''	to
     terminate ppp as well.

RECEIVING INCOMING PPP CONNECTIONS (Method 1)
     To	handle an incoming PPP connection request, follow these	steps:

     1.	  Make sure the	modem and (optionally) /etc/rc.serial is configured
	  correctly.
	  +o   Use Hardware Handshake (CTS/RTS) for flow	control.
	  +o   Modem should be set to NO	echo back (ATE0) and NO	results	string
	      (ATQ1).

     2.	  Edit /etc/ttys to enable a getty(8) on the port where	the modem is
	  attached.  For example:

		ttyd1 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" dialup on secure

	  Do not forget	to send	a HUP signal to	the init(8) process to start
	  the getty(8):

		# kill -HUP 1

	  It is	usually	also necessary to train	your modem to the same DTR
	  speed	as the getty:

		# ppp
		ppp ON awfulhak> set device /dev/cuaa1
		ppp ON awfulhak> set speed 38400
		ppp ON awfulhak> term
		deflink: Entering terminal mode	on /dev/cuaa1
		Type `~?' for help
		at
		OK
		at
		OK
		atz
		OK
		at
		OK
		~.
		ppp ON awfulhak> quit

     3.	  Create a /usr/local/bin/ppplogin file	with the following contents:

		#! /bin/sh
		exec /usr/sbin/ppp -direct incoming

	  Direct mode (-direct)	lets ppp work with stdin and stdout.  You can
	  also use pppctl(8) to	connect	to a configured	diagnostic port, in
	  the same manner as with client-side ppp.

	  Here,	the incoming section must be set up in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf.

	  Make sure that the incoming section contains the ``allow users''
	  command as appropriate.

     4.	  Prepare an account for the incoming user.

	  ppp:xxxx:66:66:PPP Login User:/home/ppp:/usr/local/bin/ppplogin

	  Refer	to the manual entries for adduser(8) and vipw(8) for details.

     5.	  Support for IPCP Domain Name Server and NetBIOS Name Server negotia-
	  tion can be enabled using the	``accept dns'' and ``set nbns''	com-
	  mands.  Refer	to their descriptions below.

RECEIVING INCOMING PPP CONNECTIONS (Method 2)
     This method differs in that we use	ppp to authenticate the	connection
     rather than login(1):

     1.	  Configure your default section in /etc/gettytab with automatic ppp
	  recognition by specifying the	``pp'' capability:

	  default:\
		  :pp=/usr/local/bin/ppplogin:\
		  .....

     2.	  Configure your serial	device(s), enable a getty(8) and create
	  /usr/local/bin/ppplogin as in	the first three	steps for method 1
	  above.

     3.	  Add either ``enable chap'' or	``enable pap'' (or both) to
	  /etc/ppp/ppp.conf under the `incoming' label (or whatever label
	  ppplogin uses).

     4.	  Create an entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret for each incoming user:

	  Pfred<TAB>xxxx
	  Pgeorge<TAB>yyyy

     Now, as soon as getty(8) detects a	ppp connection (by recognising the
     HDLC frame	headers), it runs ``/usr/local/bin/ppplogin''.

     It	is VITAL that either PAP or CHAP are enabled as	above.	If they	are
     not, you are allowing anybody to establish	a ppp session with your
     machine without a password, opening yourself up to	all sorts of potential
     attacks.

AUTHENTICATING INCOMING	CONNECTIONS
     Normally, the receiver of a connection requires that the peer authenti-
     cates itself.  This may be	done using login(1), but alternatively,	you
     can use PAP or CHAP.  CHAP	is the more secure of the two, but some
     clients may not support it.  Once you decide which	you wish to use, add
     the command `enable chap' or `enable pap' to the relevant section of
     ppp.conf.

     You must then configure the /etc/ppp/ppp.secret file.  This file contains
     one line per possible client, each	line containing	up to five fields:

     name key [hisaddr [label [callback-number]]]

     The name and key specify the client username and password.	 If key	is
     ``*'' and PAP is being used, ppp will look	up the password	database
     (passwd(5)) when authenticating.  If the client does not offer a suitable
     response based on any name/key combination	in ppp.secret, authentication
     fails.

     If	authentication is successful, hisaddr (if specified) is	used when
     negotiating IP numbers.  See the ``set ifaddr'' command for details.

     If	authentication is successful and label is specified, the current sys-
     tem label is changed to match the given label.  This will change the sub-
     sequent parsing of	the ppp.linkup and ppp.linkdown	files.

     If	authentication is successful and callback-number is specified and
     ``set callback'' has been used in ppp.conf, the client will be called
     back on the given number.	If CBCP	is being used, callback-number may
     also contain a list of numbers or a ``*'',	as if passed to	the ``set
     cbcp'' command.  The value	will be	used in	ppp's subsequent CBCP phase.

PPP OVER TCP and UDP (a.k.a Tunnelling)
     Instead of	running	ppp over a serial link,	it is possible to use a	TCP
     connection	instead	by specifying the host,	port and protocol as the
     device:

	   set device ui-gate:6669/tcp

     Instead of	opening	a serial device, ppp will open a TCP connection	to the
     given machine on the given	socket.	 It should be noted however that ppp
     does not use the telnet protocol and will be unable to negotiate with a
     telnet server.  You should	set up a port for receiving this PPP connec-
     tion on the receiving machine (ui-gate).  This is done by first updating
     /etc/services to name the service:

	   ppp-in 6669/tcp # Incoming PPP connections over TCP

     and updating /etc/inetd.conf to tell inetd(8) how to deal with incoming
     connections on that port:

	   ppp-in stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/ppp ppp -direct ppp-in

     Do	not forget to send a HUP signal	to inetd(8) after you have updated
     /etc/inetd.conf.  Here, we	use a label named ``ppp-in''.  The entry in
     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf on ui-gate (the receiver) should	contain	the following:

	   ppp-in:
	    set	timeout	0
	    set	ifaddr 10.0.4.1	10.0.4.2

     and the entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup should contain:

	   ppp-in:
	    add	10.0.1.0/24 HISADDR

     It	is necessary to	put the	``add''	command	in ppp.linkup to ensure	that
     the route is only added after ppp has negotiated and assigned addresses
     to	its interface.

     You may also want to enable PAP or	CHAP for security.  To enable PAP, add
     the following line:

	    enable PAP

     You will also need	to create the following	entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret:

	   MyAuthName MyAuthPasswd

     If	MyAuthPasswd is	a ``*'', the password is looked	up in the passwd(5)
     database.

     The entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf on awfulhak	(the initiator)	should contain
     the following:

	   ui-gate:
	    set	escape 0xff
	    set	device ui-gate:ppp-in/tcp
	    set	dial
	    set	timeout	30
	    set	log Phase Chat Connect hdlc LCP	IPCP IPV6CP CCP	tun
	    set	ifaddr 10.0.4.2	10.0.4.1

     with the route setup in /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup:

	   ui-gate:
	    add	10.0.2.0/24 HISADDR

     Again, if you are enabling	PAP, you will also need	this in	the
     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf profile:

	    set	authname MyAuthName
	    set	authkey	MyAuthKey

     We	are assigning the address of 10.0.4.1 to ui-gate, and the address
     10.0.4.2 to awfulhak.  To open the	connection, just type

	   awfulhak # ppp -background ui-gate

     The result	will be	an additional "route" on awfulhak to the 10.0.2.0/24
     network via the TCP connection, and an additional "route" on ui-gate to
     the 10.0.1.0/24 network.  The networks are	effectively bridged - the
     underlying	TCP connection may be across a public network (such as the
     Internet),	and the	PPP traffic is conceptually encapsulated (although not
     packet by packet) inside the TCP stream between the two gateways.

     The major disadvantage of this mechanism is that there are	two "guaran-
     teed delivery" mechanisms in place	- the underlying TCP stream and	what-
     ever protocol is used over	the PPP	link - probably	TCP again.  If packets
     are lost, both levels will	get in each others way trying to negotiate
     sending of	the missing packet.

     To	avoid this overhead, it	is also	possible to do all this	using UDP
     instead of	TCP as the transport by	simply changing	the protocol from
     "tcp" to "udp".  When using UDP as	a transport, ppp will operate in syn-
     chronous mode.  This is another gain as the incoming data does not	have
     to	be rearranged into packets.

     Care should be taken when adding a	default	route through a	tunneled setup
     like this.	 It is quite common for	the default route (added in
     /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup) to end up routing the	link's TCP connection through
     the tunnel, effectively garrotting	the connection.	 To avoid this,	make
     sure you add a static route for the benefit of the	link:

	   ui-gate:
	    set	escape 0xff
	    set	device ui-gate:ppp-in/tcp
	    add	ui-gate	x.x.x.x
	    .....

     where ``x.x.x.x'' is the IP number	that your route	to ``ui-gate'' would
     normally use.

     When routing your connection accross a public network such	as the Inter-
     net, it is	preferable to encrypt the data.	 This can be done with the
     help of the MPPE protocol,	although currently this	means that you will
     not be able to also compress the traffic as MPPE is implemented as	a com-
     pression layer (thank Microsoft for this).	 To enable MPPE	encryption,
     add the following lines to	/etc/ppp/ppp.conf on the server:

	     enable MSCHAPv2
	     disable deflate pred1
	     deny deflate pred1

     ensuring that you have put	the requisite entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret
     (MSCHAPv2 is challenge based, so passwd(5)	cannot be used)

     MSCHAPv2 and MPPE are accepted by default,	so the client end should work
     without any additional changes (although ensure you have ``set authname''
     and ``set authkey'' in your profile).

NETWORK	ADDRESS	TRANSLATION (PACKET ALIASING)
     The -nat command line option enables network address translation (a.k.a.
     packet aliasing).	This allows the	ppp host to act	as a masquerading
     gateway for other computers over a	local area network.  Outgoing IP pack-
     ets are NAT'd so that they	appear to come from the	ppp host, and incoming
     packets are de-NAT'd so that they are routed to the correct machine on
     the local area network.  NAT allows computers on private, unregistered
     subnets to	have Internet access, although they are	invisible from the
     outside world.  In	general, correct ppp operation should first be veri-
     fied with network address translation disabled.  Then, the	-nat option
     should be switched	on, and	network	applications (web browser, telnet(1),
     ftp(1), ping(8), traceroute(8)) should be checked on the ppp host.
     Finally, the same or similar applications should be checked on other com-
     puters in the LAN.	 If network applications work correctly	on the ppp
     host, but not on other machines in	the LAN, then the masquerading soft-
     ware is working properly, but the host is either not forwarding or	possi-
     bly receiving IP packets.	Check that IP forwarding is enabled in
     /etc/rc.conf and that other machines have designated the ppp host as the
     gateway for the LAN.

PACKET FILTERING
     This implementation supports packet filtering.  There are four kinds of
     filters: the in filter, the out filter, the dial filter and the alive
     filter.  Here are the basics:

     +o	 A filter definition has the following syntax:

	 set filter name rule-no action	[!] [[host] src_addr[/width]
	 [dst_addr[/width]]] [proto [src cmp port] [dst	cmp port] [estab]
	 [syn] [finrst]	[timeout secs]]

	 1.   Name should be one of `in', `out', `dial'	or `alive'.

	 2.   Rule-no is a numeric value between `0' and `39' specifying the
	      rule number.  Rules are specified	in numeric order according to
	      rule-no, but only	if rule	`0' is defined.

	 3.   Action may be specified as `permit' or `deny', in	which case, if
	      a	given packet matches the rule, the associated action is	taken
	      immediately.  Action can also be specified as `clear' to clear
	      the action associated with that particular rule, or as a new
	      rule number greater than the current rule.  In this case,	if a
	      given packet matches the current rule, the packet	will next be
	      matched against the new rule number (rather than the next	rule
	      number).

	      The action may optionally	be followed with an exclamation	mark
	      (``!''), telling ppp to reverse the sense	of the following
	      match.

	 4.   [src_addr[/width]] and [dst_addr[/width]]	are the	source and
	      destination IP number specifications.  If	[/width] is specified,
	      it gives the number of relevant netmask bits, allowing the spec-
	      ification	of an address range.

	      Either src_addr or dst_addr may be given the values MYADDR,
	      HISADDR, MYADDR6 or HISADDR6 (refer to the description of	the
	      ``bg'' command for a description of these	values).  When these
	      values are used, the filters will	be updated any time the	values
	      change.  This is similar to the behaviour	of the ``add'' command
	      below.

	 5.   Proto may	be any protocol	from protocols(5).

	 6.   Cmp is one of `lt', `eq' or `gt',	meaning	less-than, equal and
	      greater-than respectively.  Port can be specified	as a numeric
	      port or by service name from /etc/services.

	 7.   The `estab', `syn', and `finrst' flags are only allowed when
	      proto is set to `tcp', and represent the TH_ACK, TH_SYN and
	      TH_FIN or	TH_RST TCP flags respectively.

	 8.   The timeout value	adjusts	the current idle timeout to at least
	      secs seconds.  If	a timeout is given in the alive	filter as well
	      as in the	in/out filter, the in/out value	is used.  If no	time-
	      out is given, the	default	timeout	(set using set timeout and
	      defaulting to 180	seconds) is used.

     +o	 Each filter can hold up to 40 rules, starting from rule 0.  The
	 entire	rule set is not	effective until	rule 0 is defined, i.e., the
	 default is to allow everything	through.

     +o	 If no rule in a defined set of	rules matches a	packet,	that packet
	 will be discarded (blocked).  If there	are no rules in	a given	fil-
	 ter, the packet will be permitted.

     +o	 It is possible	to filter based	on the payload of UDP frames where
	 those frames contain a	PROTO_IP PPP frame header.  See	the
	 filter-decapsulation option below for further details.

     +o	 Use ``set filter name -1'' to flush all rules.

     See /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample.

SETTING	THE IDLE TIMER
     To	check/set the idle timer, use the ``show bundle'' and ``set timeout''
     commands:

	   ppp ON awfulhak> set	timeout	600

     The timeout period	is measured in seconds,	the default value for which is
     180 seconds (or 3 min).  To disable the idle timer	function, use the com-
     mand

	   ppp ON awfulhak> set	timeout	0

     In	-ddial and -dedicated modes, the idle timeout is ignored.  In -auto
     mode, when	the idle timeout causes	the PPP	session	to be closed, the ppp
     program itself remains running.  Another trigger packet will cause	it to
     attempt to	re-establish the link.

PREDICTOR-1 and	DEFLATE	COMPRESSION
     ppp supports both Predictor type 1	and deflate compression.  By default,
     ppp will attempt to use (or be willing to accept) both compression	proto-
     cols when the peer	agrees (or requests them).  The	deflate	protocol is
     preferred by ppp.	Refer to the ``disable'' and ``deny'' commands if you
     wish to disable this functionality.

     It	is possible to use a different compression algorithm in	each direction
     by	using only one of ``disable deflate'' and ``deny deflate'' (assuming
     that the peer supports both algorithms).

     By	default, when negotiating DEFLATE, ppp will use	a window size of 15.
     Refer to the ``set	deflate'' command if you wish to change	this behav-
     iour.

     A special algorithm called	DEFLATE24 is also available, and is disabled
     and denied	by default.  This is exactly the same as DEFLATE except	that
     it	uses CCP ID 24 to negotiate.  This allows ppp to successfully negoti-
     ate DEFLATE with pppd version 2.3.*.

CONTROLLING IP ADDRESS
     For IPv4, ppp uses	IPCP to	negotiate IP addresses.	 Each side of the con-
     nection specifies the IP address that it is willing to use, and if	the
     requested IP address is acceptable	then ppp returns an ACK	to the
     requester.	 Otherwise, ppp	returns	NAK to suggest that the	peer use a
     different IP address.  When both sides of the connection agree to accept
     the received request (and send an ACK), IPCP is set to the	open state and
     a network level connection	is established.	 To control this IPCP behav-
     iour, this	implementation has the ``set ifaddr'' command for defining the
     local and remote IP address:

	   set ifaddr [src_addr[/nn] [dst_addr[/nn] [netmask [trigger_addr]]]]

     where, `src_addr' is the IP address that the local	side is	willing	to
     use, `dst_addr' is	the IP address which the remote	side should use	and
     `netmask' is the netmask that should be used.  `Src_addr' defaults	to the
     current hostname(1), `dst_addr' defaults to 0.0.0.0, and `netmask'
     defaults to whatever mask is appropriate for `src_addr'.  It is only pos-
     sible to make `netmask' smaller than the default.	The usual value	is
     255.255.255.255, as most kernels ignore the netmask of a POINTOPOINT
     interface.

     Some incorrect PPP	implementations	require	that the peer negotiates a
     specific IP address instead of `src_addr'.	 If this is the	case,
     `trigger_addr' may	be used	to specify this	IP number.  This will not
     affect the	routing	table unless the other side agrees with	this proposed
     number.

	   set ifaddr 192.244.177.38 192.244.177.2 255.255.255.255 0.0.0.0

     The above specification means:

     +o	 I will	first suggest that my IP address should	be 0.0.0.0, but	I will
	 only accept an	address	of 192.244.177.38.
     +o	 I strongly insist that	the peer uses 192.244.177.2 as his own address
	 and will not permit the use of	any IP address but 192.244.177.2.
	 When the peer requests	another	IP address, I will always suggest that
	 it uses 192.244.177.2.
     +o	 The routing table entry will have a netmask of	0xffffffff.

     This is all fine when each	side has a pre-determined IP address, however
     it	is often the case that one side	is acting as a server which controls
     all IP addresses and the other side should	go along with it.  In order to
     allow more	flexible behaviour, the	``set ifaddr'' command allows the user
     to	specify	IP addresses more loosely:

	   set ifaddr 192.244.177.38/24	192.244.177.2/20

     A number followed by a slash (``/'') represents the number	of bits	sig-
     nificant in the IP	address.  The above example means:

     +o	 I would like to use 192.244.177.38 as my address if it	is possible,
	 but I will also accept	any IP address between 192.244.177.0 and
	 192.244.177.255.
     +o	 I would like to make him use 192.244.177.2 as his own address,	but I
	 will also permit him to use any IP address between 192.244.176.0 and
	 192.244.191.255.
     +o	 As you	may have already noticed, 192.244.177.2	is equivalent to say-
	 ing 192.244.177.2/32.
     +o	 As an exception, 0 is equivalent to 0.0.0.0/0,	meaning	that I have no
	 preferred IP address and will obey the	remote peers selection.	 When
	 using zero, no	routing	table entries will be made until a connection
	 is established.
     +o	 192.244.177.2/0 means that I will accept/permit any IP	address	but I
	 will suggest that 192.244.177.2 be used first.

     When negotiating IPv6 addresses, no control is given to the user.	IPV6CP
     negotiation is fully automatic.

CONNECTING WITH	YOUR INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER
     The following steps should	be taken when connecting to your ISP:

     1.	  Describe your	providers phone	number(s) in the dial script using the
	  ``set	phone''	command.  This command allows you to set multiple
	  phone	numbers	for dialing and	redialing separated by either a	pipe
	  (``|'') or a colon (``:''):

		set phone telno[|backupnumber]...[:nextnumber]...

	  Numbers after	the first in a pipe-separated list are only used if
	  the previous number was used in a failed dial	or login script.  Num-
	  bers separated by a colon are	used sequentially, irrespective	of
	  what happened	as a result of using the previous number.  For exam-
	  ple:

		set phone "1234567|2345678:3456789|4567890"

	  Here,	the 1234567 number is attempted.  If the dial or login script
	  fails, the 2345678 number is used next time, but *only* if the dial
	  or login script fails.  On the dial after this, the 3456789 number
	  is used.  The	4567890	number is only used if the dial	or login
	  script using the 3456789 fails.  If the login	script of the 2345678
	  number fails,	the next number	is still the 3456789 number.  As many
	  pipes	and colons can be used as are necessary	(although a given site
	  would	usually	prefer to use either the pipe or the colon, but	not
	  both).  The next number redial timeout is used between all numbers.
	  When the end of the list is reached, the normal redial period	is
	  used before starting at the beginning	again.	The selected phone
	  number is substituted	for the	\\T string in the ``set	dial'' command
	  (see below).

     2.	  Set up your redial requirements using	``set redial''.	 For example,
	  if you have a	bad telephone line or your provider is usually engaged
	  (not so common these days), you may want to specify the following:

		set redial 10 4

	  This says that up to 4 phone calls should be attempted with a	pause
	  of 10	seconds	before dialing the first number	again.

     3.	  Describe your	login procedure	using the ``set	dial'' and ``set
	  login'' commands.  The ``set dial'' command is used to talk to your
	  modem	and establish a	link with your ISP, for	example:

		set dial "ABORT	BUSY ABORT NO\\sCARRIER	TIMEOUT	4 \"\" \
		  ATZ OK-ATZ-OK	ATDT\\T	TIMEOUT	60 CONNECT"

	  This modem "chat" string means:

	  +o   Abort if the string "BUSY" or "NO	CARRIER" are received.

	  +o   Set the timeout to 4 seconds.

	  +o   Expect nothing.

	  +o   Send ATZ.

	  +o   Expect OK.  If that is not received within the 4 second timeout,
	      send ATZ and expect OK.

	  +o   Send ATDTxxxxxxx where xxxxxxx is	the next number	in the phone
	      list from	above.

	  +o   Set the timeout to 60.

	  +o   Wait for the CONNECT string.

	  Once the connection is established, the login	script is executed.
	  This script is written in the	same style as the dial script, but
	  care should be taken to avoid	having your password logged:

		set authkey MySecret
		set login "TIMEOUT 15 login:-\\r-login:	awfulhak \
		  word:	\\P ocol: PPP HELLO"

	  This login "chat" string means:

	  +o   Set the timeout to 15 seconds.

	  +o   Expect "login:".	If it is not received, send a carriage return
	      and expect "login:" again.

	  +o   Send "awfulhak"

	  +o   Expect "word:" (the tail end of a	"Password:" prompt).

	  +o   Send whatever our	current	authkey	value is set to.

	  +o   Expect "ocol:" (the tail end of a	"Protocol:" prompt).

	  +o   Send "PPP".

	  +o   Expect "HELLO".

	  The ``set authkey'' command is logged	specially.  When command or
	  chat logging is enabled, the actual password is not logged;
	  `********' is	logged instead.

	  Login	scripts	vary greatly between ISPs.  If you are setting one up
	  for the first	time, ENABLE CHAT LOGGING so that you can see if your
	  script is behaving as	you expect.

     4.	  Use ``set device'' and ``set speed'' to specify your serial line and
	  speed, for example:

		set device /dev/cuaa0
		set speed 115200

	  Cuad0	is the first serial port on FreeBSD.  If you are running ppp
	  on OpenBSD, cua00 is the first.  A speed of 115200 should be speci-
	  fied if you have a modem capable of bit rates	of 28800 or more.  In
	  general, the serial speed should be about four times the modem
	  speed.

     5.	  Use the ``set	ifaddr'' command to define the IP address.

	  +o   If you know what IP address your provider	uses, then use it as
	      the remote address (dst_addr), otherwise choose something	like
	      10.0.0.2/0 (see below).

	  +o   If your provider has assigned a particular IP address to you,
	      then use it as your address (src_addr).

	  +o   If your provider assigns your address dynamically, choose	a
	      suitably unobtrusive and unspecific IP number as your address.
	      10.0.0.1/0 would be appropriate.	The bit	after the / specifies
	      how many bits of the address you consider	to be important, so if
	      you wanted to insist on something	in the class C network
	      1.2.3.0, you could specify 1.2.3.1/24.

	  +o   If you find that your ISP	accepts	the first IP number that you
	      suggest, specify third and forth arguments of ``0.0.0.0''.  This
	      will force your ISP to assign a number.  (The third argument
	      will be ignored as it is less restrictive	than the default mask
	      for your `src_addr').

	  An example for a connection where you	do not know your IP number or
	  your ISPs IP number would be:

		set ifaddr 10.0.0.1/0 10.0.0.2/0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0

     6.	  In most cases, your ISP will also be your default router.  If	this
	  is the case, add the line

		add default HISADDR

	  to /etc/ppp/ppp.conf (or to /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup for setups that do
	  not use -auto	mode).

	  This tells ppp to add	a default route	to whatever the	peer address
	  is (10.0.0.2 in this example).  This route is	`sticky', meaning that
	  should the value of HISADDR change, the route	will be	updated
	  accordingly.

     7.	  If your provider requests that you use PAP/CHAP authentication meth-
	  ods, add the next lines to your /etc/ppp/ppp.conf file:

		set authname MyName
		set authkey MyPassword

	  Both are accepted by default,	so ppp will provide whatever your ISP
	  requires.

	  It should be noted that a login script is rarely (if ever) required
	  when PAP or CHAP are in use.

     8.	  Ask your ISP to authenticate your nameserver address(es) with	the
	  line

		enable dns

	  Do NOT do this if you	are running a local DNS	unless you also	either
	  use ``resolv readonly'' or have ``resolv restore'' in
	  /etc/ppp/ppp.linkdown, as ppp	will simply circumvent its use by
	  entering some	nameserver lines in /etc/resolv.conf.

     Please refer to /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.conf.sample and
     /usr/share/examples/ppp/ppp.linkup.sample for some	real examples.	The
     pmdemand label should be appropriate for most ISPs.

LOGGING	FACILITY
     ppp is able to generate the following log info either via syslog(3) or
     directly to the screen:

	All	   Enable all logging facilities.  This	generates a lot	of
		   log.	 The most common use of	'all' is as a basis, where you
		   remove some facilities after	enabling 'all' ('debug'	and
		   'timer' are usually best disabled.)
	Async	   Dump	async level packet in hex.
	CBCP	   Generate CBCP (CallBack Control Protocol) logs.
	CCP	   Generate a CCP packet trace.
	Chat	   Generate `dial', `login', `logout' and `hangup' chat	script
		   trace logs.
	Command	   Log commands	executed either	from the command line or any
		   of the configuration	files.
	Connect	   Log Chat lines containing the string	"CONNECT".
	Debug	   Log debug information.
	DNS	   Log DNS QUERY packets.
	Filter	   Log packets permitted by the	dial filter and	denied by any
		   filter.
	HDLC	   Dump	HDLC packet in hex.
	ID0	   Log all function calls specifically made as user id 0.
	IPCP	   Generate an IPCP packet trace.
	LCP	   Generate an LCP packet trace.
	LQM	   Generate LQR	reports.
	Phase	   Phase transition log	output.
	Physical   Dump	physical level packet in hex.
	Radius	   Dump	RADIUS information.  RADIUS information	resulting from
		   the link coming up or down is logged	at ``Phase'' level
		   unless ``Radius'' logging is	enabled.  This log level is
		   most	useful for monitoring RADIUS alive information.
	Sync	   Dump	sync level packet in hex.
	TCP/IP	   Dump	all TCP/IP packets.
	Timer	   Log timer manipulation.
	TUN	   Include the tun device on each log line.
	Warning	   Output to the terminal device.  If there is currently no
		   terminal, output is sent to the log file using syslogs
		   LOG_WARNING.
	Error	   Output to both the terminal device and the log file using
		   syslogs LOG_ERROR.
	Alert	   Output to the log file using	LOG_ALERT.

     The ``set log'' command allows you	to set the logging output level.  Mul-
     tiple levels can be specified on a	single command line.  The default is
     equivalent	to ``set log Phase''.

     It	is also	possible to log	directly to the	screen.	 The syntax is the
     same except that the word ``local'' should	immediately follow ``set
     log''.  The default is ``set log local'' (i.e., only the un-maskable
     warning, error and	alert output).

     If	The first argument to ``set log	[local]'' begins with a	`+' or a `-'
     character,	the current log	levels are not cleared,	for example:

	   PPP ON awfulhak> set	log phase
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show log
	   Log:	  Phase	Warning	Error Alert
	   Local: Warning Error	Alert
	   PPP ON awfulhak> set	log +tcp/ip -warning
	   PPP ON awfulhak> set	log local +command
	   PPP ON awfulhak> show log
	   Log:	  Phase	TCP/IP Warning Error Alert
	   Local: Command Warning Error	Alert

     Log messages of level Warning, Error and Alert are	not controllable using
     ``set log [local]''.

     The Warning level is special in that it will not be logged	if it can be
     displayed locally.

SIGNAL HANDLING
     ppp deals with the	following signals:

     INT   Receipt of this signal causes the termination of the	current	con-
	   nection (if any).  This will	cause ppp to exit unless it is in
	   -auto or -ddial mode.

     HUP, TERM & QUIT
	   These signals tell ppp to exit.

     USR1  This	signal,	tells ppp to re-open any existing server socket, drop-
	   ping	all existing diagnostic	connections.  Sockets that could not
	   previously be opened	will be	retried.

     USR2  This	signal,	tells ppp to close any existing	server socket, drop-
	   ping	all existing diagnostic	connections.  SIGUSR1 can still	be
	   used	to re-open the socket.

MULTI-LINK PPP
     If	you wish to use	more than one physical link to connect to a PPP	peer,
     that peer must also understand the	MULTI-LINK PPP protocol.  Refer	to RFC
     1990 for specification details.

     The peer is identified using a combination	of his ``endpoint
     discriminator'' and his ``authentication id''.  Either or both of these
     may be specified.	It is recommended that at least	one is specified, oth-
     erwise there is no	way of ensuring	that all links are actually connected
     to	the same peer program, and some	confusing lock-ups may result.
     Locally, these identification variables are specified using the ``set
     enddisc'' and ``set authname'' commands.  The `authname' (and `authkey')
     must be agreed in advance with the	peer.

     Multi-link	capabilities are enabled using the ``set mrru''	command	(set
     maximum reconstructed receive unit).  Once	multi-link is enabled, ppp
     will attempt to negotiate a multi-link connection with the	peer.

     By	default, only one `link' is available (called `deflink').  To create
     more links, the ``clone'' command is used.	 This command will clone
     existing links, where all characteristics are the same except:

     1.	  The new link has its own name	as specified on	the ``clone'' command
	  line.

     2.	  The new link is an `interactive' link.  Its mode may subsequently be
	  changed using	the ``set mode'' command.

     3.	  The new link is in a `closed'	state.

     A summary of all available	links can be seen using	the ``show links''
     command.

     Once a new	link has been created, command usage varies.  All link spe-
     cific commands must be prefixed with the ``link name'' command, specify-
     ing on which link the command is to be applied.  When only	a single link
     is	available, ppp is smart	enough not to require the ``link name''	pre-
     fix.

     Some commands can still be	used without specifying	a link - resulting in
     an	operation at the `bundle' level.  For example, once two	or more	links
     are available, the	command	``show ccp'' will show CCP configuration and
     statistics	at the multi-link level, and ``link deflink show ccp'' will
     show the same information at the ``deflink'' link level.

     Armed with	this information, the following	configuration might be used:

	   mp:
	    set	timeout	0
	    set	log phase chat
	    set	device /dev/cuaa0 /dev/cuaa1 /dev/cuaa2
	    set	phone "123456789"
	    set	dial "ABORT BUSY ABORT NO\sCARRIER TIMEOUT 5 \"\" ATZ \
		      OK-AT-OK \\dATDT\\T TIMEOUT 45 CONNECT"
	    set	login
	    set	ifaddr 10.0.0.1/0 10.0.0.2/0 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
	    set	authname ppp
	    set	authkey	ppppassword

	    set	mrru 1500
	    clone 1,2,3		   # Create 3 new links	- duplicates of	the default
	    link deflink remove	   # Delete the	default	link (called ``deflink'')

     Note how all cloning is done at the end of	the configuration.  Usually,
     the link will be configured first,	then cloned.  If you wish all links to
     be	up all the time, you can add the following line	to the end of your
     configuration.

	     link 1,2,3	set mode ddial

     If	you want the links to dial on demand, this command could be used:

	     link * set	mode auto

     Links may be tied to specific names by removing the ``set device''	line
     above, and	specifying the following after the ``clone'' command:

	    link 1 set device /dev/cuaa0
	    link 2 set device /dev/cuaa1
	    link 3 set device /dev/cuaa2

     Use the ``help'' command to see which commands require context (using the
     ``link'' command),	which have optional context and	which should not have
     any context.

     When ppp has negotiated MULTI-LINK	mode with the peer, it creates a local
     domain socket in the /var/run directory.  This socket is used to pass
     link information (including the actual link file descriptor) between dif-
     ferent ppp	invocations.  This facilitates ppp's ability to	be run from a
     getty(8) or directly from /etc/gettydefs (using the `pp=' capability),
     without needing to	have initial control of	the serial line.  Once ppp
     negotiates	multi-link mode, it will pass its open link to any already
     running process.  If there	is no already running process, ppp will	act as
     the master, creating the socket and listening for new connections.

PPP COMMAND LIST
     This section lists	the available commands and their effect.  They are
     usable either from	an interactive ppp session, from a configuration file
     or	from a pppctl(8) or telnet(1) session.

     accept|deny|enable|disable	option....
	 These directives tell ppp how to negotiate the	initial	connection
	 with the peer.	 Each ``option'' has a default of either accept	or
	 deny and enable or disable.  ``Accept'' means that the	option will be
	 ACK'd if the peer asks	for it.	 ``Deny'' means	that the option	will
	 be NAK'd if the peer asks for it.  ``Enable'' means that the option
	 will be requested by us.  ``Disable'' means that the option will not
	 be requested by us.

	 ``Option'' may	be one of the following:

	 acfcomp
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  ACFComp stands for	Address	and
	     Control Field Compression.	 Non LCP packets will usually have an
	     address field of 0xff (the	All-Stations address) and a control
	     field of 0x03 (the	Unnumbered Information command).  If this
	     option is negotiated, these two bytes are simply not sent,	thus
	     minimising	traffic.

	     See rfc1662 for details.

	 chap[05]
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  CHAP stands for Challenge	Hand-
	     shake Authentication Protocol.  Only one of CHAP and PAP (below)
	     may be negotiated.	 With CHAP, the	authenticator sends a "chal-
	     lenge" message to its peer.  The peer uses	a one-way hash func-
	     tion to encrypt the challenge and sends the result	back.  The
	     authenticator does	the same, and compares the results.  The
	     advantage of this mechanism is that no passwords are sent across
	     the connection.  A	challenge is made when the connection is first
	     made.  Subsequent challenges may occur.  If you want to have your
	     peer authenticate itself, you must	``enable chap''.  in
	     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf,	and have an entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret for
	     the peer.

	     When using	CHAP as	the client, you	need only specify ``AuthName''
	     and ``AuthKey'' in	/etc/ppp/ppp.conf.  CHAP is accepted by
	     default.  Some PPP	implementations	use "MS-CHAP" rather than MD5
	     when encrypting the challenge.  MS-CHAP is	a combination of MD4
	     and DES.  If ppp was built	on a machine with DES libraries	avail-
	     able, it will respond to MS-CHAP authentication requests, but
	     will never	request	them.

	 deflate
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option decides if deflate
	     compression will be used by the Compression Control Protocol
	     (CCP).  This is the same algorithm	as used	by the gzip(1) pro-
	     gram.  Note: There	is a problem negotiating deflate capabilities
	     with pppd(8) - a PPP implementation available under many operat-
	     ing systems.  pppd	(version 2.3.1)	incorrectly attempts to	nego-
	     tiate deflate compression using type 24 as	the CCP	configuration
	     type rather than type 26 as specified in rfc1979.	Type 24	is
	     actually specified	as ``PPP Magna-link Variable Resource
	     Compression'' in rfc1975!	ppp is capable of negotiating with
	     pppd, but only if ``deflate24'' is	enabled	and accepted.

	 deflate24
	     Default: Disabled and Denied.  This is a variance of the deflate
	     option, allowing negotiation with the pppd(8) program.  Refer to
	     the deflate section above for details.  It	is disabled by default
	     as	it violates rfc1975.

	 dns
	     Default: Disabled and Denied.  This option	allows DNS negotia-
	     tion.

	     If	``enabled,'' ppp will request that the peer confirms the
	     entries in	/etc/resolv.conf.  If the peer NAKs our	request	(sug-
	     gesting new IP numbers), /etc/resolv.conf is updated and another
	     request is	sent to	confirm	the new	entries.

	     If	``accepted,'' ppp will answer any DNS queries requested	by the
	     peer rather than rejecting	them.  The answer is taken from
	     /etc/resolv.conf unless the ``set dns'' command is	used as	an
	     override.

	 enddisc
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option allows	control	over
	     whether we	negotiate an endpoint discriminator.  We only send our
	     discriminator if ``set enddisc'' is used and enddisc is enabled.
	     We	reject the peers discriminator if enddisc is denied.

	 LANMan|chap80lm
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  The use of this authentication
	     protocol is discouraged as	it partially violates the authentica-
	     tion protocol by implementing two different mechanisms (LANMan &
	     NT) under the guise of a single CHAP type (0x80).	``LANMan''
	     uses a simple DES encryption mechanism and	is the least secure of
	     the CHAP alternatives (although is	still more secure than PAP).

	     Refer to the ``MSChap'' description below for more	details.

	 lqr
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  This option decides if Link
	     Quality Requests will be sent or accepted.	 LQR is	a protocol
	     that allows ppp to	determine that the link	is down	without	rely-
	     ing on the	modems carrier detect.	When LQR is enabled, ppp sends
	     the QUALPROTO option (see ``set lqrperiod'' below)	as part	of the
	     LCP request.  If the peer agrees, both sides will exchange	LQR
	     packets at	the agreed frequency, allowing detailed	link quality
	     monitoring	by enabling LQM	logging.  If the peer does not agree,
	     and if the	``echo'' option	is enabled, ppp	will send LCP ECHO
	     requests instead.	These packets pass no information of interest,
	     but they MUST be replied to by the	peer.

	     Whether using LQR or LCP ECHO, ppp	will abruptly drop the connec-
	     tion if 5 unacknowledged packets have been	sent rather than send-
	     ing a 6th.	 A message is logged at	the PHASE level, and any
	     appropriate ``reconnect'' values are honoured as if the peer were
	     responsible for dropping the connection.

	     Refer to the ``enable echo'' command description for differences
	     in	behaviour prior	to ppp version 3.4.2.

	 mppe
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This is Microsoft Point to	Point
	     Encryption	scheme.	 MPPE key size can be 40-, 56- and 128-bits.
	     Refer to ``set mppe'' command.

	 MSChapV2|chap81
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  It is very similar to standard
	     CHAP (type	0x05) except that it issues challenges of a fixed 16
	     bytes in length and uses a	combination of MD4, SHA-1 and DES to
	     encrypt the challenge rather than using the standard MD5 mecha-
	     nism.

	 MSChap|chap80nt
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  The use of this authentication
	     protocol is discouraged as	it partially violates the authentica-
	     tion protocol by implementing two different mechanisms (LANMan &
	     NT) under the guise of a single CHAP type (0x80).	It is very
	     similar to	standard CHAP (type 0x05) except that it issues	chal-
	     lenges of a fixed 8 bytes in length and uses a combination	of MD4
	     and DES to	encrypt	the challenge rather than using	the standard
	     MD5 mechanism.  CHAP type 0x80 for	LANMan is also supported - see
	     ``enable LANMan'' for details.

	     Because both ``LANMan'' and ``NT''	use CHAP type 0x80, when act-
	     ing as authenticator with both ``enabled'', ppp will rechallenge
	     the peer up to three times	if it responds using the wrong one of
	     the two protocols.	 This gives the	peer a chance to attempt using
	     both protocols.

	     Conversely, when ppp acts as the authenticatee with both proto-
	     cols ``accepted'',	the protocols are used alternately in response
	     to	challenges.

	     Note: If only LANMan is enabled, pppd(8) (version 2.3.5) misbe-
	     haves when	acting as authenticatee.  It provides both the NT and
	     the LANMan	answers, but also suggests that	only the NT answer
	     should be used.

	 pap
	     Default: Disabled and Accepted.  PAP stands for Password Authen-
	     tication Protocol.	 Only one of PAP and CHAP (above) may be nego-
	     tiated.  With PAP,	the ID and Password are	sent repeatedly	to the
	     peer until	authentication is acknowledged or the connection is
	     terminated.  This is a rather poor	security mechanism.  It	is
	     only performed when the connection	is first established.  If you
	     want to have your peer authenticate itself, you must ``enable
	     pap''.  in	/etc/ppp/ppp.conf, and have an entry in
	     /etc/ppp/ppp.secret for the peer (although	see the	``passwdauth''
	     and ``set radius''	options	below).

	     When using	PAP as the client, you need only specify ``AuthName''
	     and ``AuthKey'' in	/etc/ppp/ppp.conf.  PAP	is accepted by
	     default.

	 pred1
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option decides if Predictor
	     1 compression will	be used	by the Compression Control Protocol
	     (CCP).

	 protocomp
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option is used to negotiate
	     PFC (Protocol Field Compression), a mechanism where the protocol
	     field number is reduced to	one octet rather than two.

	 shortseq
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option determines if ppp
	     will request and accept requests for short	(12 bit) sequence num-
	     bers when negotiating multi-link mode.  This is only applicable
	     if	our MRRU is set	(thus enabling multi-link).

	 vjcomp
	     Default: Enabled and Accepted.  This option determines if Van
	     Jacobson header compression will be used.

	 The following options are not actually	negotiated with	the peer.
	 Therefore, accepting or denying them makes no sense.

	 echo
	     Default: Disabled.	 When this option is enabled, ppp will send
	     LCP ECHO requests to the peer at the frequency defined by
	     ``echoperiod''.  Note, LQR	requests will supersede	LCP ECHO
	     requests if enabled and negotiated.  See ``set lqrperiod''	below
	     for details.

	     Prior to ppp version 3.4.2, ``echo'' was considered enabled if
	     lqr was enabled and negotiated, otherwise it was considered dis-
	     abled.  For the same behaviour, it	is now necessary to ``enable
	     lqr echo''	rather than just ``enable lqr''.

	 filter-decapsulation
	     Default: Disabled.	 When this option is enabled, ppp will examine
	     UDP frames	to see if they actually	contain	a PPP frame as their
	     payload.  If this is the case, all	filters	will operate on	the
	     payload rather than the actual packet.

	     This is useful if you want	to send	PPPoUDP	traffic	over a PPP
	     link, but want that link to do smart things with the real data
	     rather than the UDP wrapper.

	     The UDP frame payload must	not be compressed in any way, other-
	     wise ppp will not be able to interpret it.	 It is therefore rec-
	     ommended that you disable vj pred1	deflate	and deny vj pred1
	     deflate in	the configuration for the ppp invocation with the udp
	     link.

	 force-scripts
	     Default: Disabled.	 Forces	execution of the configured chat
	     scripts in	direct and dedicated modes.

	 idcheck
	     Default: Enabled.	When ppp exchanges low-level LCP, CCP and IPCP
	     configuration traffic, the	Identifier field of any	replies	is
	     expected to be the	same as	that of	the request.  By default, ppp
	     drops any reply packets that do not contain the expected identi-
	     fier field, reporting the fact at the respective log level.  If
	     idcheck is	disabled, ppp will ignore the identifier field.

	 iface-alias
	     Default: Enabled if -nat is specified.  This option simply	tells
	     ppp to add	new interface addresses	to the interface rather	than
	     replacing them.  The option can only be enabled if	network
	     address translation is enabled (``nat enable yes'').

	     With this option enabled, ppp will	pass traffic for old interface
	     addresses through the NAT engine (see libalias(3)), resulting in
	     the ability (in -auto mode) to properly connect the process that
	     caused the	PPP link to come up in the first place.

	     Disabling NAT with	``nat enable no'' will also disable
	     `iface-alias'.

	 ipcp
	     Default: Enabled.	This option allows ppp to attempt to negotiate
	     IP	control	protocol capabilities and if successful	to exchange IP
	     datagrams with the	peer.

	 ipv6cp
	     Default: Enabled.	This option allows ppp to attempt to negotiate
	     IPv6 control protocol capabilities	and if successful to exchange
	     IPv6 datagrams with the peer.

	 keep-session
	     Default: Disabled.	 When ppp runs as a Multi-link server, a dif-
	     ferent ppp	instance initially receives each connection.  After
	     determining that the link belongs to an already existing bundle
	     (controlled by another ppp	invocation), ppp will transfer the
	     link to that process.

	     If	the link is a tty device or if this option is enabled, ppp
	     will not exit, but	will change its	process	name to	``session
	     owner'' and wait for the controlling ppp to finish	with the link
	     and deliver a signal back to the idle process.  This prevents the
	     confusion that results from ppp's parent considering the link
	     resource available	again.

	     For tty devices that have entries in /etc/ttys, this is necessary
	     to	prevent	another	getty(8) from being started, and for program
	     links such	as sshd(8), it prevents	sshd(8)	from exiting due to
	     the death of its child.  As ppp cannot determine its parents
	     requirements (except for the tty case), this option must be
	     enabled manually depending	on the circumstances.

	 loopback
	     Default: Enabled.	When loopback is enabled, ppp will automati-
	     cally loop	back packets being sent	out with a destination address
	     equal to that of the PPP interface.  If disabled, ppp will	send
	     the packet, probably resulting in an ICMP redirect	from the other
	     end.  It is convenient to have this option	enabled	when the
	     interface is also the default route as it avoids the necessity of
	     a loopback	route.

	 NAS-IP-Address
	     Default: Enabled.	This option controls whether ppp sends the
	     ``NAS-IP-Address''	attribute to the RADIUS	server when RADIUS is
	     in	use (see ``set radius'').

	     Note, at least one	of ``NAS-IP-Address'' and ``NAS-Identifier''
	     must be enabled.

	     Versions of ppp prior to version 3.4.1 did	not send the
	     ``NAS-IP-Address''	atribute as it was reported to break the Radi-
	     ator RADIUS server.  As the latest	rfc (2865) no longer hints
	     that only one of ``NAS-IP-Address'' and ``NAS-Identifier''	should
	     be	sent (as rfc 2138 did),	ppp now	sends both and leaves it up to
	     the administrator that chooses to use bad RADIUS implementations
	     to	``disable NAS-IP-Address''.

	 NAS-Identifier
	     Default: Enabled.	This option controls whether ppp sends the
	     ``NAS-Identifier''	attribute to the RADIUS	server when RADIUS is
	     in	use (see ``set radius'').

	     Note, at least one	of ``NAS-IP-Address'' and ``NAS-Identifier''
	     must be enabled.

	 passwdauth
	     Default: Disabled.	 Enabling this option will tell	the PAP
	     authentication code to use	the password database (see passwd(5))
	     to	authenticate the caller	if they	cannot be found	in the
	     /etc/ppp/ppp.secret file.	/etc/ppp/ppp.secret is always checked
	     first.  If	you wish to use	passwords from passwd(5), but also to
	     specify an	IP number or label for a given client, use ``*'' as
	     the client	password in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret.

	 proxy
	     Default: Disabled.	 Enabling this option will tell	ppp to proxy
	     ARP for the peer.	This means that	ppp will make an entry in the
	     ARP table using HISADDR and the MAC address of the	local network
	     in	which HISADDR appears.	This allows other machines connecteed
	     to	the LAN	to talk	to the peer as if the peer itself was con-
	     nected to the LAN.	 The proxy entry cannot	be made	unless HISADDR
	     is	an address from	a LAN.

	 proxyall
	     Default: Disabled.	 Enabling this will tell ppp to	add proxy arp
	     entries for every IP address in all class C or smaller subnets
	     routed via	the tun	interface.

	     Proxy arp entries are only	made for sticky	routes that are	added
	     using the ``add'' command.	 No proxy arp entries are made for the
	     interface address itself (as created by the ``set ifaddr''	com-
	     mand).

	 sroutes
	     Default: Enabled.	When the ``add'' command is used with the
	     HISADDR, MYADDR, HISADDR6 or MYADDR6 values, entries are stored
	     in	the `sticky route' list.  Each time these variables change,
	     this list is re-applied to	the routing table.

	     Disabling this option will	prevent	the re-application of sticky
	     routes, although the `stick route'	list will still	be maintained.

	 [tcp]mssfixup
	     Default: Enabled.	This option tells ppp to adjust	TCP SYN	pack-
	     ets so that the maximum receive segment size is not greater than
	     the amount	allowed	by the interface MTU.

	 throughput
	     Default: Enabled.	This option tells ppp to gather	throughput
	     statistics.  Input	and output is sampled over a rolling 5 second
	     window, and current, best and total figures are retained.	This
	     data is output when the relevant PPP layer	shuts down, and	is
	     also available using the ``show'' command.	 Throughput statistics
	     are available at the ``IPCP'' and ``physical'' levels.

	 utmp
	     Default: Enabled.	Normally, when a user is authenticated using
	     PAP or CHAP, and when ppp is running in -direct mode, an entry is
	     made in the utmp and wtmp files for that user.  Disabling this
	     option will tell ppp not to make any utmp or wtmp entries.	 This
	     is	usually	only necessary if you require the user to both login
	     and authenticate themselves.

     add[!] dest[/nn] [mask] [gateway]
	 Dest is the destination IP address.  The netmask is specified either
	 as a number of	bits with /nn or as an IP number using mask.  0	0 or
	 simply	0 with no mask refers to the default route.  It	is also	possi-
	 ble to	use the	literal	name `default' instead of 0.  Gateway is the
	 next hop gateway to get to the	given dest machine/network.  Refer to
	 the route(8) command for further details.

	 It is possible	to use the symbolic names `MYADDR', `HISADDR',
	 `MYADDR6' or `HISADDR6' as the	destination, and `HISADDR' or
	 `HISADDR6' as the gateway.  `MYADDR' is replaced with the interface
	 IP address, `HISADDR' is replaced with	the interface IP destination
	 (peer)	address, `MYADDR6' is replaced with the	interface IPv6
	 address, and `HISADDR6' is replaced with the interface	IPv6 destina-
	 tion address,

	 If the	add! command is	used (note the trailing	``!''),	then if	the
	 route already exists, it will be updated as with the `route change'
	 command (see route(8) for further details).

	 Routes	that contain the ``HISADDR'', ``MYADDR'', ``HISADDR6'',
	 ``MYADDR6'', ``DNS0'',	or ``DNS1'' constants are considered `sticky'.
	 They are stored in a list (use	``show ncp'' to	see the	list), and
	 each time the value of	one of these variables changes,	the appropri-
	 ate routing table entries are updated.	 This facility may be disabled
	 using ``disable sroutes''.

     allow command [args]
	 This command controls access to ppp and its configuration files.  It
	 is possible to	allow user-level access, depending on the configura-
	 tion file label and on	the mode that ppp is being run in.  For	exam-
	 ple, you may wish to configure	ppp so that only user `fred' may
	 access	label `fredlabel' in -background mode.

	 User id 0 is immune to	these commands.

	 allow user[s] logname...
	     By	default, only user id 0	is allowed access to ppp.  If this
	     command is	used, all of the listed	users are allowed access to
	     the section in which the ``allow users'' command is found.	 The
	     `default' section is always checked first (even though it is only
	     ever automatically	loaded at startup).  ``allow users'' commands
	     are cumulative in a given section,	but users allowed in any given
	     section override users allowed in the default section, so it is
	     possible to allow users access to everything except a given label
	     by	specifying default users in the	`default' section, and then
	     specifying	a new user list	for that label.

	     If	user `*' is specified, access is allowed to all	users.

	 allow mode[s] mode...
	     By	default, access	using any ppp mode is possible.	 If this com-
	     mand is used, it restricts	the access modes allowed to load the
	     label under which this command is specified.  Again, as with the
	     ``allow users'' command, each ``allow modes'' command overrides
	     any previous settings, and	the `default' section is always
	     checked first.

	     Possible modes are: `interactive',	`auto',	`direct', `dedicated',
	     `ddial', `background' and `*'.

	     When running in multi-link	mode, a	section	can be loaded if it
	     allows any	of the currently existing line modes.

     nat command [args]
	 This command allows the control of the	network	address	translation
	 (also known as	masquerading or	IP aliasing) facilities	that are built
	 into ppp.  NAT	is done	on the external	interface only,	and is
	 unlikely to make sense	if used	with the -direct flag.

	 If nat	is enabled on your system (it may be omitted at	compile	time),
	 the following commands	are possible:

	 nat enable yes|no
	     This command either switches network address translation on or
	     turns it off.  The	-nat command line flag is synonymous with
	     ``nat enable yes''.

	 nat addr [addr_local addr_alias]
	     This command allows data for addr_alias to	be redirected to
	     addr_local.  It is	useful if you own a small number of real IP
	     numbers that you wish to map to specific machines behind your
	     gateway.

	 nat deny_incoming yes|no
	     If	set to yes, this command will refuse all incoming packets
	     where an aliasing link does not already exist.  Refer to the
	     CONCEPTUAL	BACKGROUND section of libalias(3) for a	description of
	     what an ``aliasing	link'' is.

	     It	should be noted	under what circumstances an aliasing link is
	     created by	libalias(3).  It may be	necessary to further protect
	     your network from outside connections using the ``set filter'' or
	     ``nat target'' commands.

	 nat help|?
	     This command gives	a summary of available nat commands.

	 nat log yes|no
	     This option causes	various	NAT statistics and information to be
	     logged to the file	/var/log/alias.log.

	 nat port proto	targetIP:targetPort[-targetPort] aliasPort[-aliasPort]
	     [remoteIP:remotePort[-remotePort]]
	     This command causes incoming proto	connections to aliasPort to be
	     redirected	to targetPort on targetIP.  proto is either ``tcp'' or
	     ``udp''.

	     A range of	port numbers may be specified as shown above.  The
	     ranges must be of the same	size.

	     If	remoteIP is specified, only data coming	from that IP number is
	     redirected.  remotePort must either be ``0'' (indicating any
	     source port) or a range of	ports the same size as the other
	     ranges.

	     This option is useful if you wish to run things like Internet
	     phone on machines behind your gateway, but	is limited in that
	     connections to only one interior machine per source machine and
	     target port are possible.

	 nat proto proto localIP [publicIP [remoteIP]]
	     This command tells	ppp to redirect	packets	of protocol type proto
	     (see protocols(5))	to the internal	address	localIP.

	     If	publicIP is specified, only packets destined for that address
	     are matched, otherwise the	default	alias address is used.

	     If	remoteIP is specified, only packets matching that source
	     address are matched,

	     This command is useful for	redirecting tunnel endpoints to	an
	     internal machine, for example:

		   nat proto ipencap 10.0.0.1

	 nat proxy cmd arg...
	     This command tells	ppp to proxy certain connections, redirecting
	     them to a given server.  Refer to the description of
	     PacketAliasProxyRule() in libalias(3) for details of the avail-
	     able commands.

	 nat punch_fw [base count]
	     This command tells	ppp to punch holes in the firewall for FTP or
	     IRC DCC connections.  This	is done	dynamically by installing
	     termporary	firewall rules which allow a particular	connection
	     (and only that connection)	to go through the firewall.  The rules
	     are removed once the corresponding	connection terminates.

	     A maximum of count	rules starting from rule number	base will be
	     used for punching firewall	holes.	The range will be cleared when
	     the ``nat punch_fw'' command is run.

	     If	no arguments are given,	firewall punching is disabled.

	 nat skinny_port [port]
	     This command tells	ppp which TCP port is used by the Skinny Sta-
	     tion protocol.  Skinny is used by Cisco IP	phones to communicate
	     with Cisco	Call Managers to setup voice over IP calls.  The typi-
	     cal port used by Skinny is	2000.

	     If	no argument is given, skinny aliasing is disabled.

	 nat same_ports	yes|no
	     When enabled, this	command	will tell the network address transla-
	     tion engine to attempt to avoid changing the port number on out-
	     going packets.  This is useful if you want	to support protocols
	     such as RPC and LPD which require connections to come from	a well
	     known port.

	 nat target [address]
	     Set the given target address or clear it if no address is given.
	     The target	address	is used	by libalias to specify how to NAT
	     incoming packets by default.  If a	target address is not set or
	     if	``default'' is given, packets are not altered and are allowed
	     to	route to the internal network.

	     The target	address	may be set to ``MYADDR'', in which case
	     libalias will redirect all	packets	to the interface address.

	 nat use_sockets yes|no
	     When enabled, this	option tells the network address translation
	     engine to create a	socket so that it can guarantee	a correct
	     incoming ftp data or IRC connection.

	 nat unregistered_only yes|no
	     Only alter	outgoing packets with an unregistered source address.
	     According to RFC 1918, unregistered source	addresses are
	     10.0.0.0/8, 172.16.0.0/12 and 192.168.0.0/16.

	 These commands	are also discussed in the file README.nat which	comes
	 with the source distribution.

     [!]bg command
	 The given command is executed in the background with the following
	 words replaced:

	 AUTHNAME	  This is replaced with	the local authname value.  See
			  the ``set authname'' command below.

	 COMPILATIONDATE  This is replaced with	the date on which ppp was com-
			  piled.

	 DNS0 &	DNS1	  These	are replaced with the primary and secondary
			  nameserver IP	numbers.  If nameservers are negoti-
			  ated by IPCP,	the values of these macros will
			  change.

	 ENDDISC	  This is replaced with	the local endpoint discrimina-
			  tor value.  See the ``set enddisc'' command below.

	 HISADDR	  This is replaced with	the peers IP number.

	 HISADDR6	  This is replaced with	the peers IPv6 number.

	 INTERFACE	  This is replaced with	the name of the	interface that
			  is in	use.

	 IPOCTETSIN	  This is replaced with	the number of IP bytes
			  received since the connection	was established.

	 IPOCTETSOUT	  This is replaced with	the number of IP bytes sent
			  since	the connection was established.

	 IPPACKETSIN	  This is replaced with	the number of IP packets
			  received since the connection	was established.

	 IPPACKETSOUT	  This is replaced with	the number of IP packets sent
			  since	the connection was established.

	 IPV6OCTETSIN	  This is replaced with	the number of IPv6 bytes
			  received since the connection	was established.

	 IPV6OCTETSOUT	  This is replaced with	the number of IPv6 bytes sent
			  since	the connection was established.

	 IPV6PACKETSIN	  This is replaced with	the number of IPv6 packets
			  received since the connection	was established.

	 IPV6PACKETSOUT	  This is replaced with	the number of IPv6 packets
			  sent since the connection was	established.

	 LABEL		  This is replaced with	the last label name used.  A
			  label	may be specified on the	ppp command line, via
			  the ``load'' or ``dial'' commands and	in the
			  ppp.secret file.

	 MYADDR		  This is replaced with	the IP number assigned to the
			  local	interface.

	 MYADDR6	  This is replaced with	the IPv6 number	assigned to
			  the local interface.

	 OCTETSIN	  This is replaced with	the number of bytes received
			  since	the connection was established.

	 OCTETSOUT	  This is replaced with	the number of bytes sent since
			  the connection was established.

	 PACKETSIN	  This is replaced with	the number of packets received
			  since	the connection was established.

	 PACKETSOUT	  This is replaced with	the number of packets sent
			  since	the connection was established.

	 PEER_ENDDISC	  This is replaced with	the value of the peers end-
			  point	discriminator.

	 PROCESSID	  This is replaced with	the current process id.

	 SOCKNAME	  This is replaced with	the name of the	diagnostic
			  socket.

	 UPTIME		  This is replaced with	the bundle uptime in HH:MM:SS
			  format.

	 USER		  This is replaced with	the username that has been
			  authenticated	with PAP or CHAP.  Normally, this
			  variable is assigned only in -direct mode.  This
			  value	is available irrespective of whether utmp log-
			  ging is enabled.

	 VERSION	  This is replaced with	the current version number of
			  ppp.

	 These substitutions are also done by the ``set	proctitle'', ``ident''
	 and ``log'' commands.

	 If you	wish to	pause ppp while	the command executes, use the
	 ``shell'' command instead.

     clear physical|ipcp|ipv6 [current|overall|peak...]
	 Clear the specified throughput	values at either the ``physical'',
	 ``ipcp'' or ``ipv6cp''	level.	If ``physical''	is specified, context
	 must be given (see the	``link'' command below).  If no	second argu-
	 ment is given,	all values are cleared.

     clone name[,name]...
	 Clone the specified link, creating one	or more	new links according to
	 the name argument(s).	This command must be used from the ``link''
	 command below unless you have only got	a single link (in which	case
	 that link becomes the default).  Links	may be removed using the
	 ``remove'' command below.

	 The default link name is ``deflink''.

     close [lcp|ccp[!]]
	 If no arguments are given, the	relevant protocol layers will be
	 brought down and the link will	be closed.  If ``lcp'' is specified,
	 the LCP layer is brought down,	but ppp	will not bring the link
	 offline.  It is subsequently possible to use ``term'' (see below) to
	 talk to the peer machine if, for example, something like ``slirp'' is
	 being used.  If ``ccp'' is specified, only the	relevant compression
	 layer is closed.  If the ``!''	is used, the compression layer will
	 remain	in the closed state, otherwise it will re-enter	the STOPPED
	 state,	waiting	for the	peer to	initiate further CCP negotiation.  In
	 any event, this command does not disconnect the user from ppp or exit
	 ppp.  See the ``quit''	command	below.

     delete[!] dest
	 This command deletes the route	with the given dest IP address.	 If
	 dest is specified as `ALL', all non-direct entries in the routing ta-
	 ble for the current interface,	and all	`sticky	route' entries are
	 deleted.  If dest is specified	as `default', the default route	is
	 deleted.

	 If the	delete!	command	is used	(note the trailing ``!''), ppp will
	 not complain if the route does	not already exist.

     dial|call [label]...
	 This command is the equivalent	of ``load label'' followed by
	 ``open'', and is provided for backwards compatibility.

     down [lcp|ccp]
	 Bring the relevant layer down ungracefully, as	if the underlying
	 layer had become unavailable.	It is not considered polite to use
	 this command on a Finite State	Machine	that is	in the OPEN state.  If
	 no arguments are supplied, the	entire link is closed (or if no	con-
	 text is given,	all links are terminated).  If `lcp' is	specified, the
	 LCP layer is terminated but the device	is not brought offline and the
	 link is not closed.  If `ccp' is specified, only the relevant com-
	 pression layer(s) are terminated.

     help|? [command]
	 Show a	list of	available commands.  If	command	is specified, show the
	 usage string for that command.

     ident [text...]
	 Identify the link to the peer using text.  If text is empty, link
	 identification	is disabled.  It is possible to	use any	of the words
	 described for the bg command above.  Refer to the sendident command
	 for details of	when ppp identifies itself to the peer.

     iface command [args]
	 This command is used to control the interface used by ppp.  Command
	 may be	one of the following:

	 iface add[!] addr[/bits] [peer]

	 iface add[!] addr mask	peer
	     Add the given addr	mask peer combination to the interface.
	     Instead of	specifying mask, /bits can be used (with no space
	     between it	and addr).  If the given address already exists, the
	     command fails unless the ``!'' is used - in which case the	previ-
	     ous interface address entry is overwritten	with the new one,
	     allowing a	change of netmask or peer address.

	     If	only addr is specified,	bits defaults to ``32''	and peer
	     defaults to ``255.255.255.255''.  This address (the broadcast
	     address) is the only duplicate peer address that ppp allows.

	 iface clear [INET | INET6]
	     If	this command is	used while ppp is in the OPENED	state or while
	     in	-auto mode, all	addresses except for the NCP negotiated
	     address are deleted from the interface.  If ppp is	not in the
	     OPENED state and is not in	-auto mode, all	interface addresses
	     are deleted.

	     If	the INET or INET6 arguments are	used, only addresses for that
	     address family are	cleared.

	 iface delete[!]|rm[!] addr
	     This command deletes the given addr from the interface.  If the
	     ``!'' is used, no error is	given if the address is	not currently
	     assigned to the interface (and no deletion	takes place).

	 iface show
	     Shows the current state and current addresses for the interface.
	     It	is much	the same as running ``ifconfig INTERFACE''.

	 iface help [sub-command]
	     This command, when	invoked	without	sub-command, will show a list
	     of	possible ``iface'' sub-commands	and a brief synopsis for each.
	     When invoked with sub-command, only the synopsis for the given
	     sub-command is shown.

     [data]link	name[,name]... command [args]
	 This command may prefix any other command if the user wishes to spec-
	 ify which link	the command should affect.  This is only applicable
	 after multiple	links have been	created	in Multi-link mode using the
	 ``clone'' command.

	 Name specifies	the name of an existing	link.  If name is a comma sep-
	 arated	list, command is executed on each link.	 If name is ``*'',
	 command is executed on	all links.

     load [label]...
	 Load the given	label(s) from the ppp.conf file.  If label is not
	 given,	the default label is used.

	 Unless	the label section uses the ``set mode'', ``open'' or ``dial''
	 commands, ppp will not	attempt	to make	an immediate connection.

     log word...
	 Send the given	word(s)	to the log file	with the prefix	``LOG:''.
	 Word substitutions are	done as	explained under	the ``!bg'' command
	 above.

     open [lcp|ccp|ipcp]
	 This is the opposite of the ``close'' command.	 All closed links are
	 immediately brought up	apart from second and subsequent demand-dial
	 links - these will come up based on the ``set autoload'' command that
	 has been used.

	 If the	``lcp''	argument is used while the LCP layer is	already	open,
	 LCP will be renegotiated.  This allows	various	LCP options to be
	 changed, after	which ``open lcp'' can be used to put them into
	 effect.  After	renegotiating LCP, any agreed authentication will also
	 take place.

	 If the	``ccp''	argument is used, the relevant compression layer is
	 opened.  Again, if it is already open,	it will	be renegotiated.

	 If the	``ipcp'' argument is used, the link will be brought up as nor-
	 mal, but if IPCP is already open, it will be renegotiated and the
	 network interface will	be reconfigured.

	 It is probably	not good practice to re-open the PPP state machines
	 like this as it is possible that the peer will	not behave correctly.
	 It is however useful as a way of forcing the CCP or VJ	dictionaries
	 to be reset.

     passwd pass
	 Specify the password required for access to the full ppp command set.
	 This password is required when	connecting to the diagnostic port (see
	 the ``set server'' command).  Pass is specified on the	``set server''
	 command line.	The value of pass is not logged	when command logging
	 is active, instead, the literal string	`********' is logged.

     quit|bye [all]
	 If ``quit'' is	executed from the controlling connection or from a
	 command file, ppp will	exit after closing all connections.  Other-
	 wise, if the user is connected	to a diagnostic	socket,	the connection
	 is simply dropped.

	 If the	all argument is	given, ppp will	exit despite the source	of the
	 command after closing all existing connections.

     remove|rm
	 This command removes the given	link.  It is only really useful	in
	 multi-link mode.  A link must be in the CLOSED	state before it	is
	 removed.

     rename|mv name
	 This command renames the given	link to	name.  It will fail if name is
	 already used by another link.

	 The default link name is `deflink'.  Renaming it to `modem', `cuaa0'
	 or `USR' may make the log file	more readable.

     resolv command
	 This command controls ppp's manipulation of the resolv.conf(5)	file.
	 When ppp starts up, it	loads the contents of this file	into memory
	 and retains this image	for future use.	 command is one	of the follow-
	 ing:

	 readonly  Treat /etc/resolv.conf as read only.	 If ``dns'' is
		   enabled, ppp	will still attempt to negotiate	nameservers
		   with	the peer, making the results available via the DNS0
		   and DNS1 macros.  This is the opposite of the ``resolv
		   writable'' command.

	 reload	   Reload /etc/resolv.conf into	memory.	 This may be necessary
		   if for example a DHCP client	overwrote /etc/resolv.conf.

	 restore   Replace /etc/resolv.conf with the version originally	read
		   at startup or with the last ``resolv	reload'' command.
		   This	is sometimes a useful command to put in	the
		   /etc/ppp/ppp.linkdown file.

	 rewrite   Rewrite the /etc/resolv.conf	file.  This command will work
		   even	if the ``resolv	readonly'' command has been used.  It
		   may be useful as a command in the /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup file
		   if you wish to defer	updating /etc/resolv.conf until	after
		   other commands have finished.

	 writable  Allow ppp to	update /etc/resolv.conf	if ``dns'' is enabled
		   and ppp successfully	negotiates a DNS.  This	is the oppo-
		   site	of the ``resolv	readonly'' command.

     save
	 This option is	not (yet) implemented.

     sendident
	 This command tells ppp	to identify itself to the peer.	 The link must
	 be in LCP state or higher.  If	no identity has	been set (via the
	 ident command), sendident will	fail.

	 When an identity has been set,	ppp will automatically identify	itself
	 when it sends or receives a configure reject, when negotiation	fails
	 or when LCP reaches the opened	state.

	 Received identification packets are logged to the LCP log (see	set
	 log for details) and are never	responded to.

     set[up] var value
	 This option allows the	setting	of any of the following	variables:

	 set accmap hex-value
	     ACCMap stands for Asynchronous Control Character Map.  This is
	     always negotiated with the	peer, and defaults to a	value of
	     00000000 in hex.  This protocol is	required to defeat hardware
	     that depends on passing certain characters	from end to end	(such
	     as	XON/XOFF etc).

	     For the XON/XOFF scenario,	use ``set accmap 000a0000''.

	 set [auth]key value
	     This sets the authentication key (or password) used in client
	     mode PAP or CHAP negotiation to the given value.  It also speci-
	     fies the password to be used in the dial or login scripts in
	     place of the `\P' sequence, preventing the	actual password	from
	     being logged.  If command or chat logging is in effect, value is
	     logged as `********' for security reasons.

	     If	the first character of value is	an exclamation mark (``!''),
	     ppp treats	the remainder of the string as a program that must be
	     executed to determine the ``authname'' and	``authkey'' values.

	     If	the ``!'' is doubled up	(to ``!!''), it	is treated as a	single
	     literal ``!'', otherwise, ignoring	the ``!'', value is parsed as
	     a program to execute in the same was as the ``!bg'' command
	     above, substituting special names in the same manner.  Once exe-
	     cuted, ppp	will feed the program three lines of input, each ter-
	     minated by	a newline character:

	     +o	 The host name as sent in the CHAP challenge.

	     +o	 The challenge string as sent in the CHAP challenge.

	     +o	 The locally defined ``authname''.

	     Two lines of output are expected:

	     +o	 The ``authname'' to be	sent with the CHAP response.

	     +o	 The ``authkey'', which	is encrypted with the challenge	and
		 request id, the answer	being sent in the CHAP response
		 packet.

	     When configuring ppp in this manner, it is	expected that the host
	     challenge is a series of ASCII digits or characters.  An encryp-
	     tion device or Secure ID card is usually required to calculate
	     the secret	appropriate for	the given challenge.

	 set authname id
	     This sets the authentication id used in client mode PAP or	CHAP
	     negotiation.

	     If	used in	-direct	mode with CHAP enabled,	id is used in the ini-
	     tial authentication challenge and should normally be set to the
	     local machine name.

	 set autoload min-percent max-percent period
	     These settings apply only in multi-link mode and default to zero,
	     zero and five respectively.  When more than one demand-dial (also
	     known as -auto) mode link is available, only the first link is
	     made active when ppp first	reads data from	the tun	device.	 The
	     next demand-dial link will	be opened only when the	current	bundle
	     throughput	is at least max-percent	percent	of the total bundle
	     bandwidth for period seconds.  When the current bundle throughput
	     decreases to min-percent percent or less of the total bundle
	     bandwidth for period seconds, a demand-dial link will be brought
	     down as long as it	is not the last	active link.

	     Bundle throughput is measured as the maximum of inbound and out-
	     bound traffic.

	     The default values	cause demand-dial links	to simply come up one
	     at	a time.

	     Certain devices cannot determine their physical bandwidth,	so it
	     is	sometimes necessary to use the ``set bandwidth'' command
	     (described	below) to make ``set autoload''	work correctly.

	 set bandwidth value
	     This command sets the connection bandwidth	in bits	per second.
	     value must	be greater than	zero.  It is currently only used by
	     the ``set autoload'' command above.

	 set callback option...
	     If	no arguments are given,	callback is disabled, otherwise, ppp
	     will request (or in -direct mode, will accept) one	of the given
	     options.  In client mode, if an option is NAK'd ppp will request
	     a different option, until no options remain at which point	ppp
	     will terminate negotiations (unless ``none'' is one of the	speci-
	     fied option).  In server mode, ppp	will accept any	of the given
	     protocols - but the client	must request one of them.  If you wish
	     callback to be optional, you must include none as an option.

	     The options are as	follows	(in this order of preference):

	     auth    The callee	is expected to decide the callback number
		     based on authentication.  If ppp is the callee, the num-
		     ber should	be specified as	the fifth field	of the peers
		     entry in /etc/ppp/ppp.secret.

	     cbcp    Microsoft's callback control protocol is used.  See ``set
		     cbcp'' below.

		     If	you wish to negotiate cbcp in client mode but also
		     wish to allow the server to request no callback at	CBCP
		     negotiation time, you must	specify	both cbcp and none as
		     callback options.

	     E.164 *|number[,number]...
		     The caller	specifies the number.  If ppp is the callee,
		     number should be either a comma separated list of allow-
		     able numbers or a ``*'', meaning any number is permitted.
		     If	ppp is the caller, only	a single number	should be
		     specified.

		     Note, this	option is very unsafe when used	with a ``*''
		     as	a malicious caller can tell ppp	to call	any (possibly
		     international) number without first authenticating	them-
		     selves.

	     none    If	the peer does not wish to do callback at all, ppp will
		     accept the	fact and continue without callback rather than
		     terminating the connection.  This is required (in addi-
		     tion to one or more other callback	options) if you	wish
		     callback to be optional.

	 set cbcp [*|number[,number...]	[delay [retry]]]
	     If	no arguments are given,	CBCP (Microsoft's CallBack Control
	     Protocol) is disabled - ie, configuring CBCP in the ``set
	     callback''	command	will result in ppp requesting no callback in
	     the CBCP phase.  Otherwise, ppp attempts to use the given phone
	     number(s).

	     In	server mode (-direct), ppp will	insist that the	client uses
	     one of these numbers, unless ``*''	is used	in which case the
	     client is expected	to specify the number.

	     In	client mode, ppp will attempt to use one of the	given numbers
	     (whichever	it finds to be agreeable with the peer), or if ``*''
	     is	specified, ppp will expect the peer to specify the number.

	 set cd	[off|seconds[!]]
	     Normally, ppp checks for the existence of carrier depending on
	     the type of device	that has been opened:

		Terminal Devices
		     Carrier is	checked	one second after the login script is
		     complete.	If it is not set, ppp assumes that this	is
		     because the device	does not support carrier (which	is
		     true for most ``laplink'' NULL-modem cables), logs	the
		     fact and stops checking for carrier.

		     As	ptys do	not support the	TIOCMGET ioctl,	the tty	device
		     will switch all carrier detection off when	it detects
		     that the device is	a pty.

		ISDN (i4b) Devices
		     Carrier is	checked	once per second	for 6 seconds.	If it
		     is	not set	after the sixth	second,	the connection attempt
		     is	considered to have failed and the device is closed.
		     Carrier is	always required	for i4b	devices.

		PPPoE (netgraph) Devices
		     Carrier is	checked	once per second	for 5 seconds.	If it
		     is	not set	after the fifth	second,	the connection attempt
		     is	considered to have failed and the device is closed.
		     Carrier is	always required	for PPPoE devices.

	     All other device types do not support carrier.  Setting a carrier
	     value will	result in a warning when the device is opened.

	     Some modems take more than	one second after connecting to assert
	     the carrier signal.  If this delay	is not increased, this will
	     result in ppp's inability to detect when the link is dropped, as
	     ppp assumes that the device is not	asserting carrier.

	     The ``set cd'' command overrides the default carrier behaviour.
	     seconds specifies the maximum number of seconds that ppp should
	     wait after	the dial script	has finished before deciding if	car-
	     rier is available or not.

	     If	``off''	is specified, ppp will not check for carrier on	the
	     device, otherwise ppp will	not proceed to the login script	until
	     either carrier is detected	or until seconds has elapsed, at which
	     point ppp assumes that the	device will not	set carrier.

	     If	no arguments are given,	carrier	settings will go back to their
	     default values.

	     If	seconds	is followed immediately	by an exclamation mark
	     (``!''), ppp will require carrier.	 If carrier is not detected
	     after seconds seconds, the	link will be disconnected.

	 set choked [timeout]
	     This sets the number of seconds that ppp will keep	a choked out-
	     put queue before dropping all pending output packets.  If timeout
	     is	less than or equal to zero or if timeout is not	specified, it
	     is	set to the default value of 120	seconds.

	     A choked output queue occurs when ppp has read a certain number
	     of	packets	from the local network for transmission, but cannot
	     send the data due to link failure (the peer is busy etc.).	 ppp
	     will not read packets indefinitely.  Instead, it reads up to 30
	     packets (or 30 + nlinks * 2 packets in multi-link mode), then
	     stops reading the network interface until either timeout seconds
	     have passed or at least one packet	has been sent.

	     If	timeout	seconds	pass, all pending output packets are dropped.

	 set ctsrts|crtscts on|off
	     This sets hardware	flow control.  Hardware	flow control is	on by
	     default.

	 set deflate out-winsize [in-winsize]
	     This sets the DEFLATE algorithms default outgoing and incoming
	     window sizes.  Both out-winsize and in-winsize must be values
	     between 8 and 15.	If in-winsize is specified, ppp	will insist
	     that this window size is used and will not	accept any other val-
	     ues from the peer.

	 set dns [primary [secondary]]
	     This command specifies DNS	overrides for the ``accept dns'' com-
	     mand.  Refer to the ``accept'' command description	above for
	     details.  This command does not affect the	IP numbers requested
	     using ``enable dns''.

	 set device|line value...
	     This sets the device(s) to	which ppp will talk to the given
	     ``value''.

	     All ISDN and serial device	names are expected to begin with
	     /dev/.  ISDN devices are usually called i4brbchX and serial
	     devices are usually called	cuaXX.

	     If	``value'' does not begin with /dev/, it	must either begin with
	     an	exclamation mark (``!''), be of	the format
	     PPPoE:iface[:provider] (on	netgraph(4) enabled systems), or be of
	     the format	host:port[/tcp|udp].

	     If	it begins with an exclamation mark, the	rest of	the device
	     name is treated as	a program name,	and that program is executed
	     when the device is	opened.	 Standard input, output	and error are
	     fed back to ppp and are read and written as if they were a	regu-
	     lar device.

	     If	a PPPoE:iface[:provider] specification is given, ppp will
	     attempt to	create a PPP over Ethernet connection using the	given
	     iface interface by	using netgraph(4).  If netgraph(4) is not
	     available,	ppp will attempt to load it using kldload(2).  If this
	     fails, an external	program	must be	used such as the pppoed(8)
	     program available under OpenBSD.  The given provider is passed as
	     the service name in the PPPoE Discovery Initiation	(PADI) packet.
	     If	no provider is given, an empty value will be used.

	     When a PPPoE connection is	established, ppp will place the	name
	     of	the Access Concentrator	in the environment variable ACNAME.

	     Refer to netgraph(4) and ng_pppoe(4) for further details.

	     If	a host:port[/tcp|udp] specification is given, ppp will attempt
	     to	connect	to the given host on the given port.  If a ``/tcp'' or
	     ``/udp'' suffix is	not provided, the default is ``/tcp''.	Refer
	     to	the section on PPP OVER	TCP and	UDP above for further details.

	     If	multiple ``values'' are	specified, ppp will attempt to open
	     each one in turn until it succeeds	or runs	out of devices.

	 set dial chat-script
	     This specifies the	chat script that will be used to dial the
	     other side.  See also the ``set login'' command below.  Refer to
	     chat(8) and to the	example	configuration files for	details	of the
	     chat script format.  It is	possible to specify some special
	     `values' in your chat script as follows:

	     \c	 When used as the last character in a `send' string, this
		 indicates that	a newline should not be	appended.

	     \d	 When the chat script encounters this sequence,	it delays two
		 seconds.

	     \p	 When the chat script encounters this sequence,	it delays for
		 one quarter of	a second.

	     \n	 This is replaced with a newline character.

	     \r	 This is replaced with a carriage return character.

	     \s	 This is replaced with a space character.

	     \t	 This is replaced with a tab character.

	     \T	 This is replaced by the current phone number (see ``set
		 phone'' below).

	     \P	 This is replaced by the current authkey value (see ``set
		 authkey'' above).

	     \U	 This is replaced by the current authname value	(see ``set
		 authname'' above).

	     Note that two parsers will	examine	these escape sequences,	so in
	     order to have the `chat parser' see the escape character, it is
	     necessary to escape it from the `command parser'.	This means
	     that in practice you should use two escapes, for example:

		   set dial "... ATDT\\T CONNECT"

	     It	is also	possible to execute external commands from the chat
	     script.  To do this, the first character of the expect or send
	     string is an exclamation mark (``!'').  If	a literal exclamation
	     mark is required, double it up to ``!!'' and it will be treated
	     as	a single literal ``!''.	 When the command is executed, stan-
	     dard input	and standard output are	directed to the	open device
	     (see the ``set device'' command), and standard error is read by
	     ppp and substituted as the	expect or send string.	If ppp is run-
	     ning in interactive mode, file descriptor 3 is attached to
	     /dev/tty.

	     For example (wrapped for readability):

		   set login "TIMEOUT 5	\"\" \"\" login:--login: ppp \
		   word: ppp \"!sh \\-c	\\\"echo \\-n label: >&2\\\"\" \
		   \"!/bin/echo	in\" HELLO"

	     would result in the following chat	sequence (output using the
	     `set log local chat' command before dialing):

		   Dial	attempt	1 of 1
		   dial	OK!
		   Chat: Expecting:
		   Chat: Sending:
		   Chat: Expecting: login:--login:
		   Chat: Wait for (5): login:
		   Chat: Sending: ppp
		   Chat: Expecting: word:
		   Chat: Wait for (5): word:
		   Chat: Sending: ppp
		   Chat: Expecting: !sh	\-c "echo \-n label: >&2"
		   Chat: Exec: sh -c "echo -n label: >&2"
		   Chat: Wait for (5): !sh \-c "echo \-n label:	>&2" --> label:
		   Chat: Exec: /bin/echo in
		   Chat: Sending:
		   Chat: Expecting: HELLO
		   Chat: Wait for (5): HELLO
		   login OK!

	     Note (again) the use of the escape	character, allowing many lev-
	     els of nesting.  Here, there are four parsers at work.  The first
	     parses the	original line, reading it as three arguments.  The
	     second parses the third argument, reading it as 11	arguments.  At
	     this point, it is important that the ``-''	signs are escaped,
	     otherwise this parser will	see them as constituting an expect-
	     send-expect sequence.  When the ``!'' character is	seen, the exe-
	     cution parser reads the first command as three arguments, and
	     then sh(1)	itself expands the argument after the -c.  As we wish
	     to	send the output	back to	the modem, in the first	example	we re-
	     direct our	output to file descriptor 2 (stderr) so	that ppp
	     itself sends and logs it, and in the second example, we just out-
	     put to stdout, which is attached directly to the modem.

	     This, of course means that	it is possible to execute an entirely
	     external ``chat'' command rather than using the internal one.
	     See chat(8) for a good alternative.

	     The external command that is executed is subjected	to the same
	     special word expansions as	the ``!bg'' command.

	 set enddisc [label|IP|MAC|magic|psn value]
	     This command sets our local endpoint discriminator.  If set prior
	     to	LCP negotiation, and if	no ``disable enddisc'' command has
	     been used,	ppp will send the information to the peer using	the
	     LCP endpoint discriminator	option.	 The following discriminators
	     may be set:

	     label   The current label is used.

	     IP	     Our local IP number is used.  As LCP is negotiated	prior
		     to	IPCP, it is possible that the IPCP layer will subse-
		     quently change this value.	 If it does, the endpoint dis-
		     criminator	stays at the old value unless manually reset.

	     MAC     This is similar to	the IP option above, except that the
		     MAC address associated with the local IP number is	used.
		     If	the local IP number is not resident on any Ethernet
		     interface,	the command will fail.

		     As	the local IP number defaults to	whatever the machine
		     host name is, ``set enddisc mac'' is usually done prior
		     to	any ``set ifaddr'' commands.

	     magic   A 20 digit	random number is used.	Care should be taken
		     when using	magic numbers as restarting ppp	or creating a
		     link using	a different ppp	invocation will	also use a
		     different magic number and	will therefore not be recog-
		     nised by the peer as belonging to the same	bundle.	 This
		     makes it unsuitable for -direct connections.

	     psn value
		     The given value is	used.  Value should be set to an abso-
		     lute public switched network number with the country code
		     first.

	     If	no arguments are given,	the endpoint discriminator is reset.

	 set escape value...
	     This option is similar to the ``set accmap'' option above.	 It
	     allows the	user to	specify	a set of characters that will be
	     `escaped' as they travel across the link.

	 set filter dial|alive|in|out rule-no permit|deny|clear|rule-no	[!]
	     [[host] src_addr[/width] [dst_addr[/width]]] [proto [src lt|eq|gt
	     port] [dst	lt|eq|gt port] [estab] [syn] [finrst] [timeout secs]]
	     ppp supports four filter sets.  The alive filter specifies	pack-
	     ets that keep the connection alive	- resetting the	idle timer.
	     The dial filter specifies packets that cause ppp to dial when in
	     -auto mode.  The in filter	specifies packets that are allowed to
	     travel into the machine and the out filter	specifies packets that
	     are allowed out of	the machine.

	     Filtering is done prior to	any IP alterations that	might be done
	     by	the NAT	engine on outgoing packets and after any IP alter-
	     ations that might be done by the NAT engine on incoming packets.
	     By	default	all empty filter sets allow all	packets	to pass.
	     Rules are processed in order according to rule-no (unless skipped
	     by	specifying a rule number as the	action).  Up to	40 rules may
	     be	given for each set.  If	a packet does not match	any of the
	     rules in a	given set, it is discarded.  In	the case of in and out
	     filters, this means that the packet is dropped.  In the case of
	     alive filters it means that the packet will not reset the idle
	     timer (even if the	in/out filter has a ``timeout''	value) and in
	     the case of dial filters it means that the	packet will not	trig-
	     ger a dial.  A packet failing to trigger a	dial will be dropped
	     rather than queued.  Refer	to the section on PACKET FILTERING
	     above for further details.

	 set hangup chat-script
	     This specifies the	chat script that will be used to reset the
	     device before it is closed.  It should not	normally be necessary,
	     but can be	used for devices that fail to reset themselves prop-
	     erly on close.

	 set help|? [command]
	     This command gives	a summary of available set commands, or	if
	     command is	specified, the command usage is	shown.

	 set ifaddr [myaddr[/nn] [hisaddr[/nn] [netmask	[triggeraddr]]]]
	     This command specifies the	IP addresses that will be used during
	     IPCP negotiation.	Addresses are specified	using the format

		   a.b.c.d/nn

	     Where ``a.b.c.d'' is the preferred	IP, but	nn specifies how many
	     bits of the address we will insist	on.  If	/nn is omitted,	it
	     defaults to ``/32'' unless	the IP address is 0.0.0.0 in which
	     case it defaults to ``/0''.

	     If	you wish to assign a dynamic IP	number to the peer, hisaddr
	     may also be specified as a	range of IP numbers in the format

		   IP[-IP][,IP[-IP]]...

	     for example:

		   set ifaddr 10.0.0.1 10.0.1.2-10.0.1.10,10.0.1.20

	     will only negotiate ``10.0.0.1'' as the local IP number, but may
	     assign any	of the given 10	IP numbers to the peer.	 If the	peer
	     requests one of these numbers, and	that number is not already in
	     use, ppp will grant the peers request.  This is useful if the
	     peer wants	to re-establish	a link using the same IP number	as was
	     previously	allocated (thus	maintaining any	existing tcp or	udp
	     connections).

	     If	the peer requests an IP	number that is either outside of this
	     range or is already in use, ppp will suggest a random unused IP
	     number from the range.

	     If	triggeraddr is specified, it is	used in	place of myaddr	in the
	     initial IPCP negotiation.	However, only an address in the	myaddr
	     range will	be accepted.  This is useful when negotiating with
	     some PPP implementations that will	not assign an IP number	unless
	     their peer	requests ``0.0.0.0''.

	     It	should be noted	that in	-auto mode, ppp	will configure the
	     interface immediately upon	reading	the ``set ifaddr'' line	in the
	     config file.  In any other	mode, these values are just used for
	     IPCP negotiations,	and the	interface is not configured until the
	     IPCP layer	is up.

	     Note that the HISADDR argument may	be overridden by the third
	     field in the ppp.secret file once the client has authenticated
	     itself (if	PAP or CHAP are	``enabled'').  Refer to	the
	     AUTHENTICATING INCOMING CONNECTIONS section for details.

	     In	all cases, if the interface is already configured, ppp will
	     try to maintain the interface IP numbers so that any existing
	     bound sockets will	remain valid.

	 set ifqueue packets
	     Set the maximum number of packets that ppp	will read from the
	     tunnel interface while data cannot	be sent	to any of the avail-
	     able links.  This queue limit is necessary	to flow	control	outgo-
	     ing data as the tunnel interface is likely	to be far faster than
	     the combined links	available to ppp.

	     If	packets	is set to a value less than the	number of links, ppp
	     will read up to that value	regardless.  This prevents any possi-
	     ble latency problems.

	     The default value for packets is ``30''.

	 set ccpretry|ccpretries [timeout [reqtries [trmtries]]]

	 set chapretry|chapretries [timeout [reqtries]]

	 set ipcpretry|ipcpretries [timeout [reqtries [trmtries]]]

	 set ipv6cpretry|ipv6cpretries [timeout	[reqtries [trmtries]]]

	 set lcpretry|lcpretries [timeout [reqtries [trmtries]]]

	 set papretry|papretries [timeout [reqtries]]
	     These commands set	the number of seconds that ppp will wait
	     before resending Finite State Machine (FSM) Request packets.  The
	     default timeout for all FSMs is 3 seconds (which should suffice
	     in	most cases).

	     If	reqtries is specified, it tells	ppp how	many configuration
	     request attempts it should	make while receiving no	reply from the
	     peer before giving	up.  The default is 5 attempts for CCP,	LCP
	     and IPCP and 3 attempts for PAP and CHAP.

	     If	trmtries is specified, it tells	ppp how	many terminate
	     requests should be	sent before giving up waiting for the peers
	     response.	The default is 3 attempts.  Authentication protocols
	     are not terminated	and it is therefore invalid to specify
	     trmtries for PAP or CHAP.

	     In	order to avoid negotiations with the peer that will never con-
	     verge, ppp	will only send at most 3 times the configured number
	     of	reqtries in any	given negotiation session before giving	up and
	     closing that layer.

	 set log [local] [+|-]value...
	     This command allows the adjustment	of the current log level.
	     Refer to the Logging Facility section for further details.

	 set login chat-script
	     This chat-script compliments the dial-script.  If both are	speci-
	     fied, the login script will be executed after the dial script.
	     Escape sequences available	in the dial script are also available
	     here.

	 set logout chat-script
	     This specifies the	chat script that will be used to logout	before
	     the hangup	script is called.  It should not normally be neces-
	     sary.

	 set lqrperiod|echoperiod frequency
	     This command sets the frequency in	seconds	at which LQR or	LCP
	     ECHO packets are sent.  The default is 30 seconds.	 You must also
	     use the ``enable lqr'' and/or ``enable echo'' commands if you
	     wish to send LQR or LCP ECHO requests to the peer.

	 set mode interactive|auto|ddial|background
	     This command allows you to	change the `mode' of the specified
	     link.  This is normally only useful in multi-link mode, but may
	     also be used in uni-link mode.

	     It	is not possible	to change a link that is `direct' or
	     `dedicated'.

	     Note: If you issue	the command ``set mode auto'', and have	net-
	     work address translation enabled, it may be useful	to ``enable
	     iface-alias'' afterwards.	This will allow	ppp to do the neces-
	     sary address translations to enable the process that triggers the
	     connection	to connect once	the link is up despite the peer
	     assigning us a new	(dynamic) IP address.

	 set mppe [40|56|128|* [stateless|stateful|*]]
	     This option selects the encryption	parameters used	when negotia-
	     tion MPPE.	 MPPE can be disabled entirely with the	``disable
	     mppe'' command.  If no arguments are given, ppp will attempt to
	     negotiate a stateful link with a 128 bit key, but will agree to
	     whatever the peer requests	(including no encryption at all).

	     If	any arguments are given, ppp will insist on using MPPE and
	     will close	the link if it is rejected by the peer (Note; this be-
	     haviour can be overridden by a configured RADIUS server).

	     The first argument	specifies the number of	bits that ppp should
	     insist on during negotiations and the second specifies whether
	     ppp should	insist on stateful or stateless	mode.  In stateless
	     mode, the encryption dictionary is	re-initialised with every
	     packet according to an encryption key that	is changed with	every
	     packet.  In stateful mode,	the encryption dictionary is re-ini-
	     tialised every 256	packets	or after the loss of any data and the
	     key is changed every 256 packets.	Stateless mode is less effi-
	     cient but is better for unreliable	transport layers.

	 set mrru [value]
	     Setting this option enables Multi-link PPP	negotiations, also
	     known as Multi-link Protocol or MP.  There	is no default MRRU
	     (Maximum Reconstructed Receive Unit) value.  If no	argument is
	     given, multi-link mode is disabled.

	 set mru [max[imum]] [value]
	     The default MRU (Maximum Receive Unit) is 1500.  If it is
	     increased,	the other side *may* increase its MTU.	In theory
	     there is no point in decreasing the MRU to	below the default as
	     the PPP protocol says implementations *must* be able to accept
	     packets of	at least 1500 octets.

	     If	the ``maximum''	keyword	is used, ppp will refuse to negotiate
	     a higher value.  The maximum MRU can be set to 2048 at most.
	     Setting a maximum of less than 1500 violates the PPP rfc, but may
	     sometimes be necessary.  For example, PPPoE imposes a maximum of
	     1492 due to hardware limitations.

	     If	no argument is given, 1500 is assumed.	A value	must be	given
	     when ``maximum'' is specified.

	 set mtu [max[imum]] [value]
	     The default MTU is	1500.  At negotiation time, ppp	will accept
	     whatever MRU the peer requests (assuming it is not	less than 296
	     bytes or greater than the assigned	maximum).  If the MTU is set,
	     ppp will not accept MRU values less than value.  When negotia-
	     tions are complete, the MTU is used when writing to the inter-
	     face, even	if the peer requested a	higher value MRU.  This	can be
	     useful for	limiting your packet size (giving better bandwidth
	     sharing at	the expense of more header data).

	     If	the ``maximum''	keyword	is used, ppp will refuse to negotiate
	     a higher value.  The maximum MTU can be set to 2048 at most.
	     Note, it is necessary to use the ``maximum'' keyword to limit the
	     MTU when using PPPoE.

	     If	no value is given, 1500, or whatever the peer asks for is
	     used.  A value must be given when ``maximum'' is specified.

	 set nbns [x.x.x.x [y.y.y.y]]
	     This option allows	the setting of the Microsoft NetBIOS name
	     server values to be returned at the peers request.	 If no values
	     are given,	ppp will reject	any such requests.

	 set openmode active|passive [delay]
	     By	default, openmode is always active with	a one second delay.
	     That is, ppp will always initiate LCP/IPCP/CCP negotiation	one
	     second after the line comes up.  If you want to wait for the peer
	     to	initiate negotiations, you can use the value passive.  If you
	     want to initiate negotiations immediately or after	more than one
	     second, the appropriate delay may be specified here in seconds.

	 set parity odd|even|none|mark
	     This allows the line parity to be set.  The default value is
	     none.

	 set phone telno[|backupnumber]...[:nextnumber]...
	     This allows the specification of the phone	number to be used in
	     place of the \\T string in	the dial and login chat	scripts.  Mul-
	     tiple phone numbers may be	given separated	either by a pipe
	     (``|'') or	a colon	(``:'').

	     Numbers after the pipe are	only dialed if the dial	or login
	     script for	the previous number failed.

	     Numbers after the colon are tried sequentially, irrespective of
	     the reason	the line was dropped.

	     If	multiple numbers are given, ppp	will dial them according to
	     these rules until a connection is made, retrying the maximum num-
	     ber of times specified by ``set redial'' below.  In -background
	     mode, each	number is attempted at most once.

	 set pppoe [standard|3Com]
	     This option configures the	underlying ng_pppoe(4) node to either
	     standard RFC2516 PPPoE or proprietary 3Com	mode.  If not set the
	     system default will be used.

	 set [proc]title [value]
	     The current process title as displayed by ps(1) is	changed
	     according to value.  If value is not specified, the original
	     process title is restored.	 All the word replacements done	by the
	     shell commands (see the ``bg'' command above) are done here too.

	     Note, if USER is required in the process title, the ``set
	     proctitle'' command must appear in	ppp.linkup, as it is not known
	     when the commands in ppp.conf are executed.

	 set radius [config-file]
	     This command enables RADIUS support (if it	is compiled in).
	     config-file refers	to the radius client configuration file	as
	     described in radius.conf(5).  If PAP, CHAP, MSCHAP	or MSCHAPv2
	     are ``enabled'', ppp behaves as a Network Access Server and uses
	     the configured RADIUS server to authenticate rather than authen-
	     ticating from the ppp.secret file or from the passwd database.

	     If	none of	PAP, CHAP, MSCHAP or MSCHAPv2 are enabled, ``set
	     radius'' will do nothing.

	     ppp uses the following attributes from the	RADIUS reply:

		RAD_FRAMED_IP_ADDRESS
		     The peer IP address is set	to the given value.

		RAD_FRAMED_IP_NETMASK
		     The tun interface netmask is set to the given value.

		RAD_FRAMED_MTU
		     If	the given MTU is less than the peers MRU as agreed
		     during LCP	negotiation, *and* it is less that any config-
		     ured MTU (see the ``set mru'' command), the tun interface
		     MTU is set	to the given value.

		RAD_FRAMED_COMPRESSION
		     If	the received compression type is ``1'',	ppp will
		     request VJ	compression during IPCP	negotiations despite
		     any ``disable vj''	configuration command.

		RAD_FILTER_ID
		     If	this attribute is supplied, ppp	will attempt to	use it
		     as	an additional label to load from the ppp.linkup	and
		     ppp.linkdown files.  The load will	be attempted before
		     (and in addition to) the normal label search.  If the
		     label does	not exist, no action is	taken and ppp proceeds
		     to	the normal load	using the current label.

		RAD_FRAMED_ROUTE
		     The received string is expected to	be in the format
		     dest[/bits] gw [metrics].	Any specified metrics are
		     ignored.  MYADDR and HISADDR are understood as valid val-
		     ues for dest and gw, ``default'' can be used for dest to
		     sepcify the default route,	and ``0.0.0.0''	is understood
		     to	be the same as ``default'' for dest and	HISADDR	for
		     gw.

		     For example, a returned value of ``1.2.3.4/24 0.0.0.0 1 2
		     -1	3 400''	would result in	a routing table	entry to the
		     1.2.3.0/24	network	via HISADDR and	a returned value of
		     ``0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0'' or ``default HISADDR''	would result
		     in	a default route	to HISADDR.

		     All RADIUS	routes are applied after any sticky routes are
		     applied, making RADIUS routes override configured routes.
		     This also applies for RADIUS routes that do not include
		     the MYADDR	or HISADDR keywords.

		RAD_FRAMED_IPV6_PREFIX
		     If	this attribute is supplied, the	value is substituted
		     for IPV6PREFIX in a command.  You may pass	it to such as
		     DHCPv6 for	delegating an IPv6 prefix to a peer.

		RAD_FRAMED_IPV6_ROUTE
		     The received string is expected to	be in the format
		     dest[/bits] gw [metrics].	Any specified metrics are
		     ignored.  MYADDR6 and HISADDR6 are	understood as valid
		     values for	dest and gw, ``default'' can be	used for dest
		     to	sepcify	the default route, and ``::'' is understood to
		     be	the same as ``default''	for dest and HISADDR6 for gw.

		     For example, a returned value of ``3ffe:505:abcd::/48
		     ::'' would	result in a routing table entry	to the
		     3ffe:505:abcd::/48	network	via HISADDR6 and a returned
		     value of ``:: ::''	or ``default HISADDR6''	would result
		     in	a default route	to HISADDR6.

		     All RADIUS	IPv6 routes are	applied	after any sticky
		     routes are	applied, making	RADIUS IPv6 routes override
		     configured	routes.	 This also applies for RADIUS IPv6
		     routes that do not	include	the MYADDR6 or HISADDR6	key-
		     words.

		RAD_SESSION_TIMEOUT
		     If	supplied, the client connection	is closed after	the
		     given number of seconds.

		RAD_REPLY_MESSAGE
		     If	supplied, this message is passed back to the peer as
		     the authentication	SUCCESS	text.

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_CHAP_ERROR
		     If	this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied, it is passed back to the	peer as	the authenti-
		     cation FAILURE text.

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_CHAP2_SUCCESS
		     If	this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied and if MS-CHAPv2 authentication is being used,
		     it	is passed back to the peer as the authentication SUC-
		     CESS text.

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_ENCRYPTION_POLICY
		     If	this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied and has a	value of 2 (Required), ppp will	insist
		     that MPPE encryption is used (even	if no ``set mppe''
		     configuration command has been given with arguments).  If
		     it	is supplied with a value of 1 (Allowed), encryption is
		     made optional (despite any	``set mppe'' configuration
		     commands with arguments).

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_ENCRYPTION_TYPES
		     If	this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied, bits 1 and 2 are	examined.  If either or	both
		     are set, 40 bit and/or 128	bit (respectively) encryption
		     options are set, overriding any given first argument to
		     the ``set mppe'' command.	Note, it is not	currently pos-
		     sible for the RADIUS server to specify 56 bit encryption.

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_RECV_KEY
		     If	this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied, it is value is used as the master key for
		     decryption	of incoming data.  When	clients	are authenti-
		     cated using MSCHAPv2, the RADIUS server MUST provide this
		     attribute if inbound MPPE is to function.

		RAD_MICROSOFT_MS_MPPE_SEND_KEY
		     If	this RAD_VENDOR_MICROSOFT vendor specific attribute is
		     supplied, it is value is used as the master key for
		     encryption	of outgoing data.  When	clients	are authenti-
		     cated using MSCHAPv2, the RADIUS server MUST provide this
		     attribute if outbound MPPE	is to function.

	     Values received from the RADIUS server may	be viewed using	``show
	     bundle''.

	 set rad_alive timeout
	     When RADIUS is configured,	setting	``rad_alive'' to a non-zero
	     timeout value will	tell ppp to sent RADIUS	accounting information
	     to	the RADIUS server every	timeout	seconds.

	 set reconnect timeout ntries
	     Should the	line drop unexpectedly (due to loss of CD or LQR fail-
	     ure), a connection	will be	re-established after the given
	     timeout.  The line	will be	re-connected at	most ntries times.
	     Ntries defaults to	zero.  A value of random for timeout will
	     result in a variable pause, somewhere between 1 and 30 seconds.

	 set recvpipe [value]
	     This sets the routing table RECVPIPE value.  The optimum value is
	     just over twice the MTU value.  If	value is unspecified or	zero,
	     the default kernel	controlled value is used.

	 set redial secs[+inc[-max]][.next] [attempts]
	     ppp can be	instructed to attempt to redial	attempts times.	 If
	     more than one phone number	is specified (see ``set	phone''
	     above), a pause of	next is	taken before dialing each number.  A
	     pause of secs is taken before starting at the first number	again.
	     A literal value of	``random'' may be used here in place of	secs
	     and next, causing a random	delay of between 1 and 30 seconds.

	     If	inc is specified, its value is added onto secs each time ppp
	     tries a new number.  secs will only be incremented	at most	max
	     times.  max defaults to 10.

	     Note, the secs delay will be effective, even after	attempts has
	     been exceeded, so an immediate manual dial	may appear to have
	     done nothing.  If an immediate dial is required, a	``!'' should
	     immediately follow	the ``open'' keyword.  See the ``open''
	     description above for further details.

	 set sendpipe [value]
	     This sets the routing table SENDPIPE value.  The optimum value is
	     just over twice the MTU value.  If	value is unspecified or	zero,
	     the default kernel	controlled value is used.

	 set server|socket TcpPort|LocalName|none|open|closed [password
	     [mask]]
	     This command tells	ppp to listen on the given socket or
	     `diagnostic port' for incoming command connections.

	     The word ``none'' instructs ppp to	close any existing socket and
	     clear the socket configuration.  The word ``open''	instructs ppp
	     to	attempt	to re-open the port.  The word ``closed'' instructs
	     ppp to close the open port.

	     If	you wish to specify a local domain socket, LocalName must be
	     specified as an absolute file name, otherwise it is assumed to be
	     the name or number	of a TCP port.	You may	specify	the octal
	     umask to be used with a local domain socket.  Refer to umask(2)
	     for umask details.	 Refer to services(5) for details of how to
	     translate TCP port	names.

	     You must also specify the password	that must be entered by	the
	     client (using the ``passwd'' variable above) when connecting to
	     this socket.  If the password is specified	as an empty string, no
	     password is required for connecting clients.

	     When specifying a local domain socket, the	first ``%d'' sequence
	     found in the socket name will be replaced with the	current	inter-
	     face unit number.	This is	useful when you	wish to	use the	same
	     profile for more than one connection.

	     In	a similar manner TCP sockets may be prefixed with the ``+''
	     character,	in which case the current interface unit number	is
	     added to the port number.

	     When using	ppp with a server socket, the pppctl(8)	command	is the
	     preferred mechanism of communications.  Currently,	telnet(1) can
	     also be used, but link encryption may be implemented in the
	     future, so	telnet(1) should be avoided.

	     Note; SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 interact	with the diagnostic socket.

	 set speed value
	     This sets the speed of the	serial device.	If speed is specified
	     as	``sync'', ppp treats the device	as a synchronous device.

	     Certain device types will know whether they should	be specified
	     as	synchronous or asynchronous.  These devices will override
	     incorrect settings	and log	a warning to this effect.

	 set stopped [LCPseconds [CCPseconds]]
	     If	this option is set, ppp	will time out after the	given FSM
	     (Finite State Machine) has	been in	the stopped state for the
	     given number of ``seconds''.  This	option may be useful if	the
	     peer sends	a terminate request, but never actually	closes the
	     connection	despite	our sending a terminate	acknowledgement.  This
	     is	also useful if you wish	to ``set openmode passive'' and	time
	     out if the	peer does not send a Configure Request within the
	     given time.  Use ``set log	+lcp +ccp'' to make ppp	log the	appro-
	     priate state transitions.

	     The default value is zero,	where ppp does not time	out in the
	     stopped state.

	     This value	should not be set to less than the openmode delay (see
	     ``set openmode'' above).

	 set timeout idleseconds [mintimeout]
	     This command allows the setting of	the idle timer.	 Refer to the
	     section titled SETTING THE	IDLE TIMER for further details.

	     If	mintimeout is specified, ppp will never	idle out before	the
	     link has been up for at least that	number of seconds.

	 set urgent [tcp|udp|none] [[+|-]port] ...
	     This command controls the ports that ppp prioritizes when trans-
	     mitting data.  The	default	priority TCP ports are ports 21	(ftp
	     control), 22 (ssh), 23 (telnet), 513 (login), 514 (shell),	543
	     (klogin) and 544 (kshell).	 There are no priority UDP ports by
	     default.  See services(5) for details.

	     If	neither	``tcp''	or ``udp'' are specified, ``tcp'' is assumed.

	     If	no ports are given, the	priority port lists are	cleared
	     (although if ``tcp'' or ``udp'' is	specified, only	that list is
	     cleared).	If the first port argument is prefixed with a plus
	     (``+'') or	a minus	(``-''), the current list is adjusted, other-
	     wise the list is reassigned.  ports prefixed with a plus or not
	     prefixed at all are added to the list and ports prefixed with a
	     minus are removed from the	list.

	     If	``none'' is specified, all priority port lists are disabled
	     and even IPTOS_LOWDELAY packets are not prioritised.

	 set vj	slotcomp on|off
	     This command tells	ppp whether it should attempt to negotiate VJ
	     slot compression.	By default, slot compression is	turned on.

	 set vj	slots nslots
	     This command sets the initial number of slots that	ppp will try
	     to	negotiate with the peer	when VJ	compression is enabled (see
	     the `enable' command above).  It defaults to a value of 16.
	     Nslots must be between 4 and 16 inclusive.

     shell|! [command]
	 If command is not specified a shell is	invoked	according to the SHELL
	 environment variable.	Otherwise, the given command is	executed.
	 Word replacement is done in the same way as for the ``!bg'' command
	 as described above.

	 Use of	the ! character	requires a following space as with any of the
	 other commands.  You should note that this command is executed	in the
	 foreground; ppp will not continue running until this process has
	 exited.  Use the bg command if	you wish processing to happen in the
	 background.

     show var
	 This command allows the user to examine the following:

	 show bundle
	     Show the current bundle settings.

	 show ccp
	     Show the current CCP compression statistics.

	 show compress
	     Show the current VJ compression statistics.

	 show escape
	     Show the current escape characters.

	 show filter [name]
	     List the current rules for	the given filter.  If name is not
	     specified,	all filters are	shown.

	 show hdlc
	     Show the current HDLC statistics.

	 show help|?
	     Give a summary of available show commands.

	 show iface
	     Show the current interface	information (the same as ``iface
	     show'').

	 show ipcp
	     Show the current IPCP statistics.

	 show layers
	     Show the protocol layers currently	in use.

	 show lcp
	     Show the current LCP statistics.

	 show [data]link
	     Show high level link information.

	 show links
	     Show a list of available logical links.

	 show log
	     Show the current log values.

	 show mem
	     Show current memory statistics.

	 show ncp
	     Show the current NCP statistics.

	 show physical
	     Show low level link information.

	 show mp
	     Show Multi-link information.

	 show proto
	     Show current protocol totals.

	 show route
	     Show the current routing tables.

	 show stopped
	     Show the current stopped timeouts.

	 show timer
	     Show the active alarm timers.

	 show version
	     Show the current version number of	ppp.

     term
	 Go into terminal mode.	 Characters typed at the keyboard are sent to
	 the device.  Characters read from the device are displayed on the
	 screen.  When a remote	PPP peer is detected, ppp automatically
	 enables Packet	Mode and goes back into	command	mode.

MORE DETAILS
     +o	 Read the example configuration	files.	They are a good	source of
	 information.

     +o	 Use ``help'', ``nat ?'', ``enable ?'',	``set ?'' and ``show ?'' to
	 get online information	about what is available.

     +o	 The following URLs contain useful information:
	 +o   http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/ppp.html
	 +o   http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/handbook/userppp.html

FILES
     ppp refers	to four	files: ppp.conf, ppp.linkup, ppp.linkdown and
     ppp.secret.  These	files are placed in the	/etc/ppp directory.

     /etc/ppp/ppp.conf
	 System	default	configuration file.

     /etc/ppp/ppp.secret
	 An authorisation file for each	system.

     /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup
	 A file	to check when ppp establishes a	network	level connection.

     /etc/ppp/ppp.linkdown
	 A file	to check when ppp closes a network level connection.

     /var/log/ppp.log
	 Logging and debugging information file.  Note,	this name is specified
	 in /etc/syslog.conf.  See syslog.conf(5) for further details.

     /var/spool/lock/LCK..*
	 tty port locking file.	 Refer to uucplock(3) for further details.

     /var/run/tunN.pid
	 The process id	(pid) of the ppp program connected to the tunN device,
	 where `N' is the number of the	device.

     /var/run/ttyXX.if
	 The tun interface used	by this	port.  Again, this file	is only	cre-
	 ated in -background, -auto and	-ddial modes.

     /etc/services
	 Get port number if port number	is using service name.

     /var/run/ppp-authname-class-value
	 In multi-link mode, local domain sockets are created using the	peer
	 authentication	name (`authname'), the peer endpoint discriminator
	 class (`class') and the peer endpoint discriminator value (`value').
	 As the	endpoint discriminator value may be a binary value, it is
	 turned	to HEX to determine the	actual file name.

	 This socket is	used to	pass links between different instances of ppp.

SEE ALSO
     at(1), ftp(1), gzip(1), hostname(1), login(1), tcpdump(1),	telnet(1),
     kldload(2), libalias(3), libradius(3), syslog(3), uucplock(3),
     netgraph(4), ng_pppoe(4), crontab(5), group(5), passwd(5),	protocols(5),
     radius.conf(5), resolv.conf(5), syslog.conf(5), adduser(8), chat(8),
     getty(8), inetd(8), init(8), isdnd(8), named(8), ping(8), pppctl(8),
     pppd(8), pppoed(8), route(8), sshd(8), syslogd(8),	traceroute(8), vipw(8)

HISTORY
     This program was originally written by Toshiharu OHNO <tony-o@iij.ad.jp>,
     and was submitted to FreeBSD 2.0.5	by Atsushi Murai <amurai@spec.co.jp>.

     It	was substantially modified during 1997 by Brian	Somers
     <brian@Awfulhak.org>, and was ported to OpenBSD in	November that year
     (just after the 2.2 release).

     Most of the code was rewritten by Brian Somers in early 1998 when multi-
     link ppp support was added.

FreeBSD	10.1			 July 20, 2004			  FreeBSD 10.1

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | Major Features | PERMISSIONS | GETTING STARTED | MANUAL DIALING | AUTOMATIC DIALING | BACKGROUND DIALING | DIAL ON DEMAND | RECEIVING INCOMING PPP CONNECTIONS (Method 1) | RECEIVING INCOMING PPP CONNECTIONS (Method 2) | AUTHENTICATING INCOMING CONNECTIONS | PPP OVER TCP and UDP (a.k.a Tunnelling) | NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION (PACKET ALIASING) | PACKET FILTERING | SETTING THE IDLE TIMER | PREDICTOR-1 and DEFLATE COMPRESSION | CONTROLLING IP ADDRESS | CONNECTING WITH YOUR INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER | LOGGING FACILITY | SIGNAL HANDLING | MULTI-LINK PPP | PPP COMMAND LIST | MORE DETAILS | FILES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY

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