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POPEN(3)	       FreeBSD Library Functions Manual		      POPEN(3)

NAME
     popen, pclose -- process I/O

LIBRARY
     Standard C	Library	(libc, -lc)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <stdio.h>

     FILE *
     popen(const char *command,	const char *type);

     int
     pclose(FILE *stream);

DESCRIPTION
     The popen() function ``opens'' a process by creating a bidirectional pipe
     forking, and invoking the shell.  Any streams opened by previous popen()
     calls in the parent process are closed in the new child process.  Histor-
     ically, popen() was implemented with a unidirectional pipe; hence many
     implementations of	popen()	only allow the type argument to	specify	read-
     ing or writing, not both.	Since popen() is now implemented using a bidi-
     rectional pipe, the type argument may request a bidirectional data	flow.
     The type argument is a pointer to a null-terminated string	which must be
     `r' for reading, `w' for writing, or `r+' for reading and writing.

     The command argument is a pointer to a null-terminated string containing
     a shell command line.  This command is passed to /bin/sh using the	-c
     flag; interpretation, if any, is performed	by the shell.

     The return	value from popen() is a	normal standard	I/O stream in all
     respects save that	it must	be closed with pclose()	rather than fclose().
     Writing to	such a stream writes to	the standard input of the command; the
     command's standard	output is the same as that of the process that called
     popen(), unless this is altered by	the command itself.  Conversely, read-
     ing from a	``popened'' stream reads the command's standard	output,	and
     the command's standard input is the same as that of the process that
     called popen().

     Note that output popen() streams are fully	buffered by default.

     The pclose() function waits for the associated process to terminate and
     returns the exit status of	the command as returned	by wait4(2).

RETURN VALUES
     The popen() function returns NULL if the fork(2) or pipe(2) calls fail,
     or	if it cannot allocate memory.

     The pclose() function returns -1 if stream	is not associated with a
     ``popened'' command, if stream already ``pclosed'', or if wait4(2)
     returns an	error.

ERRORS
     The popen() function does not reliably set	errno.

SEE ALSO
     sh(1), fork(2), pipe(2), wait4(2),	fclose(3), fflush(3), fopen(3),
     stdio(3), system(3)

HISTORY
     A popen() and a pclose() function appeared	in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

     Bidirectional functionality was added in FreeBSD 2.2.6.

BUGS
     Since the standard	input of a command opened for reading shares its seek
     offset with the process that called popen(), if the original process has
     done a buffered read, the command's input position	may not	be as
     expected.	Similarly, the output from a command opened for	writing	may
     become intermingled with that of the original process.  The latter	can be
     avoided by	calling	fflush(3) before popen().

     Failure to	execute	the shell is indistinguishable from the	shell's	fail-
     ure to execute command, or	an immediate exit of the command.  The only
     hint is an	exit status of 127.

     The popen() function always calls sh(1), never calls csh(1).

FreeBSD	10.1			  May 3, 1995			  FreeBSD 10.1

NAME | LIBRARY | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUES | ERRORS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | BUGS

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