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PKCS12(1)			    OpenSSL			     PKCS12(1)

NAME
       pkcs12 -	PKCS#12	file utility

SYNOPSIS
       openssl pkcs12 [-export]	[-chain] [-inkey filename] [-certfile
       filename] [-name	name] [-caname name] [-in filename] [-out filename]
       [-noout]	[-nomacver] [-nocerts] [-clcerts] [-cacerts] [-nokeys] [-info]
       [-des | -des3 | -idea | -aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -camellia128 |
       -camellia192 | -camellia256 | -nodes] [-noiter] [-maciter | -nomaciter
       | -nomac] [-twopass] [-descert] [-certpbe cipher] [-keypbe cipher]
       [-macalg	digest]	[-keyex] [-keysig] [-password arg] [-passin arg]
       [-passout arg] [-rand file(s)] [-CAfile file] [-CApath dir] [-CSP name]

DESCRIPTION
       The pkcs12 command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred to as PFX
       files) to be created and	parsed.	PKCS#12	files are used by several
       programs	including Netscape, MSIE and MS	Outlook.

COMMAND	OPTIONS
       There are a lot of options the meaning of some depends of whether a
       PKCS#12 file is being created or	parsed.	By default a PKCS#12 file is
       parsed. A PKCS#12 file can be created by	using the -export option (see
       below).

PARSING	OPTIONS
       -in filename
	   This	specifies filename of the PKCS#12 file to be parsed. Standard
	   input is used by default.

       -out filename
	   The filename	to write certificates and private keys to, standard
	   output by default.  They are	all written in PEM format.

       -pass arg, -passin arg
	   the PKCS#12 file (i.e. input	file) password source. For more
	   information about the format	of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
	   section in openssl(1).

       -passout	arg
	   pass	phrase source to encrypt any outputed private keys with. For
	   more	information about the format of	arg see	the PASS PHRASE
	   ARGUMENTS section in	openssl(1).

       -noout
	   this	option inhibits	output of the keys and certificates to the
	   output file version of the PKCS#12 file.

       -clcerts
	   only	output client certificates (not	CA certificates).

       -cacerts
	   only	output CA certificates (not client certificates).

       -nocerts
	   no certificates at all will be output.

       -nokeys
	   no private keys will	be output.

       -info
	   output additional information about the PKCS#12 file	structure,
	   algorithms used and iteration counts.

       -des
	   use DES to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -des3
	   use triple DES to encrypt private keys before outputting, this is
	   the default.

       -idea
	   use IDEA to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -aes128,	-aes192, -aes256
	   use AES to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -camellia128, -camellia192, -camellia256
	   use Camellia	to encrypt private keys	before outputting.

       -nodes
	   don't encrypt the private keys at all.

       -nomacver
	   don't attempt to verify the integrity MAC before reading the	file.

       -twopass
	   prompt for separate integrity and encryption	passwords: most
	   software always assumes these are the same so this option will
	   render such PKCS#12 files unreadable.

FILE CREATION OPTIONS
       -export
	   This	option specifies that a	PKCS#12	file will be created rather
	   than	parsed.

       -out filename
	   This	specifies filename to write the	PKCS#12	file to. Standard
	   output is used by default.

       -in filename
	   The filename	to read	certificates and private keys from, standard
	   input by default.  They must	all be in PEM format. The order
	   doesn't matter but one private key and its corresponding
	   certificate should be present. If additional	certificates are
	   present they	will also be included in the PKCS#12 file.

       -inkey filename
	   file	to read	private	key from. If not present then a	private	key
	   must	be present in the input	file.

       -name friendlyname
	   This	specifies the "friendly	name" for the certificate and private
	   key.	This name is typically displayed in list boxes by software
	   importing the file.

       -certfile filename
	   A filename to read additional certificates from.

       -caname friendlyname
	   This	specifies the "friendly	name" for other	certificates. This
	   option may be used multiple times to	specify	names for all
	   certificates	in the order they appear. Netscape ignores friendly
	   names on other certificates whereas MSIE displays them.

       -pass arg, -passout arg
	   the PKCS#12 file (i.e. output file) password	source.	For more
	   information about the format	of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
	   section in openssl(1).

       -passin password
	   pass	phrase source to decrypt any input private keys	with. For more
	   information about the format	of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
	   section in openssl(1).

       -chain
	   if this option is present then an attempt is	made to	include	the
	   entire certificate chain of the user	certificate. The standard CA
	   store is used for this search. If the search	fails it is considered
	   a fatal error.

       -descert
	   encrypt the certificate using triple	DES, this may render the
	   PKCS#12 file	unreadable by some "export grade" software. By default
	   the private key is encrypted	using triple DES and the certificate
	   using 40 bit	RC2.

       -keypbe alg, -certpbe alg
	   these options allow the algorithm used to encrypt the private key
	   and certificates to be selected. Any	PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 PBE
	   algorithm name can be used (see NOTES section for more
	   information). If a a	cipher name (as	output by the list-cipher-
	   algorithms command is specified then	it is used with	PKCS#5 v2.0.
	   For interoperability	reasons	it is advisable	to only	use PKCS#12
	   algorithms.

       -keyex|-keysig
	   specifies that the private key is to	be used	for key	exchange or
	   just	signing.  This option is only interpreted by MSIE and similar
	   MS software.	Normally "export grade"	software will only allow 512
	   bit RSA keys	to be used for encryption purposes but arbitrary
	   length keys for signing. The	-keysig	option marks the key for
	   signing only. Signing only keys can be used for S/MIME signing,
	   authenticode	(ActiveX control signing)  and SSL client
	   authentication, however due to a bug	only MSIE 5.0 and later
	   support the use of signing only keys	for SSL	client authentication.

       -macalg digest
	   specify the MAC digest algorithm. If	not included them SHA1 will be
	   used.

       -nomaciter, -noiter
	   these options affect	the iteration counts on	the MAC	and key
	   algorithms.	Unless you wish	to produce files compatible with MSIE
	   4.0 you should leave	these options alone.

	   To discourage attacks by using large	dictionaries of	common
	   passwords the algorithm that	derives	keys from passwords can	have
	   an iteration	count applied to it: this causes a certain part	of the
	   algorithm to	be repeated and	slows it down. The MAC is used to
	   check the file integrity but	since it will normally have the	same
	   password as the keys	and certificates it could also be attacked.
	   By default both MAC and encryption iteration	counts are set to
	   2048, using these options the MAC and encryption iteration counts
	   can be set to 1, since this reduces the file	security you should
	   not use these options unless	you really have	to. Most software
	   supports both MAC and key iteration counts.	MSIE 4.0 doesn't
	   support MAC iteration counts	so it needs the	-nomaciter option.

       -maciter
	   This	option is included for compatibility with previous versions,
	   it used to be needed	to use MAC iterations counts but they are now
	   used	by default.

       -nomac
	   don't attempt to provide the	MAC integrity.

       -rand file(s)
	   a file or files containing random data used to seed the random
	   number generator, or	an EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).  Multiple
	   files can be	specified separated by a OS-dependent character.  The
	   separator is	; for MS-Windows, , for	OpenVMS, and : for all others.

       -CAfile file
	   CA storage as a file.

       -CApath dir
	   CA storage as a directory. This directory must be a standard
	   certificate directory: that is a hash of each subject name (using
	   x509	-hash) should be linked	to each	certificate.

       -CSP name
	   write name as a Microsoft CSP name.

NOTES
       Although	there are a large number of options most of them are very
       rarely used. For	PKCS#12	file parsing only -in and -out need to be used
       for PKCS#12 file	creation -export and -name are also used.

       If none of the -clcerts,	-cacerts or -nocerts options are present then
       all certificates	will be	output in the order they appear	in the input
       PKCS#12 files. There is no guarantee that the first certificate present
       is the one corresponding	to the private key. Certain software which
       requires	a private key and certificate and assumes the first
       certificate in the file is the one corresponding	to the private key:
       this may	not always be the case.	Using the -clcerts option will solve
       this problem by only outputting the certificate corresponding to	the
       private key. If the CA certificates are required	then they can be
       output to a separate file using the -nokeys -cacerts options to just
       output CA certificates.

       The -keypbe and -certpbe	algorithms allow the precise encryption
       algorithms for private keys and certificates to be specified. Normally
       the defaults are	fine but occasionally software can't handle triple DES
       encrypted private keys, then the	option -keypbe PBE-SHA1-RC2-40 can be
       used to reduce the private key encryption to 40 bit RC2.	A complete
       description of all algorithms is	contained in the pkcs8 manual page.

EXAMPLES
       Parse a PKCS#12 file and	output it to a file:

	openssl	pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem

       Output only client certificates to a file:

	openssl	pkcs12 -in file.p12 -clcerts -out file.pem

       Don't encrypt the private key:

	openssl	pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem -nodes

       Print some info about a PKCS#12 file:

	openssl	pkcs12 -in file.p12 -info -noout

       Create a	PKCS#12	file:

	openssl	pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name	"My Certificate"

       Include some extra certificates:

	openssl	pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name	"My Certificate" \
	 -certfile othercerts.pem

BUGS
       Some would argue	that the PKCS#12 standard is one big bug :-)

       Versions	of OpenSSL before 0.9.6a had a bug in the PKCS#12 key
       generation routines. Under rare circumstances this could	produce	a
       PKCS#12 file encrypted with an invalid key. As a	result some PKCS#12
       files which triggered this bug from other implementations (MSIE or
       Netscape) could not be decrypted	by OpenSSL and similarly OpenSSL could
       produce PKCS#12 files which could not be	decrypted by other
       implementations.	The chances of producing such a	file are relatively
       small: less than	1 in 256.

       A side effect of	fixing this bug	is that	any old	invalidly encrypted
       PKCS#12 files cannot no longer be parsed	by the fixed version. Under
       such circumstances the pkcs12 utility will report that the MAC is OK
       but fail	with a decryption error	when extracting	private	keys.

       This problem can	be resolved by extracting the private keys and
       certificates from the PKCS#12 file using	an older version of OpenSSL
       and recreating the PKCS#12 file from the	keys and certificates using a
       newer version of	OpenSSL. For example:

	old-openssl -in	bad.p12	-out keycerts.pem
	openssl	-in keycerts.pem -export -name "My PKCS#12 file" -out fixed.p12

SEE ALSO
       pkcs8(1)

1.0.1e				  2013-02-11			     PKCS12(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | COMMAND OPTIONS | PARSING OPTIONS | FILE CREATION OPTIONS | NOTES | EXAMPLES | BUGS | SEE ALSO

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