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PFCTL(8)		FreeBSD	System Manager's Manual		      PFCTL(8)

NAME
     pfctl -- control the packet filter	(PF) and network address translation
     (NAT) device

SYNOPSIS
     pfctl [-AdeghmNnOqRrvz] [-a anchor] [-D macro= value] [-F modifier]
	   [-f file] [-i interface] [-K	host | network]	[-k host | network]
	   [-o [level]]	[-p device] [-s	modifier] [-t table -T command
	   [address ...]] [-x level]

DESCRIPTION
     The pfctl utility communicates with the packet filter device using	the
     ioctl interface described in pf(4).  It allows ruleset and	parameter con-
     figuration	and retrieval of status	information from the packet filter.

     Packet filtering restricts	the types of packets that pass through network
     interfaces	entering or leaving the	host based on filter rules as
     described in pf.conf(5).  The packet filter can also replace addresses
     and ports of packets.  Replacing source addresses and ports of outgoing
     packets is	called NAT (Network Address Translation) and is	used to	con-
     nect an internal network (usually reserved	address	space) to an external
     one (the Internet)	by making all connections to external hosts appear to
     come from the gateway.  Replacing destination addresses and ports of
     incoming packets is used to redirect connections to different hosts
     and/or ports.  A combination of both translations,	bidirectional NAT, is
     also supported.  Translation rules	are described in pf.conf(5).

     When the variable pf is set to YES	in rc.conf.local(5), the rule file
     specified with the	variable pf_rules is loaded automatically by the rc(8)
     scripts and the packet filter is enabled.

     The packet	filter does not	itself forward packets between interfaces.
     Forwarding	can be enabled by setting the sysctl(8)	variables
     net.inet.ip.forwarding and/or net.inet6.ip6.forwarding to 1.  Set them
     permanently in sysctl.conf(5).

     The pfctl utility provides	several	commands.  The options are as follows:

     -A	     Load only the queue rules present in the rule file.  Other	rules
	     and options are ignored.

     -a	anchor
	     Apply flags -f, -F, and -s	only to	the rules in the specified
	     anchor.  In addition to the main ruleset, pfctl can load and
	     manipulate	additional rulesets by name, called anchors.  The main
	     ruleset is	the default anchor.

	     Anchors are referenced by name and	may be nested, with the	vari-
	     ous components of the anchor path separated by `/'	characters,
	     similar to	how file system	hierarchies are	laid out.  The last
	     component of the anchor path is where ruleset operations are per-
	     formed.

	     Evaluation	of anchor rules	from the main ruleset is described in
	     pf.conf(5).

	     For example, the following	will show all filter rules (see	the -s
	     flag below) inside	the anchor ``authpf/smith(1234)'', which would
	     have been created for user	``smith'' by authpf(8),	PID 1234:

		   # pfctl -a "authpf/smith(1234)" -s rules

	     Private tables can	also be	put inside anchors, either by having
	     table statements in the pf.conf(5)	file that is loaded in the
	     anchor, or	by using regular table commands, as in:

		   # pfctl -a foo/bar -t mytable -T add	1.2.3.4	5.6.7.8

	     When a rule referring to a	table is loaded	in an anchor, the rule
	     will use the private table	if one is defined, and then fall back
	     to	the table defined in the main ruleset, if there	is one.	 This
	     is	similar	to C rules for variable	scope.	It is possible to cre-
	     ate distinct tables with the same name in the global ruleset and
	     in	an anchor, but this is often bad design	and a warning will be
	     issued in that case.

	     By	default, recursive inline printing of anchors applies only to
	     unnamed anchors specified inline in the ruleset.  If the anchor
	     name is terminated	with a `*' character, the -s flag will recur-
	     sively print all anchors in a brace delimited block.  For example
	     the following will	print the ``authpf'' ruleset recursively:

		   # pfctl -a 'authpf/*' -sr

	     To	print the main ruleset recursively, specify only `*' as	the
	     anchor name:

		   # pfctl -a '*' -sr

     -D	macro=value
	     Define macro to be	set to value on	the command line.  Overrides
	     the definition of macro in	the ruleset.

     -d	     Disable the packet	filter.

     -e	     Enable the	packet filter.

     -F	modifier
	     Flush the filter parameters specified by modifier (may be abbre-
	     viated):

	     -F	nat	   Flush the NAT rules.
	     -F	queue	   Flush the queue rules.
	     -F	rules	   Flush the filter rules.
	     -F	state	   Flush the state table (NAT and filter).
	     -F	Sources	   Flush the source tracking table.
	     -F	info	   Flush the filter information	(statistics that are
			   not bound to	rules).
	     -F	Tables	   Flush the tables.
	     -F	osfp	   Flush the passive operating system fingerprints.
	     -F	all	   Flush all of	the above.

     -f	file
	     Load the rules contained in file.	This file may contain macros,
	     tables, options, and normalization, queueing, translation,	and
	     filtering rules.  With the	exception of macros and	tables,	the
	     statements	must appear in that order.

     -g	     Include output helpful for	debugging.

     -h	     Help.

     -i	interface
	     Restrict the operation to the given interface.

     -K	host | network
	     Kill all of the source tracking entries originating from the
	     specified host or network.	 A second -K host or -K	network	option
	     may be specified, which will kill all the source tracking entries
	     from the first host/network to the	second.

     -k	host | network
	     Kill all of the state entries originating from the	specified host
	     or	network.  A second -k host or -k network option	may be speci-
	     fied, which will kill all the state entries from the first
	     host/network to the second.  For example, to kill all of the
	     state entries originating from ``host'':

		   # pfctl -k host

	     To	kill all of the	state entries from ``host1'' to	``host2'':

		   # pfctl -k host1 -k host2

	     To	kill all states	originating from 192.168.1.0/24	to
	     172.16.0.0/16:

		   # pfctl -k 192.168.1.0/24 -k	172.16.0.0/16

	     A network prefix length of	0 can be used as a wildcard.  To kill
	     all states	with the target	``host2'':

		   # pfctl -k 0.0.0.0/0	-k host2

     -m	     Merge in explicitly given options without resetting those which
	     are omitted.  Allows single options to be modified	without	dis-
	     turbing the others:

		   # echo "set loginterface fxp0" | pfctl -mf -

     -N	     Load only the NAT rules present in	the rule file.	Other rules
	     and options are ignored.

     -n	     Do	not actually load rules, just parse them.

     -O	     Load only the options present in the rule file.  Other rules and
	     options are ignored.

     -o	[level]
	     Control the ruleset optimizer.  The ruleset optimizer attempts to
	     improve rulesets by removing rule duplication and making better
	     use of rule ordering.

	     -o	none	   Disable the ruleset optimizer.
	     -o	basic	   Enable basic	ruleset	optimizations.
	     -o	profile	   Enable basic	ruleset	optimizations with profiling.

	     basic optimization	does does four things:

	     1.	  remove duplicate rules
	     2.	  remove rules that are	a subset of another rule
	     3.	  combine multiple rules into a	table when advantageous
	     4.	  re-order the rules to	improve	evaluation performance

	     If	profile	is specified, the currently loaded ruleset will	be
	     examined as a feedback profile to tailor the optimization of the
	     quick rules to the	actual network behavior.

	     It	is important to	note that the ruleset optimizer	will modify
	     the ruleset to improve performance.  A side effect	of the ruleset
	     modification is that per-rule accounting statistics will have
	     different meanings	than before.  If per-rule accounting is	impor-
	     tant for billing purposes or whatnot, either the ruleset opti-
	     mizer should not be used or a label field should be added to all
	     of	the accounting rules to	act as optimization barriers.

	     To	retain compatibility with previous behaviour, a	single -o
	     without any options will enable basic optimizations, and a	second
	     -o	will enable profiling.

     -p	device
	     Use the device file device	instead	of the default /dev/pf.

     -q	     Only print	errors and warnings.

     -R	     Load only the filter rules	present	in the rule file.  Other rules
	     and options are ignored.

     -r	     Perform reverse DNS lookups on states when	displaying them.

     -s	modifier
	     Show the filter parameters	specified by modifier (may be abbrevi-
	     ated):

	     -s	nat	    Show the currently loaded NAT rules.
	     -s	queue	    Show the currently loaded queue rules.  When used
			    together with -v, per-queue	statistics are also
			    shown.  When used together with -v -v, pfctl will
			    loop and show updated queue	statistics every five
			    seconds, including measured	bandwidth and packets
			    per	second.
	     -s	rules	    Show the currently loaded filter rules.  When used
			    together with -v, the per-rule statistics (number
			    of evaluations, packets and	bytes) are also	shown.
			    Note that the ``skip step''	optimization done
			    automatically by the kernel	will skip evaluation
			    of rules where possible.  Packets passed state-
			    fully are counted in the rule that created the
			    state (even	though the rule	isn't evaluated	more
			    than once for the entire connection).
	     -s	Anchors	    Show the currently loaded anchors directly
			    attached to	the main ruleset.  If -a anchor	is
			    specified as well, the anchors loaded directly
			    below the given anchor are shown instead.  If -v
			    is specified, all anchors attached under the tar-
			    get	anchor will be displayed recursively.
	     -s	state	    Show the contents of the state table.
	     -s	Sources	    Show the contents of the source tracking table.
	     -s	info	    Show filter	information (statistics	and counters).
			    When used together with -v,	source tracking	sta-
			    tistics are	also shown.
	     -s	labels	    Show per-rule statistics (label, evaluations,
			    packets total, bytes total,	packets	in, bytes in,
			    packets out, bytes out) of filter rules with
			    labels, useful for accounting.
	     -s	timeouts    Show the current global timeouts.
	     -s	memory	    Show the current pool memory hard limits.
	     -s	Tables	    Show the list of tables.
	     -s	osfp	    Show the list of operating system fingerprints.
	     -s	Interfaces  Show the list of interfaces	and interface drivers
			    available to PF.  When used	together with -v, it
			    additionally lists which interfaces	have skip
			    rules activated.  When used	together with -vv,
			    interface statistics are also shown.  -i can be
			    used to select an interface	or a group of inter-
			    faces.
	     -s	all	    Show all of	the above, except for the lists	of
			    interfaces and operating system fingerprints.

     -T	command	[address ...]
	     Specify the command (may be abbreviated) to apply to the table.
	     Commands include:

	     -T	kill	   Kill	a table.
	     -T	flush	   Flush all addresses of a table.
	     -T	add	   Add one or more addresses in	a table.  Automati-
			   cally create	a nonexisting table.
	     -T	delete	   Delete one or more addresses	from a table.
	     -T	expire number
			   Delete addresses which had their statistics cleared
			   more	than number seconds ago.  For entries which
			   have	never had their	statistics cleared, number
			   refers to the time they were	added to the table.
	     -T	replace	   Replace the addresses of the	table.	Automatically
			   create a nonexisting	table.
	     -T	show	   Show	the content (addresses)	of a table.
	     -T	test	   Test	if the given addresses match a table.
	     -T	zero	   Clear all the statistics of a table.
	     -T	load	   Load	only the table definitions from	pf.conf(5).
			   This	is used	in conjunction with the	-f flag, as
			   in:

				 # pfctl -Tl -f	pf.conf

	     For the add, delete, replace, and test commands, the list of
	     addresses can be specified	either directly	on the command line
	     and/or in an unformatted text file, using the -f flag.  Comments
	     starting with a `#' are allowed in	the text file.	With these
	     commands, the -v flag can also be used once or twice, in which
	     case pfctl	will print the detailed	result of the operation	for
	     each individual address, prefixed by one of the following let-
	     ters:

	     A	  The address/network has been added.
	     C	  The address/network has been changed (negated).
	     D	  The address/network has been deleted.
	     M	  The address matches (test operation only).
	     X	  The address/network is duplicated and	therefore ignored.
	     Y	  The address/network cannot be	added/deleted due to conflict-
		  ing `!' attributes.
	     Z	  The address/network has been cleared (statistics).

	     Each table	maintains a set	of counters that can be	retrieved
	     using the -v flag of pfctl.  For example, the following commands
	     define a wide open	firewall which will keep track of packets
	     going to or coming	from the OpenBSD FTP server.  The following
	     commands configure	the firewall and send 10 pings to the FTP
	     server:

		   # printf "table <test> { ftp.openbsd.org }\n	\
		       pass out	to <test>\n" | pfctl -f-
		   # ping -qc10	ftp.openbsd.org

	     We	can now	use the	table show command to output, for each address
	     and packet	direction, the number of packets and bytes that	are
	     being passed or blocked by	rules referencing the table.  The time
	     at	which the current accounting started is	also shown with	the
	     ``Cleared'' line.

		   # pfctl -t test -vTshow
		      129.128.5.191
		       Cleared:	    Thu	Feb 13 18:55:18	2003
		       In/Block:    [ Packets: 0	Bytes: 0	]
		       In/Pass:	    [ Packets: 10	Bytes: 840	]
		       Out/Block:   [ Packets: 0	Bytes: 0	]
		       Out/Pass:    [ Packets: 10	Bytes: 840	]

	     Similarly,	it is possible to view global information about	the
	     tables by using the -v modifier twice and the -s Tables command.
	     This will display the number of addresses on each table, the num-
	     ber of rules which	reference the table, and the global packet
	     statistics	for the	whole table:

		   # pfctl -vvsTables
		   --a-r-  test
		       Addresses:   1
		       Cleared:	    Thu	Feb 13 18:55:18	2003
		       References:  [ Anchors: 0	Rules: 1	]
		       Evaluations: [ NoMatch: 3496	Match: 1	]
		       In/Block:    [ Packets: 0	Bytes: 0	]
		       In/Pass:	    [ Packets: 10	Bytes: 840	]
		       In/XPass:    [ Packets: 0	Bytes: 0	]
		       Out/Block:   [ Packets: 0	Bytes: 0	]
		       Out/Pass:    [ Packets: 10	Bytes: 840	]
		       Out/XPass:   [ Packets: 0	Bytes: 0	]

	     As	we can see here, only one packet - the initial ping request -
	     matched the table,	but all	packets	passing	as the result of the
	     state are correctly accounted for.	 Reloading the table(s)	or
	     ruleset will not affect packet accounting in any way.  The	two
	     ``XPass'' counters	are incremented	instead	of the ``Pass''	coun-
	     ters when a ``stateful'' packet is	passed but doesn't match the
	     table anymore.  This will happen in our example if	someone
	     flushes the table while the ping(8) command is running.

	     When used with a single -v, pfctl will only display the first
	     line containing the table flags and name.	The flags are defined
	     as	follows:

	     c	  For constant tables, which cannot be altered outside
		  pf.conf(5).
	     p	  For persistent tables, which don't get automatically killed
		  when no rules	refer to them.
	     a	  For tables which are part of the active tableset.  Tables
		  without this flag do not really exist, cannot	contain
		  addresses, and are only listed if the	-g flag	is given.
	     i	  For tables which are part of the inactive tableset.  This
		  flag can only	be witnessed briefly during the	loading	of
		  pf.conf(5).
	     r	  For tables which are referenced (used) by rules.
	     h	  This flag is set when	a table	in the main ruleset is hidden
		  by one or more tables	of the same name from anchors attached
		  below	it.

     -t	table
	     Specify the name of the table.

     -v	     Produce more verbose output.  A second use	of -v will produce
	     even more verbose output including	ruleset	warnings.  See the
	     previous section for its effect on	table commands.

     -x	level
	     Set the debug level (may be abbreviated) to one of	the following:

	     -x	none	   Don't generate debug	messages.
	     -x	urgent	   Generate debug messages only	for serious errors.
	     -x	misc	   Generate debug messages for various errors.
	     -x	loud	   Generate debug messages for common conditions.

     -z	     Clear per-rule statistics.

FILES
     /etc/pf.conf  Packet filter rules file.
     /etc/pf.os	   Passive operating system fingerprint	database.

SEE ALSO
     pf(4), pf.conf(5),	pf.os(5), rc.conf(5), sysctl.conf(5), authpf(8),
     ftp-proxy(8), rc(8), sysctl(8)

HISTORY
     The pfctl program and the pf(4) filter mechanism first appeared in
     OpenBSD 3.0.

FreeBSD	10.1		       November	20, 2002		  FreeBSD 10.1

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FILES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY

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