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NAMED(8)			     BIND9			      NAMED(8)

NAME
       named - Internet	domain name server

SYNOPSIS
       named [-4] [-6] [-c config-file]	[-d debug-level] [-f] [-g] [-n #cpus]
	     [-p port] [-s] [-t	directory] [-u user] [-v] [-x cache-file]

DESCRIPTION
       named is	a Domain Name System (DNS) server, part	of the BIND 9
       distribution from ISC. For more information on the DNS, see RFCs	1033,
       1034, and 1035.

       When invoked without arguments, named will read the default
       configuration file /etc/namedb/named.conf, read any initial data, and
       listen for queries.

OPTIONS
       -4     Use IPv4 only even if the	host machine is	capable	of IPv6.  -4
	      and -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -6     Use IPv6 only even if the	host machine is	capable	of IPv4.  -4
	      and -6 are mutually exclusive.

       -c config-file
	      Use config-file as the configuration file	instead	of the
	      default, /etc/namedb/named.conf. To ensure that reloading	the
	      configuration file continues to work after the server has
	      changed its working directory due	to to a	possible directory
	      option in	the configuration file,	config-file should be an
	      absolute pathname.

       -d debug-level
	      Set the daemon's debug level to debug-level. Debugging traces
	      from named become	more verbose as	the debug level	increases.

       -f     Run the server in	the foreground (i.e. do	not daemonize).

       -g     Run the server in	the foreground and force all logging to
	      stderr.

       -n #cpus
	      Create #cpus worker threads to take advantage of multiple	CPUs.
	      If not specified,	named will try to determine the	number of CPUs
	      present and create one thread per	CPU. If	it is unable to
	      determine	the number of CPUs, a single worker thread will	be
	      created.

       -p port
	      Listen for queries on port port. If not specified, the default
	      is port 53.

       -s     Write memory usage statistics to stdout on exit.
	      Note: This option	is mainly of interest to BIND 9	developers and
	      may be removed or	changed	in a future release.

       -t directory
	      chroot() to directory after processing the command line
	      arguments, but before reading the	configuration file.
	      Warning: This option should be used in conjunction with the -u
	      option, as chrooting a process running as	root doesn't enhance
	      security on most systems;	the way	chroot() is defined allows a
	      process with root	privileges to escape a chroot jail.

       -u user
	      setuid() to user after completing	privileged operations, such as
	      creating sockets that listen on privileged ports.
	      Note: On Linux, named uses the kernel's capability mechanism to
	      drop all root privileges except the ability to bind() to a
	      privileged port and set process resource limits. Unfortunately,
	      this means that the -u option only works when named is run on
	      kernel 2.2.18 or later, or kernel	2.3.99-pre3 or later, since
	      previous kernels did not allow privileges	to be retained after
	      setuid().

       -v     Report the version number	and exit.

       -x cache-file
	      Load data	from cache-file	into the cache of the default view.
	      Warning: This option must	not be used. It	is only	of interest to
	      BIND 9 developers	and may	be removed or changed in a future
	      release.

SIGNALS
       In routine operation, signals should not	be used	to control the
       nameserver; rndc	should be used instead.

       SIGHUP Force a reload of	the server.

       SIGINT, SIGTERM
	      Shut down	the server.

       The result of sending any other signals to the server is	undefined.

CONFIGURATION
       The named configuration file is too complex to describe in detail here.
       A complete description is provided in the BIND 9	Administrator
       Reference Manual.

FILES
       /etc/namedb/named.conf
	      The default configuration	file.

       /var/run/named.pid
	      The default process-id file.

SEE ALSO
       RFC 1033, RFC 1034, RFC 1035, rndc(8), lwresd(8), BIND 9	Administrator
       Reference Manual.

AUTHOR
       Internet	Systems	Consortium

BIND9				 June 30, 2000			      NAMED(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | SIGNALS | CONFIGURATION | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR

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