Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Man Pages

Man Page or Keyword Search:
Man Architecture
Apropos Keyword Search (all sections) Output format
home | help
MORE(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual		       MORE(1)

NAME
     more -- file perusal filter for crt viewing

SYNOPSIS
     more [-ceinus] [-t	tag] [-x tabs] [-/ pattern] [-#] file ...

DESCRIPTION
     More is a filter for paging through text one screenful at a time.	It
     uses termcap(3) so	it can run on a	variety	of terminals.  There is	even
     limited support for hardcopy terminals.  (On a hardcopy terminal, lines
     which should be printed at	the top	of the screen are prefixed with	an up-
     arrow.)  File may be a single dash	(``-''), implying stdin.

OPTIONS
     Command line options are described	below.	Options	are also taken from
     the environment variable MORE (make sure to precede them with a dash
     (``-'')) but command line options will override them.  Normally, more
     will repaint the screen by	scrolling from the bottom of the screen.  If
     the -c option is set, when	more needs to change the entire	display, it
     will paint	from the top line down.	 Normally, if displaying a single
     file, more	exits as soon as it reaches end-of-file.  The -e option	tells
     more to exit if it	reaches	end-of-file twice without an intervening oper-
     ation.  If	the file is shorter than a single screen more will exit	at
     end-of-file regardless.  The -i option causes searches to ignore case;
     that is, uppercase	and lowercase are considered identical.	 The -n	flag
     suppresses	line numbers.  The default (to use line	numbers) may cause
     more to run more slowly in	some cases, especially with a very large input
     file.  Suppressing	line numbers with the -n flag will avoid this problem.
     Using line	numbers	means: the line	number will be displayed in the	= com-
     mand, and the v command will pass the current line	number to the editor.
     The -s option causes consecutive blank lines to be	squeezed into a	single
     blank line.  The -t option, followed immediately by a tag,	will edit the
     file containing that tag.	For more information, see the ctags(1) com-
     mand.  By default,	more treats backspaces and CR-LF sequences specially.
     Backspaces	which appear adjacent to an underscore character are displayed
     as	underlined text.  Backspaces which appear between two identical	char-
     acters are	displayed as emboldened	text.  CR-LF sequences are compressed
     to	a single linefeed character.  The -u option causes backspaces to
     always be displayed as control characters,	i.e. as	the two	character
     sequence ``^H'', and CR-LF	to be left alone.  The -x option sets tab
     stops every N positions. The default for N	is 8.  The -/ option specifies
     a string that will	be searched for	before each file is displayed.

COMMANDS
     Interactive commands for more are based on	vi(1).	Some commands may be
     preceeded by a decimal number, called N in	the descriptions below.	 In
     the following descriptions, ^X means control-X.

     help: display a summary of	these commands.	 If you	forget all the other
     commands, remember	this one.  f ^F	Scroll forward N lines,	default	one
     window.  If N is more than	the screen size, only the final	screenful is
     displayed.	 ^B Scroll backward N lines, default one window	(see option -z
     below).  If N is more than	the screen size, only the final	screenful is
     displayed.	 RETURN	Scroll forward N lines,	default	1.  The	entire N lines
     are displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.  Scroll backward N
     lines, default 1.	The entire N lines are displayed, even if N is more
     than the screen size.  ^D Scroll forward N	lines, default one half	of the
     screen size.  If N	is specified, it becomes the new default for subse-
     quent d and u commands.  ^U Scroll	backward N lines, default one half of
     the screen	size.  If N is specified, it becomes the new default for sub-
     sequent d and u commands.	Go to line N in	the file, default 1 (beginning
     of	file).	Go to line N in	the file, default the end of the file.	% Go
     to	a position N percent into the file.  N should be between 0 and 100.
     (This works if standard input is being read, but only if more has already
     read to the end of	the file.  It is always	fast, but not always useful.)
     ^L	Repaint	the screen.  Repaint the screen, discarding any	buffered
     input.  Useful if the file	is changing while it is	being viewed.  Fol-
     lowed by any lowercase letter, marks the current position with that let-
     ter.  (Single quote.)  Followed by	any lowercase letter, returns to the
     position which was	previously marked with that letter.  Followed by
     another single quote, returns to the postion at which the last "large"
     movement command was executed, or the beginning of	the file if no such
     movements have occurred.  All marks are lost when a new file is examined.
     pattern Search forward in the file	for the	N-th line containing the pat-
     tern.  N defaults to 1.  The pattern is a regular expression, as recog-
     nized by ed.  The search starts at	the second line	displayed.  pattern
     Search backward in	the file for the N-th line containing the pattern.
     The search	starts at the line immediately before the top line displayed.
     pattern Like /, but the search is for the N-th line which does NOT	con-
     tain the pattern.	pattern	Like ?,	but the	search is for the N-th line
     which does	NOT contain the	pattern.  Repeat previous search, for N-th
     line containing the last pattern (or NOT containing the last pattern, if
     the previous search was /!	or ?!).	 [filename] Examine a new file.	 If
     the filename is missing, the "current" file (see the N and	P commands
     below) from the list of files in the command line is re-examined.	If the
     filename is a pound sign (#), the previously examined file	is re-exam-
     ined.  :n Examine the next	file (from the list of files given in the com-
     mand line).  If a number N	is specified (not to be	confused with the com-
     mand N), the N-th next file is examined.  :p Examine the previous file.
     If	a number N is specified, the N-th previous file	is examined.  Go to
     supplied tag.  Invokes an editor to edit the current file being viewed.
     The editor	is taken from the environment variable EDITOR, or defaults to
     vi(1).  ^G	These options print out	the number of the file currently being
     displayed relative	to the total number of files there are to display, the
     current line number, the current byte number and the total	bytes to dis-
     play, and what percentage of the file has been displayed.	If more	is
     reading from stdin, or the	file is	shorter	than a single screen, some of
     these items may not be available.	Note, all of these items reference the
     first byte	of the last line displayed on the screen.  :q ZZ Exits more.

ENVIRONMENT
     More utilizes the following environment variables,	if they	exist: This
     variable may be set with favored options to more.	Specify	default	edi-
     tor.  Current shell in use	(normally set by the shell at login time).
     Specifies terminal	type, used by more to get the terminal characteristics
     necessary to manipulate the screen.

SEE ALSO
     ctags(1), vi(1)

AUTHOR
     This software is derived from software contributed	to Berkeley by Mark
     Nudleman.

HISTORY
     more appeared in 3	BSD.

				 July 24, 1990

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | COMMANDS | ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR | HISTORY

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=more&manpath=4.3BSD+Reno>

home | help