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MEMGUARD(9)	       FreeBSD Kernel Developer's Manual	   MEMGUARD(9)

NAME
     MemGuard -- memory	allocator for debugging	purposes

SYNOPSIS
     options DEBUG_MEMGUARD

DESCRIPTION
     MemGuard is a simple and small replacement	memory allocator designed to
     help detect tamper-after-free scenarios.  These problems are more and
     more common and likely with multithreaded kernels where race conditions
     are more prevalent.

     MemGuard can take over malloc(), realloc()	and free() for a single	malloc
     type.  Alternatively MemGuard can take over uma_zalloc(),
     uma_zalloc_arg() and uma_free() for a single uma zone.  Also MemGuard can
     guard all allocations larger than PAGE_SIZE, and can guard	a random frac-
     tion of all allocations.  There is	also a knob to prevent allocations
     smaller than a specified size from	being guarded, to limit	memory waste.

EXAMPLES
     To	use MemGuard for a memory type,	either add an entry to
     /boot/loader.conf:

	   vm.memguard.desc=<memory_type>

     Or	set the	vm.memguard.desc sysctl(8) variable at run-time:

	   sysctl vm.memguard.desc=<memory_type>

     Where memory_type can be either a short description of the	memory type to
     monitor, either name of uma(9) zone.  Only	allocations from that
     memory_type made after vm.memguard.desc is	set will potentially be
     guarded.  If vm.memguard.desc is modified at run-time then	only alloca-
     tions of the new memory_type will potentially be guarded once the
     sysctl(8) is set.	Existing guarded allocations will still	be properly
     released by either	free(9)	or uma_zfree(9), depending on what kind	of
     allocation	was taken over.

     To	determine short	description of a malloc(9) type	one can	either take it
     from the first column of vmstat(8)	-m output, or to find it in the	kernel
     source.  It is the	second argument	to MALLOC_DEFINE(9) macro.  To deter-
     mine name of uma(9) zone one can either take it from the first column of
     vmstat(8) -z output, or to	find it	in the kernel source.  It is the first
     argument to the uma_zcreate(9) function.

     The vm.memguard.divisor boot-time tunable is used to scale	how much of
     the system's physical memory MemGuard is allowed to consume.  The default
     is	10, so up to cnt.v_page_count/10 pages can be used.  MemGuard will
     reserve vm_kmem_max / vm.memguard.divisor bytes of	virtual	address	space,
     limited by	twice the physical memory size.	 The physical limit is
     reported as vm.memguard.phys_limit	and the	virtual	space reserved for
     MemGuard is reported as vm.memguard.mapsize.

     MemGuard will not do page promotions for any allocation smaller than
     vm.memguard.minsize bytes.	 The default is	0, meaning all allocations can
     potentially be guarded.  MemGuard can guard sufficiently large alloca-
     tions randomly, with average frequency of every one in 100000 /
     vm.memguard.frequency allocations.	 The default is	0, meaning no alloca-
     tions are randomly	guarded.

     MemGuard can optionally add unmapped guard	pages around each allocation
     to	detect overflow	and underflow, if vm.memguard.options has the 1	bit
     set.  This	option is enabled by default.  MemGuard	will optionally	guard
     all allocations of	PAGE_SIZE or larger if vm.memguard.options has the 2
     bit set.  This option is off by default.  By default MemGuard doesn't
     guard those uma(9)	zones that have	been initialized with the
     UMA_ZONE_NOFREE flag set, since it	can produce false positives on them.
     However, this safety measure can be turned	off by setting bit 3 of	the
     vm.memguard.options tunable.

SEE ALSO
     sysctl(8),	vmstat(8), contigmalloc(9), malloc(9), redzone(9), uma(9)

HISTORY
     MemGuard first appeared in	FreeBSD	6.0.

AUTHORS
     MemGuard was originally written by	Bosko Milekic <bmilekic@FreeBSD.org>.
     This manual page was originally written by	Christian Brueffer
     <brueffer@FreeBSD.org>.  Additions	have been made by Matthew Fleming
     <mdf@FreeBSD.org> and Gleb	Smirnoff <glebius@FreeBSD.org> to both the
     implementation and	the documentation.

BUGS
     It	is not possible	to guard allocations that really expect	themselves to
     be	allocated from uma(9), utilizing additional interfaces apart from
     uma_zalloc() and uma_free(), for example uma_find_refcnt().  For the
     moment of writing only mbuf(9) cluster zones belong to that kind of allo-
     cations.  Attempt to guard	them would lead	to kernel panic.

FreeBSD	10.1		       October 21, 2011			  FreeBSD 10.1

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS | BUGS

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