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GROFF_MAN(7)                                                      GROFF_MAN(7)

NAME
       groff_man - groff `man' macros to support generation of man pages

SYNOPSIS
       groff -man [ options... ] [ files... ]
       groff -m man [ options... ] [ files... ]

DESCRIPTION
       The  man  macros  used to generate man pages with groff were written by
       James Clark.  This document provides a brief summary of the use of each
       macro in that package.

OPTIONS
       The  man  macros  understand  the following command line options (which
       define various registers).

       -rcR=1 This option (the default if in nroff mode) will create a single,
              very long page instead of multiple pages.  Say -rcR=0 to disable
              it.

       -rC1   If more than one manual page is given on the command line,  num-
              ber the pages continuously, rather than starting each at 1.

       -rD1   Double-sided  printing.  Footers for even and odd pages are for-
              matted differently.

       -rFT=dist
              Set distance of the footer relative to the bottom of the page if
              negative  or  relative  to  the top if positive.  The default is
              -0.5i.

       -rHY=flags
              Set hyphenation flags.  Possible values are 1 to hyphenate with-
              out  restrictions,  2 to  not hyphenate the last word on a page,
              4 to not hyphenate the last two characters of a word,  and  8 to
              not  hyphenate the first two characters of a word.  These values
              are additive; the default is 14.

       -rIN=width
              Set body text indentation to  width.   The  default  is  7n  for
              nroff,  7.2n  for troff.  For nroff, this value should always be
              an integer multiple of unit `n' to get consistent indentation.

       -rLL=line-length
              Set line length.  If this option is not given, the  line  length
              defaults to 78n in nroff mode and 6.5i in troff mode.

       -rLT=title-length
              Set title length.  If this option is not given, the title length
              defaults to the line length.

       -rPnnn Enumeration of pages will start with nnn rather than with 1.

       -rSxx  Base document font size is xx points (xx can be 10,  11,  or 12)
              rather than 10 points.

       -rSN=width
              Set sub-subheading indentation to width.  The default is 3n.

       -rXnnn After  page nnn,  number  pages  as  nnna, nnnb, nnnc, etc.  For
              example, the option `-rX2' will produce the following page  num-
              bers: 1, 2, 2a, 2b, 2c, etc.

USAGE
       This section describes the available macros for manual pages.  For fur-
       ther customization, put additional macros and requests  into  the  file
       man.local which will be loaded immediately after the man package.

       .TH title section [extra1] [extra2] [extra3]
              Set  the  title of the man page to title and the section to sec-
              tion, which must take on a value between  1  and 8.   The  value
              section may also have a string appended, e.g. `.pm', to indicate
              a specific subsection of the man pages.  Both title and  section
              are  positioned  at  the left and right in the header line (with
              section in parentheses immediately appended  to  title.   extra1
              will  be  positioned  in  the middle of the footer line.  extra2
              will be positioned at the left in the footer  line  (or  at  the
              left on even pages and at the right on odd pages if double-sided
              printing is active).  extra3 is centered in the header line.

              For HTML output, headers and footers are completely supressed.

              Additionally, this macro starts a new page; the new line  number
              is 1  again (except if the `-rC1' option is given on the command
              line) -- this feature is intended only for  formatting  multiple
              man pages; a single man page should contain exactly one TH macro
              at the beginning of the file.

       .SH [text for a heading]
              Set up an unnumbered section heading sticking out to  the  left.
              Prints  out  all the text following SH up to the end of the line
              (or the text in the next input line if there is no  argument  to
              SH)  in  bold face (or the font specified by the string HF), one
              size larger than the base document size.  Additionally, the left
              margin  and  the  indentation for the following text is reset to
              the default values.

       .SS [text for a heading]
              Set up a secondary, unnumbered section heading.  Prints out  all
              the  text following SS up to the end of the line (or the text in
              the next input line if there is no argument to SS) in bold  face
              (or  the  font  specified by the string HF), at the same size as
              the base document size.  Additionally, the left margin  and  the
              indentation  for the following text is reset to the default val-
              ues.

       .TP [nnn]
              Set up an indented paragraph with label.  The indentation is set
              to  nnn if that argument is supplied (the default unit is `n' if
              omitted), otherwise it is set to the previous indentation  value
              specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to the default value if none of
              them have been used yet).

              The first input line of text following this macro is interpreted
              as a string to be printed flush-left, as it is appropriate for a
              label.  It is not interpreted as part of a paragraph,  so  there
              is  no attempt to fill the first line with text from the follow-
              ing input lines.  Nevertheless, if the label is not as  wide  as
              the  indentation  the  paragraph  starts  at  the same line (but
              indented), continuing on the following lines.  If the  label  is
              wider than the indentation the descriptive part of the paragraph
              begins on the line following the label, entirely indented.  Note
              that  neither  font shape nor font size of the label is set to a
              default value; on the other hand, the rest of the text will have
              default font settings.

              The TP macro is the macro used for the explanations you are just
              reading.

       .LP
       .PP
       .P     These macros are mutual aliases.  Any  of  them  causes  a  line
              break  at  the  current  position,  followed by a vertical space
              downwards by the amount specified by the  PD  macro.   The  font
              size  and  shape  are  reset  to  the  default value (10pt resp.
              Roman).  Finally, the current left margin  and  the  indentation
              are restored.

       .IP [designator] [nnn]
              Set  up an indented paragraph, using designator as a tag to mark
              its beginning.  The indentation is set to nnn if  that  argument
              is  supplied  (the default unit is `n' if omitted), otherwise it
              is set to the previous indentation value specified with TP,  IP,
              or  HP  (or  to the default value if none of them have been used
              yet).  Font size and face of the paragraph (but not the designa-
              tor) are reset to its default values.

              To start an indented paragraph with a particular indentation but
              without a designator, use `""' (two doublequotes) as the  second
              argument.

              For  example, the following paragraphs were all set up with bul-
              lets as the designator, using `.IP \(bu 4'.  The whole block has
              been enclosed with `.RS' and `.RE' to set the left margin tempo-
              rarily to the current indentation value.

              o   IP is one of the three macros used in  the  man  package  to
                  format lists.

              o   HP  is another.  This macro produces a paragraph with a left
                  hanging indentation.

              o   TP is another.  This macro produces an unindented label fol-
                  lowed by an indented paragraph.

       .HP [nnn]
              Set  up a paragraph with hanging left indentation.  The indenta-
              tion is set to nnn if that argument  is  supplied  (the  default
              unit  is  `n'  if  omitted), otherwise it is set to the previous
              indentation value specified with  TP,  IP,  or  HP  (or  to  the
              default  value  if  none of them have been used yet).  Font size
              and face are reset to its default values.  The  following  para-
              graph illustrates the effect of this macro with hanging indenta-
              tion set to 4 (enclosed by `.RS' and `.RE' to set the left  mar-
              gin temporarily to the current indentation):

              This is a paragraph following an invocation of the HP macro.  As
                  you can see, it produces a paragraph where all lines but the
                  first are indented.

       .RS [nnn]
              This  macro  moves the left margin to the right by the value nnn
              if specified (default unit is `n'); otherwise it is set  to  the
              previous  indentation  value specified with TP, IP, or HP (or to
              the default value if none of them  have  been  used  yet).   The
              indentation value is then set to the default.

              Calls to the RS macro can be nested.

       .RE [nnn]
              This  macro  moves  the left margin back to level nnn, restoring
              the previous left margin.  If no argument is given, it moves one
              level  back.  The first level (i.e., no call to RS yet) has num-
              ber 1, and each call to RS increases the level by 1.

       To summarize, the following macros cause a line break with  the  inser-
       tion of vertical space (which amount can be changed with the PD macro):
       SH, SS, TP, LP (PP, P), IP, and HP.  The macros RS and RE also cause  a
       break but no insertion of vertical space.

MACROS TO SET FONTS
       The standard font is Roman; the default text size is 10 point.

       .SM [text]
              Causes  the  text on the same line or the text on the next input
              line to appear in a font that is one point size smaller than the
              default font.

       .SB [text]
              Causes  the  text on the same line or the text on the next input
              line to appear in boldface font, one point size smaller than the
              default font.

       .BI text
              Causes  text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face
              and italic.  The text must be on the  same  line  as  the  macro
              call.  Thus

                     .BI this "word and" that

              would  cause  `this'  and  `that'  to appear in bold face, while
              `word and' appears in italics.

       .IB text
              Causes text to appear alternately in italic and bold face.   The
              text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .RI text
              Causes  text on the same line to appear alternately in roman and
              italic.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .IR text
              Causes text on the same line to appear alternately in italic and
              roman.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .BR text
              Causes  text on the same line to appear alternately in bold face
              and roman.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .RB text
              Causes  text on the same line to appear alternately in roman and
              bold face.  The text must be on the same line as the macro call.

       .B [text]
              Causes  text  to  appear in bold face.  If no text is present on
              the line where the macro is called the text of  the  next  input
              line appears in bold face.

       .I [text]
              Causes  text  to appear in italic.  If no text is present on the
              line where the macro is called the text of the next  input  line
              appears in italic.

MISCELLANEOUS
       The  default  indentation  is  7.2n  in troff mode and 7n in nroff mode
       except for grohtml which ignores indentation.

       .DT    Set tabs every 0.5 inches.  Since this macro  is  always  called
              during  a  TH request, it makes sense to call it only if the tab
              positions have been changed.

       .PD [nnn]
              Adjust the empty space before a new paragraph or  section.   The
              optional  argument  gives  the  amount of space (default unit is
              `v'); without parameter, the value is reset to its default value
              (1 line in nroff mode, 0.4v otherwise).  This affects the macros
              SH, SS, TP, LP (resp. PP and P), IP, and HP.

       .AT [system [release]]
              Alter the footer for  use  with  AT&T  manpages.   This  command
              exists only for compatibility; don't use it.  See the groff info
              manual for more.

       .UC [version]
              Alter the footer for use with BSD manpages.  This command exists
              only for compatibility; don't use it.  See the groff info manual
              for more.

       .PT    Print the header string.  Redefine this macro to get control  of
              the header.

       .BT    Print  the footer string.  Redefine this macro to get control of
              the footer.

       The following strings are defined:

       \*S    Switch back to the default font size.

       \*R    The `registered' sign.

       \*(Tm  The `trademark' sign.

       \*(lq
       \*(rq  Left and right quote.  This  is  equal  to  `\(lq'  and  `\(rq',
              respectively.

       \*(HF  The  typeface  used  to  print  headings  and  subheadings.  The
              default is `B'.

       If a preprocessor like tbl or eqn is needed, it  has  become  usage  to
       make the first line of the man page look like this:

              .\" word

       Note  the single space character after the double quote.  word consists
       of letters for the needed preprocessors: `e' for eqn,  `r'  for  refer,
       and  `t'  for tbl.  Modern implementations of the man program read this
       first line and automatically call the right preprocessor(s).

FILES
       man.tmac
       an.tmac
              These are wrapper files to call andoc.tmac.

       andoc.tmac
              This file checks whether the man  macros  or  the  mdoc  package
              should be used.

       an-old.tmac
              All man macros are contained in this file.

       man.local
              Local changes and customizations should be put into this file.

SEE ALSO
       Since  the  man macros consist of groups of groff requests, one can, in
       principle, supplement the functionality of the man macros with individ-
       ual  groff  requests  where  necessary.  See the groff info pages for a
       complete reference of all requests.

       tbl(1), eqn(1), refer(1), man(1)

AUTHOR
       This manual page was originally written for the Debian GNU/Linux system
       by Susan G. Kleinmann <sgk@debian.org>, corrected and updated by Werner
       Lemberg <wl@gnu.org>, and is now part of the GNU troff distribution.

Groff Version 1.19               26 June 2003                     GROFF_MAN(7)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | USAGE | MACROS TO SET FONTS | MISCELLANEOUS | FILES | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR

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