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mailx(1)			 User Commands			      mailx(1)

NAME
       mailx, mail - interactive message processing system

SYNOPSIS
       mailx [-BdeHiInNURvV~] [	-f
	[file |	+folder] ] [-T file] [-u user]

       mailx  [-BdFintUv~]  [-b	bcc] [-c cc] [-h number] [-r address] [-s sub-
       ject] recipient...

       /usr/ucb/mail ...

       /usr/ucb/Mail ...

DESCRIPTION
       The mail	utilities listed above provide a comfortable,  flexible	 envi-
       ronment for sending and receiving mail messages electronically.

       When  reading  mail,  the mail utilities	provide	commands to facilitate
       saving, deleting, and responding	to messages. When  sending  mail,  the
       mail  utilities	allow editing, reviewing and other modification	of the
       message as it is	entered.

       Incoming	mail is	stored in a standard file for each  user,  called  the
       mailbox	for that user. When the	mail utilities are called to read mes-
       sages, the mailbox is the default place to find them. As	 messages  are
       read,  they  are	 marked	 to  be	moved to a secondary file for storage,
       unless specific action is taken,	so that	the messages need not be  seen
       again.This secondary file is called the mbox and	is normally located in
       the user's HOME directory (see MBOX  in	ENVIRONMENT  VARIABLES	for  a
       description  of	this  file).  Messages can be saved in other secondary
       files named by the user.	Messages remain	 in  a	secondary  file	 until
       forcibly	removed.

       The  user  can access a secondary file by using the -f option. Messages
       in the secondary	file can then be read or otherwise processed using the
       same  Commands  as in the primary mailbox. This gives rise within these
       pages to	the notion of a	current	mailbox.

OPTIONS
       On the command line options start with a	dash (-). Any other  arguments
       are  taken to be	destinations (recipients). If no recipients are	speci-
       fied, mailx attempts to read messages from the mailbox.

       -B    Do	not buffer standard input or standard output.

       -b bcc
	     Set the blind carbon copy list to bcc. bcc	should be enclosed  in
	     quotes if it contains more	than one name.

       -c cc Set  the  carbon copy list	to cc. cc should be enclosed in	quotes
	     if	it contains more than one name.

       -d    Turn on debugging output. (Neither	particularly  interesting  nor
	     recommended.)

       -e    Test  for	the  presence  of mail.	mailx prints nothing and exits
	     with a successful return code if there is mail to read.

       -F    Record the	message	in a file named	 after	the  first  recipient.
	     Overrides the record variable, if set (see	Internal Variables).

       -f [file]
	     Read  messages from file instead of mailbox. If no	file is	speci-
	     fied, the mbox is used.

       -f [ +folder]
	     Use the file folder in the	folder directory (same as  the	folder
	     command).	The  name  of  this  directory is listed in the	folder
	     variable.

       -H    Print header summary only.

       -h number
	     The number	of network "hops" made so far. This  is	 provided  for
	     network  software	to  avoid infinite delivery loops. This	option
	     and its argument are passed to the	delivery program.

       -I    Include the newsgroup and article-id header lines	when  printing
	     mail  messages.   This option requires the	-f option to be	speci-
	     fied.

       -i    Ignore interrupts.	See also ignore	in Internal Variables.

       -N    Do	not print initial header summary.

       -n    Do	not initialize from the	system	default	 mailx.rc  or  Mail.rc
	     file.  See	USAGE.

       -r address
	     Use address as the	return address when invoking the delivery pro-
	     gram. All tilde commands are disabled. This option	and its	 argu-
	     ment is passed to the delivery program.

       -s subject
	     Set  the  Subject	header	field  to  subject.  subject should be
	     enclosed in quotes	if it contains embedded	white space.

       -T file
	     Message-id	and article-id header lines are	recorded in file after
	     the message is read. This option also sets	the -I option.

       -t    Scan  the	input for To:, Cc:, and	Bcc: fields. Any recipients on
	     the command line will be ignored.

       -U    Convert UUCP-style	addresses to  internet	standards.   Overrides
	     the conv environment variable.

       -u user
	     Read  user's mailbox. This	is only	effective if user's mailbox is
	     not read protected.

       -V    Print the mailx version number and	exit.

       -v    Pass the -v flag to sendmail(1M).

       -~    Interpret tilde escapes in	the input even if not reading  from  a
	     tty.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

       recipient
	     Addressee of message.

USAGE
   Starting Mail
       At   startup   time,   mailx   executes	 the   system	startup	  file
       /etc/mail/mailx.rc. If invoked as mail or Mail, the system startup file
       /etc/mail/Mail.rc is used instead.

       The  system  startup  file  sets	  up initial display options and alias
       lists and assigns values	to some	internal  variables.  These  variables
       are flags and valued parameters which are set and cleared using the set
       and unset commands. See Internal	Variables.

       With the	 following  exceptions,	 regular  commands  are	 legal	inside
       startup files: !, Copy, edit, followup, Followup, hold, mail, preserve,
       reply, Reply, shell, and	visual.	An error in the	 startup  file	causes
       the remaining lines in the file to be ignored.

       After  executing	 the  system startup file,  the	mail utilities execute
       the optional personal startup file $HOME/.mailrc, wherein the user  can
       override	 the  values  of  the  internal	variables as set by the	system
       startup file.

       If the -n option	is specified, however, the mail	utilities do not  exe-
       cute the	system startup file.

       Many system administrators include the commands

       set appenddeadletter
       unset replyall
       unset pipeignore

       in  the system startup files (to	be compatible with past	Solaris	behav-
       ior), but this does not meet standards requirements for mailx.  To  get
       standard	 behavior for mailx, users should use the -n option or include
       the following commands in a personal startup file:

       unset appenddeadletter
       set replyall
       set pipeignore

       When reading mail, the mail utilities are in  command  mode.  A	header
       summary	of  the	 first	several	 messages  is displayed, followed by a
       prompt indicating the mail utilities can	accept regular	commands  (see
       Commands	 below).  When	sending	 mail, the mail	utilities are in input
       mode. If	no subject is specified	on the command line,  and  the	asksub
       variable	is set,	a prompt for the subject is printed.

       As  the message is typed, the mail utilities read the message and store
       it in a temporary file. Commands	may be entered	by  beginning  a  line
       with the	tilde (~) escape character followed by a single	command	letter
       and optional arguments. See Tilde Escapes for a summary of  these  com-
       mands.

   Reading Mail
       Each  message is	assigned a sequential number, and there	is at any time
       the notion of a current message,	marked by a right angle	bracket	(>) in
       the  header  summary.  Many  commands take an optional list of messages
       (message-list) to operate on.  In most cases, the  current  message  is
       set  to	the  highest-numbered message in the list after	the command is
       finished	executing.

       The default for message-list is the current message. A message-list  is
       a list of message identifiers separated by spaces, which	may include:

       n     Message number n.

       .     The current message.

       ^     The first undeleted message.

       $     The last message.

       *     All messages.

       +     The next undeleted	message.

       -     The previous undeleted message.

       n-m   An	inclusive range	of message numbers.

       user  All messages from user.

       /string
	     All messages with string in the Subject line (case	ignored).

       :c    All messages of type c, where c is	one of:

d     deleted messages

n     new messages

o     old messages

r     read messages

u     unread messages

Notice that the	context	of the command determines whether this type of message
specification makes sense.

Other arguments	are usually arbitrary strings whose usage depends on the  com-
mand  involved.	Filenames, where expected, are expanded	using the normal shell
conventions (see sh(1)).  Special characters are recognized  by	 certain  com-
mands and are documented with the commands below.

   Sending Mail
       Recipients  listed  on  the  command  line may be of three types: login
       names, shell commands, or alias groups. Login names may be any  network
       address,	 including  mixed  network  addressing.	If mail	is found to be
       undeliverable, an attempt is made to return it to the sender's mailbox.
       If  the recipient name begins with a pipe symbol	( | ), the rest	of the
       name is taken to	be a shell command to pipe the message	through.  This
       provides	 an  automatic interface with any program that reads the stan-
       dard input, such	as lp(1) for recording outgoing	mail on	 paper.	 Alias
       groups are set by the alias command (see	Commands below)	or in a	system
       startup file (for example, $HOME/.mailrc). Aliases are lists of recipi-
       ents of any type.

   Forwarding Mail
       To  forward  a specific message,	include	it in a	message	to the desired
       recipients with the ~f or ~m tilde escapes. See Tilde Escapes below. To
       forward mail automatically, add a comma-separated list of addresses for
       additional recipients to	the .forward file in your home directory. This
       is different from the format of the alias command, which	takes a	space-
       separated list instead. Note: Forwarding	addresses must	be  valid,  or
       the messages will "bounce." You cannot, for instance, reroute your mail
       to a new	host by	forwarding it to your new address if  it  is  not  yet
       listed in the NIS aliases domain.

   Commands
       Regular commands	are of the form

       [ command ] [ message-list ] [ arguments	]

       In  input  mode,	 commands  are	recognized  by	the  escape character,
       tilde(~), and lines not treated as commands are taken as	input for  the
       message.	 If  no	command	is specified in	command	mode, next is assumed.
       The following is	a complete list	of mailx commands:

       !shell-command
	     Escape to the shell. See SHELL in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       # comment
	     NULL command (comment). Useful in mailrc files.

       =     Print the current message number.

       ?     Prints a summary of commands.

       alias alias name	...

       group alias name	...
	     Declare an	alias for the given names. The names  are  substituted
	     when  alias  is  used  as a recipient. Useful in the mailrc file.
	     With no arguments,	the  command  displays	the  list  of  defined
	     aliases.

       alternates name ...
	     Declare a list of alternate names for your	login. When responding
	     to	a message, these names are removed from	the list of recipients
	     for  the  response.  With no arguments, print the current list of
	     alternate names. See also allnet in Internal Variables.

       cd [directory]

       chdir [directory]
	     Change directory. If directory is not specified, $HOME is used.

       copy [file]

       copy [message-list] file
	     Copy messages to the file without marking the messages as	saved.
	     Otherwise equivalent to the save command.

       Copy [message-list]
	     Save  the specified messages in a file whose name is derived from
	     the author	of the message to be saved, without marking  the  mes-
	     sages as saved. Otherwise equivalent to the Save command.

       delete [message-list]
	     Delete  messages  from the	mailbox. If autoprint is set, the next
	     message after the last one	deleted	is printed (see	Internal Vari-
	     ables).

       discard [header-field...]

       ignore [header-field...]
	     Suppress  printing	of the specified header	fields when displaying
	     messages on the screen. Examples of header	fields to  ignore  are
	     Status  and Received. The fields are included when	the message is
	     saved, unless the alwaysignore variable is	set. The  More,	 Page,
	     Print,  and  Type commands	override this command. If no header is
	     specified,	the current list of header  fields  being  ignored  is
	     printed. See also the undiscard and unignore commands.

       dp [message-list]

       dt [message-list]
	     Delete the	specified messages from	the mailbox and	print the next
	     message after the last one	 deleted.   Roughly  equivalent	 to  a
	     delete command followed by	a print	command.

       echo string ...
	     Echo the given strings (like echo(1)).

       edit [message-list]
	     Edit  the	given  messages. Each message is placed	in a temporary
	     file and the program named	by the EDITOR variable is  invoked  to
	     edit it (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES). Default editor is ed(1).

       exit

       xit   Exit  from	 mailx,	 without changing the mailbox. No messages are
	     saved in the mbox (see also quit).

       field [message-list] header-file
	     Display the value of the header field in the specified message.

       file [file]

       folder [file]
	     Quit from the current file	of messages and	read in	the  specified
	     file. Several special characters are recognized when used as file
	     names:

%     the current mailbox.

%user the mailbox for user.

#     the previous mail	file.

&     the current mbox.

+file The named	file in	the folder directory (listed in	the folder  variable).

With  no arguments, print the name of the current mail file, and the number of
messages and characters	it contains.

folders
      Print the	names of the files in the directory set	by the folder variable
      (see Internal Variables).

Followup [message]
      Respond  to  a  message,	recording the response in a file whose name is
      derived from the author of the message. Overrides	the  record  variable,
      if  set.	If  the	 replyall variable is set, the actions of Followup and
      followup are reversed. See also the followup, Save,  and	Copy  commands
      and  outfolder  in  Internal Variables, and the Starting Mail section in
      USAGE above.

followup [message-list]
      Respond to the first message in the message-list,	sending	the message to
      the  author  of  each  message  in the message-list. The subject line is
      taken from the first message and the response  is	 recorded  in  a  file
      whose  name  is  derived	from  the  author of the first message.	If the
      replyall variable	is set,	the  actions  of  followup  and	 Followup  are
      reversed.	 See  also the Followup, Save, and Copy	commands and outfolder
      in Internal Variables, and the Starting Mail section in USAGE above.

from [message-list]
      Print the	header summary for the specified messages. If no messages  are
      specified, print the header summary for the current message.

group alias name ...

alias alias name ...
      Declare  an  alias  for  the given names.	The names are substituted when
      alias is used as a recipient. Useful in the mailrc file.

headers	[message]
      Print the	page of	headers	which  includes	 the  message  specified.  The
      screen  variable sets the	number of headers per page (see	Internal Vari-
      ables). See also the z command.

help  Print a summary of commands.

hold [message-list]

preserve [message-list ]
      Hold the specified messages in the mailbox.

if s | r | t

mail-commands

else

mail-commands

endif Conditional execution, where s executes following	mail-commands,	up  to
      an else or endif,	if the program is in send mode,	r causes the mail-com-
      mands to be executed only	in receive mode, and t	causes	the  mail-com-
      mands  to	be executed only if mailx is being run from a terminal.	Useful
      in the mailrc file.

inc   Incorporate messages that	arrive while you are reading the system	 mail-
      box.  The	new messages are added to the message list in the current mail
      session. This command does not commit changes made during	 the  session,
      and prior	messages are not renumbered.

ignore [header-field ...]

discard	[header-field ...]
      Suppress	printing  of  the specified header fields when displaying mes-
      sages on the screen. Examples of header fields to	ignore are Status  and
      Cc.  All	fields are included when the message is	saved. The More, Page,
      Print and	Type commands override this command.  If no header  is	speci-
      fied,  the  current  list	of header fields being ignored is printed. See
      also the undiscard and unignore commands.

list  Print all	commands available. No explanation is given.

load  [message]	file The specified message is replaced by the message  in  the
      named  file.  file  should  contain a single mail	message	including mail
      headers (as saved	by the save command).

mail recipient ...
      Mail a message to	the specified recipients.

Mail recipient
      Mail a message to	the specified recipients, and  record  it  in  a  file
      whose  name  is  derived	from  the author of the	message. Overrides the
      record variable, if set. See also	the Save and Copy  commands  and  out-
      folder in	Internal Variables.

mbox [message-list]
      Arrange  for the given messages to end up	in the standard	mbox save file
      when mailx terminates normally. See MBOX in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES	for  a
      description of this file.	See also the exit and quit commands.

more [message-list]

page [message-list]
      Print  the  specified  messages. If crt is set, the messages longer than
      the number of lines specified by the crt variable	are paged through  the
      command specified	by the PAGER variable. The default command is pg(1) or
      if the bsdcompat variable	is set,	the default is more(1).	 See  ENVIRON-
      MENT VARIABLES. Same as the print	and type commands.

More [message-list]

Page [message-list]
      Print the	specified messages on the screen, including all	header fields.
      Overrides	suppression of fields by the ignore command. Same as the Print
      and Type commands.

new [message-list]

New [message-list]

unread [message-list]

Unread
      [message-list]  Take  a message list and mark each message as not	having
      been read.

next [message]
      Go to the	next message matching message. If  message  is	not  supplied,
      this  command  finds  the	 next message that was not deleted or saved. A
      message-list may be specified, but in this case the first	valid  message
      in the list is the only one used.	This is	useful for jumping to the next
      message from a specific user, since the name would be taken as a command
      in  the  absence	of  a real command. See	the discussion of message-list
      above for	a description of possible message specifications.

pipe [message-list] [shell-command]

| [message-list] [shell-command]
      Pipe the message through the given shell-command.	The message is treated
      as  if  it  were read. If	no arguments are given,	the current message is
      piped through the	command	specified by the value of the cmd variable. If
      the  page	 variable is set, a form feed character	is inserted after each
      message (see Internal Variables).

preserve [message-list]

hold [message-list]
      Preserve the specified messages in the mailbox.

print [message-list]

type [message-list]
      Print the	specified messages. If crt is set, the	messages  longer  than
      the  number of lines specified by	the crt	variable are paged through the
      command specified	by the PAGER variable. The default command is pg(1) or
      if  the  bsdcompat variable is set, the default is more(1). See ENVIRON-
      MENT VARIABLES. Same as the more and page	commands.

Print [message-list]

Type [message-list]
      Print the	specified messages on the screen, including all	header fields.
      Overrides	suppression of fields by the ignore command.  Same as the More
      and Page commands.

put [file]

put [message-list] file
      Save the specified message in the	given file. Use	the  same  conventions
      as the print command for which header fields are ignored.

Put [file]

Put [message-list] file
      Save  the	 specified message in the given	file. Overrides	suppression of
      fields by	the ignore command.

quit  Exit from	mailx, storing messages	that were read in mbox and unread mes-
      sages in the mailbox. Messages that have been explicitly saved in	a file
      are deleted unless the keepsave variable is set.

reply [message-list]

respond	[message-list]

replysender [message-list]
      Send a response to the author of each message in the  message-list.  The
      subject  line  is	 taken	from the first message.	 If record is set to a
      file, a copy of the reply	is added to that file. If the  replyall	 vari-
      able  is	set,  the  actions  of	Reply/Respond  and  reply/respond  are
      reversed.	The replysender	command	is not affected	by the replyall	 vari-
      able,  but  sends	each reply only	to the sender of each message. See the
      Starting Mail section in USAGE above.

Reply [message]

Respond	[message]

replyall [message]
      Reply to the specified message, including	all other recipients  of  that
      message.	 If  the variable record is set	to a file, a copy of the reply
      added to that file. If the replyall variable  is	set,  the  actions  of
      Reply/Respond  and  reply/respond	 are reversed. The replyall command is
      not affected by the replyall variable, but always	sends the reply	to all
      recipients of the	message. See the Starting Mail section in USAGE	above.

retain
      Add the list of header fields named  to  the  retained  list.  Only  the
      header  fields  in  the  retain list are shown on	your terminal when you
      print a message. All other header	fields are  suppressed.	  The  set  of
      retained	fields	specified  by the retain command overrides any list of
      ignored fields specified by the ignore command. The Type and Print  com-
      mands  can be used to print a message in its entirety. If	retain is exe-
      cuted with no arguments, it lists	the current set	of retained fields.

Save [message-list]
      Save the specified messages in a file whose name	is  derived  from  the
      author  of  the  first  message. The name	of the file is taken to	be the
      author's name with all network addressing	stripped off.	See  also  the
      Copy,  followup,	and  Followup commands and outfolder in	Internal Vari-
      ables.

save [file]

save [message-list] file
      Save the specified messages in the given file. The file is created if it
      does  not	 exist.	The file defaults to mbox. The message is deleted from
      the mailbox when mailx terminates	 unless	 keepsave  is  set  (see  also
      Internal Variables and the exit and quit commands).

set

set variable

set variable=string

set variable =number
      Define  a	variable. To assign a value to variable, separate the variable
      name from	the value by an	`=' (there must	be no space  before  or	 after
      the  `=').  A variable may be given a null, string, or numeric value. To
      embed SPACE characters within a value, enclose it	in quotes.

      With no arguments, set displays all defined  variables  and  any	values
      they  might have.	See Internal Variables for a description of all	prede-
      fined mail variables.

shell Invoke an	interactive shell. See also SHELL in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

size [message-list]
      Print the	size in	characters of the specified messages.

source file
      Read commands from the given file	and return to command mode.

top [message-list]
      Print the	top few	lines of the specified messages. If the	toplines vari-
      able  is	set, it	is taken as the	number of lines	to print (see Internal
      Variables). The default is 5.

touch [message-list]
      Touch the	specified messages. If any  message  in	 message-list  is  not
      specifically  saved  in  a  file,	 it is placed in the mbox, or the file
      specified	in the MBOX environment	variable, upon normal termination. See
      exit and quit.

Type [message-list]

Print [message-list]
      Print the	specified messages on the screen, including all	header fields.
      Overrides	suppression of fields by the ignore command.

type [message-list]

print [message-list]
      Print the	specified messages. If crt is set, the	messages  longer  than
      the  number of lines specified by	the crt	variable are paged through the
      command specified	by the PAGER variable. The default command  is	pg(1).
      See ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

unalias	[alias]	...

ungroup	[alias]	...
      Remove the definitions of	the specified aliases.

undelete [message-list]
      Restore  the  specified  deleted	messages.  Will	 only restore messages
      deleted in the current mail session. If autoprint	is set,	the last  mes-
      sage of those restored is	printed	(see Internal Variables).

undiscard [header-field...]

unignore [header-field...]
      Remove  the  specified  header fields from the list being	ignored. If no
      header fields are	specified, all header fields are removed from the list
      being ignored.

unretain [header-field...]
      Remove  the  specified header fields from	the list being retained. If no
      header fields are	specified, all header fields are removed from the list
      being retained.

unread [message-list]

Unread [message-list] Same as the new command.

unset variable...
      Erase  the  specified  variables.	 If the	variable was imported from the
      environment (that	is, an environment variable or	exported  shell	 vari-
      able), it	cannot be unset	from within mailx.

version
      Print the	current	version	and release date of the	mailx utility.

visual [message-list]
      Edit the given messages with a screen editor. Each messages is placed in
      a	temporary file and the program named by	the VISUAL variable is invoked
      to  edit	it (see	ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES).	Notice that the	default	visual
      editor is	vi.

write [message-list] file
      Write the	given messages on the specified	file,  minus  the  header  and
      trailing blank line. Otherwise equivalent	to the save command.

xit

exit  Exit  from mailx,	without	changing the mailbox. No messages are saved in
      the mbox (see also quit).

z[+|-]
      Scroll the header	display	forward	or backward one	screen-full. The  num-
      ber  of  headers	displayed  is set by the screen	variable (see Internal
      Variables).

   Tilde Escapes
       The following tilde escape commands can be used when composing mail  to
       send.  These  may  be entered only from input mode, by beginning	a line
       with the	tilde escape character (~). See	escape in  Internal  Variables
       for  changing  this  special  character.	 The  escape  character	can be
       entered as text by typing it twice.

       ~!shell-command
	     Escape to the shell. If present, run shell-command.

       ~.    Simulate end of file (terminate message input).

       ~:mail-command

       ~_mail-command
	     Perform the command-level request.	Valid only when	sending	a mes-
	     sage while	reading	mail.

       ~?    Print a summary of	tilde escapes.

       ~A    Insert  the  autograph string Sign	into the message (see Internal
	     Variables).

       ~a    Insert the	autograph string sign into the message	(see  Internal
	     Variables).

       ~b name ...
	     Add  the  names to	the blind carbon copy (Bcc) list. This is like
	     the carbon	copy (Cc) list,	except that the	names in the Bcc  list
	     are not shown in the header of the	mail message.

       ~c name ...
	     Add the names to the carbon copy (Cc) list.

       ~d    Read  in  the dead-letter file. See DEAD in ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
	     for a description of this file.

       ~e    Invoke the	editor on the partial  message.	 See  also  EDITOR  in
	     ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES.

       ~f [message-list]
	     Forward the specified message, or the current message being read.
	     Valid only	when sending a message while reading  mail.  The  mes-
	     sages  are	 inserted  into	 the  message  without	alteration (as
	     opposed to	the ~m escape).

       ~F [message-list]
	     Forward the specified message, or the current message being read,
	     including	all header fields. Overrides the suppression of	fields
	     by	the ignore command.

       ~h    Prompt for	Subject	line and To, Cc, and Bcc lists.	If  the	 field
	     is	 displayed  with  an initial value, it may be edited as	if you
	     had just typed it.

       ~i variable
	     Insert the	value of the named variable into the text of the  mes-
	     sage.  For	 example,  ~A  is equivalent to	`~i Sign.' Environment
	     variables set and exported	in the shell are  also	accessible  by
	     ~i.

       ~m [message-list]
	     Insert  the  listed  messages,  or	the current message being read
	     into the letter. Valid only when sending a	message	while  reading
	     mail.  The	 text  of the message is shifted to the	right, and the
	     string contained in the indentprefix variable is inserted as  the
	     leftmost  characters  of each line. If indentprefix is not	set, a
	     TAB character is inserted into each line.

       ~M [message-list]
	     Insert the	listed messages, or the	current	 message  being	 read,
	     including	the  header  fields,  into the letter. Valid only when
	     sending a message while reading mail. The text of the message  is
	     shifted  to the right, and	the string contained in	the indentpre-
	     fix variable is inserted as the leftmost characters of each line.
	     If	indentprefix is	not set, a TAB character is inserted into each
	     line. Overrides the suppression of	fields by the ignore  command.

       ~p    Print the message being entered.

       ~q    Quit  from	 input mode by simulating an interrupt.	If the body of
	     the message is not	null, the partial message is  saved  in	 dead-
	     letter.  See  DEAD	 in ENVIRONMENT	VARIABLES for a	description of
	     this file.

       ~R    Mark message for return receipt.

       ~r file

       ~< file

       ~< ! shell-command
	     Read in the specified file. If the	argument begins	with an	excla-
	     mation point (!), the rest	of the string is taken as an arbitrary
	     shell command and is executed, with the standard output  inserted
	     into the message.

       ~s string ...
	     Set the subject line to string.

       ~t name ...
	     Add the given names to the	To list.

       ~v    Invoke  a	preferred  screen  editor  on the partial message. The
	     default visual editor is vi(1). See also  VISUAL  in  ENVIRONMENT
	     VARIABLES.

       ~w file
	     Write the message into the	given file, without the	header.

       ~x    Exit as with ~q except the	message	is not saved in	dead-letter.

       ~| shell-command
	     Pipe  the body of the message through the given shell-command. If
	     the shell-command returns a successful exit status, the output of
	     the command replaces the message.

   Internal Variables
       The  following  variables  are internal variables. They may be imported
       from the	execution environment or set using  the	 set  command  at  any
       time. The unset command may be used to erase variables.

       allnet
	     All  network  names  whose	 last component	(login name) match are
	     treated as	identical. This	causes the message-list	message	speci-
	     fications	to behave similarly. Disabled by default. See also the
	     alternates	command	and the	metoo and fuzzymatch variables.

       alwaysignore
	     Ignore header fields with	ignore	everywhere,  not  just	during
	     print or type. Affects the	save, Save, copy, Copy,	top, pipe, and
	     write commands, and the ~m	 and  ~f  tilde	 escapes.  Enabled  by
	     default.

       append
	     Upon  termination,	 append	 messages  to the end of the mbox file
	     instead of	prepending them. Although disabled by default,	append
	     is	 set  in the system startup file (which	can be suppressed with
	     the -n command line option).

       appenddeadletter
	     Append to the deadletter file rather than overwrite it.  Although
	     disabled  by   default, appenddeadletter is frequently set	in the
	     system startup file. See Starting Mail in USAGE above.

       askbcc
	     Prompt for	the Bcc	list after the Subject is entered if it	is not
	     specified	on  the	 command  line with the	-b option. Disabled by
	     default.

       askcc Prompt for	the Cc list after the Subject is entered if it is  not
	     specified	on  the	 command  line with the	-c option. Disabled by
	     default.

       asksub
	     Prompt for	subject	if it is not specified	on  the	 command  line
	     with the -s option. Enabled by default.

       autoinc
	     Automatically  incorporate	 new messages into the current session
	     as	they arrive. This has an affect	similar	 to  issuing  the  inc
	     command  every  time the command prompt is	displayed. Disabled by
	     default, but autoinc is set in the	default	 system	 startup  file
	     for mailx;	it is not set for /usr/ucb/mail	or /usr/ucb/Mail.

       autoprint
	     Enable  automatic	printing of messages after delete and undelete
	     commands. Disabled	by default.

       bang  Enable the	special-casing of  exclamation	points	(!)  in	 shell
	     escape command lines as in	vi(1). Disabled	by default.

       bsdcompat
	     Set  automatically	 if  mailx  is invoked as mail or Mail.	Causes
	     mailx to  use  /etc/mail/Mail.rc  as  the	system	startup	 file.
	     Changes the default pager to more(1).

       cmd=shell-command
	     Set  the default command for the pipe command.  No	default	value.

       conv=conversion
	     Convert uucp addresses to the specified address style, which  can
	     be	either:

	     internet
		   This	 requires  a  mail  delivery program conforming	to the
		   RFC822 standard for electronic mail addressing.

	     optimize
		   Remove loops	in uucp(1C) address paths (typically generated
		   by the reply	command).
		    No	rerouting  is performed; mail has no knowledge of UUCP
		   routes or connections.

	     Conversion	is disabled by default.	See also sendmail(1M) and  the
	     -U	command-line option.

       crt[=number]
	     Pipe  messages  having more than number lines through the command
	     specified by the value of the PAGER variable ( pg(1)  or  more(1)
	     by	 default). If number is	not specified, the current window size
	     is	used. Disabled by default.

       debug Enable verbose diagnostics	for debugging. Messages	are not	deliv-
	     ered. Disabled by default.

       dot   Take  a  period  on  a line by itself, or EOF during input	from a
	     terminal as end-of-file. Disabled by default, but dot is  set  in
	     the system	startup	file (which can	be suppressed with the -n com-
	     mand line option).

       fcc   By	default, mailx will treat any address containing a slash ("/")
	     character	as  a  local "send to file" address. By	unsetting this
	     option, this behavior is disabled.	Enabled	by default.

       flipr Reverse the effect	of the followup/Followup and reply/Reply  com-
	     mand pairs.  If both flipr	and replyall are set, the effect is as
	     if	neither	was set.

       from  Extract the author	listed in the header summary  from  the	 From:
	     header instead of the UNIX	From line. Enabled by default.

       fuzzymatch
	     The from command searches for messages from the indicated sender.
	     By	default, the full sender address must be specified. By setting
	     this  option,  only  a  sub-string	 of the	sender address need be
	     specified.	Disabled by default.

       escape=c
	     Substitute	c for the ~ escape character. Takes effect  with  next
	     message sent.

       folder=directory
	     The directory for saving standard mail files. User-specified file
	     names beginning with a plus (+) are  expanded  by	preceding  the
	     file  name	with this directory name to obtain the real file name.
	     If	directory does not start with a	slash (/), $HOME is  prepended
	     to	 it.   There  is  no default for the folder variable. See also
	     outfolder below.

       header
	     Enable printing  of  the  header  summary	when  entering	mailx.
	     Enabled by	default.

       hold  Preserve  all  messages  that  are	read in	the mailbox instead of
	     putting them in the standard mbox save file. Disabled by default.

       ignore
	     Ignore  interrupts	while entering messages. Handy for noisy dial-
	     up	lines. Disabled	by default.

       ignoreeof
	     Ignore end-of-file	during message input. Input must be terminated
	     by	 a  period  (.)	 on a line by itself or	by the ~. command. See
	     also dot above. Disabled by default.

       indentprefix=string
	     When indentprefix is set, string is used to mark  indented	 lines
	     from messages included with ~m. The default is a TAB character.

       keep  When  the mailbox is empty, truncate it to	zero length instead of
	     removing it. Disabled by default.

       iprompt=string
	     The specified prompt string is  displayed	before	each  line  on
	     input is requested	when sending a message.

       keepsave
	     Keep  messages that have been saved in other files	in the mailbox
	     instead of	deleting them. Disabled	by default.

       makeremote
	     When replying to all recipients of	a message, if an address  does
	     not  include  a machine name, it is assumed to be relative	to the
	     sender of the message. Normally  not  needed  when	 dealing  with
	     hosts that	support	RFC822.

       metoo If	 your  login appears as	a recipient, do	not delete it from the
	     list. Disabled by default.

       mustbang
	     Force all mail addresses to be in bang format.

       onehop
	     When responding to	a message that was originally sent to  several
	     recipients,  the other recipient addresses	are normally forced to
	     be	relative to the	originating author's machine for the response.
	     This  flag	 disables  alteration  of  the	recipients' addresses,
	     improving efficiency in a network where  all  machines  can  send
	     directly  to all other machines (that is, one hop away). Disabled
	     by	default.

       outfolder
	     Locate the	files used to record outgoing messages in  the	direc-
	     tory  specified  by  the  folder variable unless the path name is
	     absolute. Disabled	by default. See	folder	above  and  the	 Save,
	     Copy, followup, and Followup commands.

       page  Used  with	the pipe command to insert a form feed after each mes-
	     sage sent through the pipe. Disabled by default.

       pipeignore
	     Omit ignored header when outputting to the	pipe command. Although
	     disabled  by default,  pipeignore is frequently set in the	system
	     startup file. See Starting	Mail in	USAGE above.

       postmark
	     Your "real	name" to be included in	the From line of messages  you
	     send.   By	default	this is	derived	from the comment field in your
	     passwd(4) file entry.

       prompt=string
	     Set the command mode prompt to string. Default  is	 "? ",	unless
	     the bsdcompat variable is set, then the default is	"&".

       quiet Refrain from printing the opening message and version when	enter-
	     ing mailx.	Disabled by default.

       record=file
	     Record all	outgoing mail in file. Disabled	by default.  See  also
	     outfolder above.

       replyall
	     Reverse  the  effect of the reply and Reply and followup and Fol-
	     lowup commands. Although set by default,  replayall is frequently
	     unset  in the system startup file.	See flipr and Starting Mail in
	     USAGE above.

       returnaddr=string
	     The default sender	address	is that	 of  the  current  user.  This
	     variable  can  be used to set the sender address to any arbitrary
	     value. Set	with caution.

       save  Enable saving of messages in dead-letter on interrupt or delivery
	     error.  See  DEAD	for  a	description  of	 this file. Enabled by
	     default.

       screen=number
	     Sets the number of	lines in a  screen-full	 of  headers  for  the
	     headers command. number must be a positive	number.

	     The  default is set according to baud rate	or window size.	With a
	     baud rate less than 1200, number defaults to 5, if	baud  rate  is
	     exactly  1200,  it	defaults to 10.	If you are in a	window,	number
	     defaults to the default  window  size  minus  4.  Otherwise,  the
	     default is	20.

       sendmail=shell-command
	     Alternate	command	 for delivering	messages. Note:	In addition to
	     the expected list of recipients, mail also	passes the -i and  -m,
	     flags  to	the  command. Since these flags	are not	appropriate to
	     other commands, you may have to use a shell  script  that	strips
	     them from the arguments list before invoking the desired command.
	     Default is	/usr/bin/rmail.

       sendwait
	     Wait for background mailer	to finish before  returning.  Disabled
	     by	default.

       showname
	     Causes  the message header	display	to show	the sender's real name
	     (if known)	rather than their mail address.	Disabled  by  default,
	     but showname is set in the	/etc/mail/mailx.rc system startup file
	     for mailx.

       showto
	     When displaying the header	summary	and the	message	is  from  you,
	     print the recipient's name	instead	of the author's	name.

       sign=string
	     The  variable  inserted  into  the	 text of a message when	the ~a
	     (autograph) command is given. No default (see also	 ~i  in	 Tilde
	     Escapes).

	     `

       Sign=string
	     The variable inserted into	the text of a message when the ~A com-
	     mand is given.  No	default	(see also ~i in	Tilde Escapes).

       toplines=number
	     The number	of lines of header to  print  with  the	 top  command.
	     Default is	5.

       verbose
	     Invoke sendmail(1M) with the -v flag.

       translate
	     The  name	of  a program to translate mail	addresses. The program
	     receives mail addresses as	arguments. The	program	 produces,  on
	     the standard output, lines	containing the following data, in this
	     order:

		o  the postmark	for the	sender (see the	postmark variable)

		o  translated mail addresses, one per line,  corresponding  to
		   the	program's  arguments.	Each  translated  address will
		   replace the corresponding address in	the mail message being
		   sent.

		o  a  line  containing	only "y" or "n".  if the line contains
		   "y" the user	will be	asked  to  confirm  that  the  message
		   should be sent.

	     The translate program will	be invoked for each mail message to be
	     sent. If the program exits	with a non-zero	exit status, or	 fails
	     to	produce	enough output, the message is not sent.

   Large File Behavior
       See  largefile(5)  for  the  description	 of the	behavior of mailx when
       encountering files greater than or equal	to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31 bytes).

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following	environment  variables
       that  affect  the  execution  of	 mailx:	HOME, LANG, LC_CTYPE, LC_TIME,
       LC_MESSAGES, NLSPATH, and TERM.

       DEAD  The name of the file in which to save partial letters in case  of
	     untimely interrupt. Default is $HOME/dead.letter.

       EDITOR
	     The  command to run when the edit or ~e command is	used.  Default
	     is	ed(1).

       LISTER
	     The command (and options) to use when listing the contents	of the
	     folder directory.	The default is ls(1).

       MAIL  The  name	of  the	 initial  mailbox file to read (in lieu	of the
	     standard system mailbox).	The default is /var/mail/username.

       MAILRC
	     The name of the startup file.  Default is $HOME/.mailrc.

       MAILX_HEAD
	     The specified string is included at the beginning of the body  of
	     each message that is sent.

       MAILX_TAIL
	     The  specified  string is included	at the end of the body of each
	     message that is sent.

       MBOX  The name of the file to save messages which have been read.   The
	     exit  command overrides this function, as does saving the message
	     explicitly	in another file.  Default is $HOME/mbox.

       PAGER The command to use	as a filter for	paginating  output.  This  can
	     also  be  used  to	 specify  the  options to be used.  Default is
	     pg(1), or if the  bsdcompat  variable  is	set,  the  default  is
	     more(1). See Internal Variables.

       SHELL The name of a preferred command interpreter.  Default is sh(1).

       VISUAL
	     The name of a preferred screen editor.  Default is	vi(1).

EXIT STATUS
       When  the  -e  option  is  specified,  the  following  exit  values are
       returned:

       0     Mail was found.

       >0    Mail was not found	or an error occurred.

       Otherwise, the following	exit values are	returned:

       0     Successful	completion. Notice that	this status implies  that  all
	     messages  were  sent, but it gives	no assurances that any of them
	     were actually delivered.

       >0    An	error occurred

FILES
       $HOME/.mailrc
	      personal startup file

       $HOME/mbox
	     secondary storage file

       $HOME/.Maillock
	     lock file to prevent multiple writers of system mailbox

       /etc/mail/mailx.rc
	     optional system startup file for mailx only

       /etc/mail/Mail.rc
	     BSD compatibility system-wide startup file	for /usr/ucb/mail  and
	     /usr/ucb/Mail

       /tmp/R[emqsx]*
	     temporary files

       /usr/share/lib/mailx/mailx.help*
	     help message files

       /var/mail/*
	     post office directory

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       biff(1B),   echo(1),  ed(1),  ex(1),  fmt(1),  lp(1),  ls(1),  mail(1),
       mail(1B), mailcompat(1),	more(1), pg(1),	sh(1), uucp(1C),  vacation(1),
       vi(1),	 newaliases(1M),    sendmail(1M),    aliases(4),    passwd(4),
       attributes(5), environ(5), largefile(5),	standards(5)

NOTES
       Where shell-command  is	shown  as  valid,  arguments  are  not	always
       allowed.	Experimentation	is recommended.

       Internal	 variables  imported  from the execution environment cannot be
       unset.

       The full	internet addressing is not fully supported by mailx.  The  new
       standards need some time	to settle down.

       Replies do not always generate correct return addresses.	 Try resending
       the errant reply	with onehop set.

       mailx does not lock your	record file. So, if you	use a record file  and
       send  two  or more messages simultaneously, lines from the messages may
       be interleaved in the record file.

       The format for the alias	command	is a space-separated list  of  recipi-
       ents,  while  the  format  for  an  alias  in  either  the  .forward or
       /etc/aliases is a comma-separated list.

       To read mail on a workstation running Solaris 1.x when your mail	server
       is running Solaris 2.x, first execute the mailcompat(1) program.

SunOS 5.9			  19 Sep 2001			      mailx(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | OPERANDS | USAGE | folders | if s | r | t | write [message-list] file | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | EXIT STATUS | FILES | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO | NOTES

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