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STAT(2)			  FreeBSD System Calls Manual		       STAT(2)

NAME
     stat, lstat, fstat	-- get file status

SYNOPSIS
     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/stat.h>

     int
     stat(const	char *path, struct stat	*sb);

     int
     lstat(const char *path, struct stat *sb);

     int
     fstat(int fd, struct stat *sb);

DESCRIPTION
     The stat()	function obtains information about the file pointed to by
     path.  Read, write	or execute permission of the named file	is not
     required, but all directories listed in the path name leading to the file
     must be searchable.

     Lstat() is	like stat() except in the case where the named file is a sym-
     bolic link, in which case lstat() returns information about the link,
     while stat() returns information about the	file the link references.
     Unlike other filesystem objects, symbolic links do	not have an owner,
     group, access mode, times,	etc.  Instead, these attributes	are taken from
     the directory that	contains the link.  The	only attributes	returned from
     an	lstat()	that refer to the symbolic link	itself are the file type
     (S_IFLNK),	size, blocks, and link count (always 1).

     The fstat() obtains the same information about an open file known by the
     file descriptor fd.

     The sb argument is	a pointer to a stat() structure	as defined by
     <sys/stat.h> (shown below)	and into which information is placed concern-
     ing the file.

     struct stat {
	 dev_t	   st_dev;		 /* inode's device */
	 ino_t	   st_ino;		 /* inode's number */
	 mode_t	   st_mode;		 /* inode protection mode */
	 nlink_t   st_nlink;		 /* number of hard links */
	 uid_t	   st_uid;		 /* user ID of the file's owner	*/
	 gid_t	   st_gid;		 /* group ID of	the file's group */
	 dev_t	   st_rdev;		 /* device type	*/
     #ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE
	 struct	timespec st_atimespec;	/* time	of last	access */
	 struct	timespec st_mtimespec;	/* time	of last	data modification */
	 struct	timespec st_ctimespec;	/* time	of last	file status change */
     #else
	 time_t	   st_atime;		 /* time of last access	*/
	 long	   st_atimensec;	 /* nsec of last access	*/
	 time_t	   st_mtime;		 /* time of last data modification */
	 long	   st_mtimensec;	 /* nsec of last data modification */
	 time_t	   st_ctime;		 /* time of last file status change */
	 long	   st_ctimensec;	 /* nsec of last file status change */
     #endif
	 off_t	   st_size;		 /* file size, in bytes	*/
	 int64_t   st_blocks;		 /* blocks allocated for file */
	 u_int32_t st_blksize;		 /* optimal blocksize for I/O */
	 u_int32_t st_flags;		 /* user defined flags for file	*/
	 u_int32_t st_gen;		 /* file generation number */
     };

     The time-related fields of	struct stat are	as follows:

     st_atime	  Time when file data last accessed.  Changed by the mknod(2),
		  utimes(2) and	read(2)	system calls.

     st_mtime	  Time when file data last modified.  Changed by the mknod(2),
		  utimes(2) and	write(2) system	calls.

     st_ctime	  Time when file status	was last changed (inode	data modifica-
		  tion).  Changed by the chmod(2), chown(2), link(2),
		  mknod(2), rename(2), unlink(2), utimes(2) and	write(2) sys-
		  tem calls.

     If	_POSIX_SOURCE is not defined, the time-related fields are defined as:

     #ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE
     #define st_atime st_atimespec.tv_sec
     #define st_mtime st_mtimespec.tv_sec
     #define st_ctime st_ctimespec.tv_sec
     #endif

     The size-related fields of	the struct stat	are as follows:

     st_blksize	    The	optimal	I/O block size for the file.

     st_blocks	    The	actual number of blocks	allocated for the file in
		    512-byte units.  As	short symbolic links are stored	in the
		    inode, this	number may be zero.

     The status	information word st_mode has the following bits:

     #define S_IFMT 0170000	      /* type of file */
     #define	    S_IFIFO  0010000  /* named pipe (fifo) */
     #define	    S_IFCHR  0020000  /* character special */
     #define	    S_IFDIR  0040000  /* directory */
     #define	    S_IFBLK  0060000  /* block special */
     #define	    S_IFREG  0100000  /* regular */
     #define	    S_IFLNK  0120000  /* symbolic link */
     #define	    S_IFSOCK 0140000  /* socket	*/
     #define	    S_IFWHT  0160000  /* whiteout */
     #define S_ISUID 0004000  /* set user id on	execution */
     #define S_ISGID 0002000  /* set group id on execution */
     #define S_ISVTX 0001000  /* save swapped text even	after use */
     #define S_IRUSR 0000400  /* read permission, owner	*/
     #define S_IWUSR 0000200  /* write permission, owner */
     #define S_IXUSR 0000100  /* execute/search	permission, owner */

     For a list	of access modes, see <sys/stat.h>, access(2) and chmod(2).

RETURN VALUES
     Upon successful completion	a value	of 0 is	returned.  Otherwise, a	value
     of	-1 is returned and errno is set	to indicate the	error.

COMPATIBILITY
     Previous versions of the system used different types for the st_dev,
     st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev, st_size, st_blksize and st_blocks	fields.

ERRORS
     Stat() and	lstat()	will fail if:

     [ENOTDIR]	     A component of the	path prefix is not a directory.

     [ENAMETOOLONG]  A component of a pathname exceeded	255 characters,	or an
		     entire path name exceeded 1023 characters.

     [ENOENT]	     The named file does not exist.

     [EACCES]	     Search permission is denied for a component of the	path
		     prefix.

     [ELOOP]	     Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating
		     the pathname.

     [EFAULT]	     Sb	or name	points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]	     An	I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
		     the file system.

     Fstat() will fail if:

     [EBADF]   fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

     [EFAULT]  Sb points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]     An I/O error occurred while reading from	or writing to the file
	       system.

SEE ALSO
     access(2),	chmod(2), chown(2), utimes(2), symlink(7)

BUGS
     Applying fstat() to a socket (and thus to a pipe) returns a zeroed
     buffer, except for	the blocksize field, and a unique device and inode
     number.

STANDARDS
     The stat()	and fstat() function calls are expected	to conform to ISO/IEC
     9945-1:1990 (``POSIX.1'').

HISTORY
     A stat() and a fstat() function call appeared in Version 7	AT&T UNIX.  A
     lstat() function call appeared in 4.2BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution	  May 1, 1995	     4th Berkeley Distribution

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUES | COMPATIBILITY | ERRORS | SEE ALSO | BUGS | STANDARDS | HISTORY

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