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LS(1)				 User Commands				 LS(1)

NAME
       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS
       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       List  information  about	 the FILEs (the	current	directory by default).
       Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX	nor --sort.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are	mandatory  for	short  options
       too.

       -a, --all
	      do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
	      do not list implied . and	..

       --author
	      with -l, print the author	of each	file

       -b, --escape
	      print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
	      use SIZE-byte blocks

       -B, --ignore-backups
	      do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt:	sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of
	      file status information) with -l:	show ctime and	sort  by  name
	      otherwise: sort by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
	      control  whether	color is used to distinguish file types.  WHEN
	      may be `never', `always',	or `auto'

       -d, --directory
	      list directory entries instead of	contents, and do not  derefer-
	      ence symbolic links

       -D, --dired
	      generate output designed for Emacs' dired	mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
	      append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

       --file-type
	      likewise,	except do not append `*'

       --format=WORD
	      across  -x, commas -m, horizontal	-x, long -l, single-column -1,
	      verbose -l, vertical -C

       --full-time
	      like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       --group-directories-first
	      group directories	before files.

	      augment with a --sort option, but	any use	 of  --sort=none  (-U)
	      disables grouping

       -G, --no-group
	      in a long	listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
	      with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise,	but use	powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
	      follow symbolic links listed on the command line

       --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
	      follow each command line symbolic	link that points to  a	direc-
	      tory

       --hide=PATTERN
	      do  not  list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden
	      by -a or -A)

       --indicator-style=WORD
	      append indicator with style WORD to entry	names: none (default),
	      slash (-p), file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
	      print the	index number of	each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
	      do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
	      when showing file	information for	a symbolic link, show informa-
	      tion for the file	the link references rather than	for  the  link
	      itself

       -m     fill width with a	comma separated	list of	entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
	      like -l, but list	numeric	user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
	      print  raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters spe-
	      cially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
	      append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
	      print ? instead of non graphic characters

       --show-control-chars
	      show non graphic characters as-is	 (default  unless  program  is
	      `ls' and output is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
	      enclose entry names in double quotes

       --quoting-style=WORD
	      use  quoting style WORD for entry	names: literal,	locale,	shell,
	      shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
	      reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
	      list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
	      print the	allocated size of each file, in	blocks

       -S     sort by file size

       --sort=WORD
	      sort by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension	-X,  size  -S,
	      time -t, version -v

       --time=WORD
	      with  -l,	 show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime
	      -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c, or  status  -c;	use  specified
	      time as sort key if --sort=time

       --time-style=STYLE
	      with  -l,	show times using style STYLE: full-iso,	long-iso, iso,
	      locale, +FORMAT.	FORMAT is interpreted like `date';  if	FORMAT
	      is  FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent files
	      and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed	with `posix-',
	      STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX	locale

       -t     sort by modification time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
	      assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with  -lt:  sort	by, and	show, access time with -l: show	access
	      time and sort by name otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list	entries	in directory order

       -v     sort by version

       -w, --width=COLS
	      assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -Z, --context
	      print any	SELinux	security context of each file

       -1     list one file per	line

       --help display this help	and exit

       --version
	      output version information and exit

       SIZE may	be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one  of  fol-
       lowing: kB 1000,	K 1024,	MB 1000*1000, M	1024*1024, and so on for G, T,
       P, E, Z,	Y.

       By default, color is not	used to	distinguish types of files.   That  is
       equivalent to using --color=none.  Using	the --color option without the
       optional	WHEN argument is equivalent  to	 using	--color=always.	  With
       --color=auto,  color  codes  are	output only if standard	output is con-
       nected to a terminal (tty).  The	 environment  variable	LS_COLORS  can
       influence the colors, and can be	set easily by the dircolors command.

   Exit	status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems	(e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if  serious trouble (e.g., cannot	access command-line argument).

AUTHOR
       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David	MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report ls bugs to bug-coreutils@gnu.org
       GNU coreutils home page:	<http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       General help using GNU software:	<http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2009 Free Software	Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+:  GNU
       GPL version 3 or	later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This  is	 free  software:  you  are free	to change and redistribute it.
       There is	NO WARRANTY, to	the extent permitted by	law.

SEE ALSO
       The full	documentation for ls is	maintained as a	 Texinfo  manual.   If
       the  info and ls	programs are properly installed	at your	site, the com-
       mand

	      info coreutils 'ls invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.

GNU coreutils 7.1		   July	2010				 LS(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | AUTHOR | REPORTING BUGS | COPYRIGHT | SEE ALSO

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<http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=ls&manpath=SuSE+Linux%2fi386+11.3>

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