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LD(1)			     GNU Development Tools			 LD(1)

NAME
       ld - Using LD, the GNU linker

SYNOPSIS
       ld [options] objfile ...

DESCRIPTION
       ld  combines a number of	object and archive files, relocates their data
       and ties	up symbol references. Usually the last	step  in  compiling  a
       program is to run ld.

       ld  accepts  Linker  Command  Language  files  written in a superset of
       AT&T's Link Editor Command Language syntax,  to	provide	 explicit  and
       total control over the linking process.

       This  man page does not describe	the command language; see the ld entry
       in "info", or the manual	ld: the	GNU linker, for	full  details  on  the
       command language	and on other aspects of	the GNU	linker.

       This version of ld uses the general purpose BFD libraries to operate on
       object files. This allows ld to read, combine, and write	 object	 files
       in  many	 different  formats---for example, COFF	or "a.out".  Different
       formats may be linked together to produce any available kind of	object
       file.

       Aside  from  its	flexibility, the GNU linker is more helpful than other
       linkers in providing diagnostic information.  Many linkers abandon exe-
       cution  immediately  upon  encountering an error; whenever possible, ld
       continues executing, allowing you to identify other errors (or, in some
       cases, to get an	output file in spite of	the error).

       The GNU linker ld is meant to cover a broad range of situations,	and to
       be as compatible	as possible with other linkers.	 As a result, you have
       many choices to control its behavior.

OPTIONS
       The  linker  supports a plethora	of command-line	options, but in	actual
       practice	few of them are	used in	any particular context.	 For instance,
       a  frequent  use	of ld is to link standard Unix object files on a stan-
       dard, supported Unix  system.   On  such	 a  system,  to	 link  a  file
       "hello.o":

	       ld -o <output> /lib/crt0.o hello.o -lc

       This  tells ld to produce a file	called output as the result of linking
       the file	"/lib/crt0.o" with "hello.o" and the library  "libc.a",	 which
       will come from the standard search directories.	(See the discussion of
       the -l option below.)

       Some of the command-line	options	to ld may be specified at any point in
       the command line.  However, options which refer to files, such as -l or
       -T, cause the file to be	read at	the point at which the option  appears
       in  the	command	 line,	relative  to  the  object files	and other file
       options.	 Repeating non-file options with  a  different	argument  will
       either  have  no	 further  effect, or override prior occurrences	(those
       further to the left on the command line)	of that	option.	 Options which
       may  be meaningfully specified more than	once are noted in the descrip-
       tions below.

       Non-option arguments are	object files  or  archives  which  are	to  be
       linked  together.   They	 may follow, precede, or be mixed in with com-
       mand-line options, except that an  object  file	argument  may  not  be
       placed between an option	and its	argument.

       Usually	the  linker  is	invoked	with at	least one object file, but you
       can specify other forms of binary input files using  -l,	 -R,  and  the
       script  command	language.   If no binary input files at	all are	speci-
       fied, the linker	does not produce any output, and issues	the message No
       input files.

       If  the	linker	cannot recognize the format of an object file, it will
       assume that it is a linker script.  A script specified in this way aug-
       ments  the  main	 linker	 script	 used for the link (either the default
       linker script or	the one	specified by using -T).	 This feature  permits
       the  linker  to link against a file which appears to be an object or an
       archive,	but actually  merely  defines  some  symbol  values,  or  uses
       "INPUT"	or  "GROUP"  to	 load  other  objects.	Note that specifying a
       script in this way merely augments the main linker script; use  the  -T
       option to replace the default linker script entirely.

       For  options  whose  names  are	a single letter, option	arguments must
       either follow the option	letter without intervening whitespace,	or  be
       given  as  separate  arguments  immediately  following  the option that
       requires	them.

       For options whose names are multiple letters, either one	 dash  or  two
       can   precede   the   option   name;  for  example,  -trace-symbol  and
       --trace-symbol are equivalent.  Note---there is one exception  to  this
       rule.   Multiple	 letter	 options  that start with a lower case 'o' can
       only be preceeded by two	dashes.	 This is to reduce confusion with  the
       -o  option.   So	for example -omagic sets the output file name to magic
       whereas --omagic	sets the NMAGIC	flag on	the output.

       Arguments to multiple-letter options must either	be separated from  the
       option  name by an equals sign, or be given as separate arguments imme-
       diately	following  the	option	that  requires	them.	For   example,
       --trace-symbol  foo  and	 --trace-symbol=foo  are  equivalent.	Unique
       abbreviations of	the names of multiple-letter options are accepted.

       Note---if the linker is being invoked indirectly, via a compiler	driver
       (e.g.  gcc) then	all the	linker command line options should be prefixed
       by -Wl, (or whatever is appropriate for the particular compiler driver)
       like this:

		 gcc -Wl,--startgroup foo.o bar.o -Wl,--endgroup

       This  is	 important,  because otherwise the compiler driver program may
       silently	drop the linker	options, resulting in a	bad link.

       Here is a table of the generic command line switches  accepted  by  the
       GNU linker:

       -akeyword
	   This	 option	 is  supported	for  HP/UX compatibility.  The keyword
	   argument must be one	of the strings archive,	 shared,  or  default.
	   -aarchive is	functionally equivalent	to -Bstatic, and the other two
	   keywords are	functionally equivalent	to -Bdynamic.  This option may
	   be used any number of times.

       -Aarchitecture
       --architecture=architecture
	   In  the  current  release of	ld, this option	is useful only for the
	   Intel 960 family of architectures.  In that ld  configuration,  the
	   architecture	argument identifies the	particular architecture	in the
	   960 family, enabling	some safeguards	 and  modifying	 the  archive-
	   library search path.

	   Future  releases  of	ld may support similar functionality for other
	   architecture	families.

       -b input-format
       --format=input-format
	   ld may be configured	to support more	than one kind of object	 file.
	   If  your  ld	 is  configured	this way, you can use the -b option to
	   specify the binary format for input object files that  follow  this
	   option  on the command line.	 Even when ld is configured to support
	   alternative object formats, you don't usually need to specify this,
	   as  ld should be configured to expect as a default input format the
	   most	usual format on	each machine.  input-format is a text  string,
	   the	name  of  a  particular	format supported by the	BFD libraries.
	   (You	can list the available binary formats with objdump -i.)

	   You may want	to use this option if you are linking  files  with  an
	   unusual  binary  format.   You  can	also  use -b to	switch formats
	   explicitly (when linking object files  of  different	 formats),  by
	   including  -b  input-format	before each group of object files in a
	   particular format.

	   The default format is taken from the	environment variable  "GNUTAR-
	   GET".

	   You	can also define	the input format from a	script,	using the com-
	   mand	"TARGET";

       -c MRI-commandfile
       --mri-script=MRI-commandfile
	   For compatibility with linkers produced by MRI, ld  accepts	script
	   files   written  in	an  alternate,	restricted  command  language,
	   described in	the MRI	Compatible Script Files	section	of GNU ld doc-
	   umentation.	Introduce MRI script files with	the option -c; use the
	   -T option to	run linker scripts written in the  general-purpose  ld
	   scripting language.	If MRI-cmdfile does not	exist, ld looks	for it
	   in the directories specified	by any -L options.

       -d
       -dc
       -dp These three options are equivalent; multiple	 forms	are  supported
	   for	compatibility with other linkers.  They	assign space to	common
	   symbols even	if a relocatable output	file is	specified  (with  -r).
	   The script command "FORCE_COMMON_ALLOCATION"	has the	same effect.

       -e entry
       --entry=entry
	   Use	entry  as  the explicit	symbol for beginning execution of your
	   program, rather than	the default entry point.  If there is no  sym-
	   bol	named  entry,  the linker will try to parse entry as a number,
	   and use that	as the entry address (the number will  be  interpreted
	   in  base  10;  you may use a	leading	0x for base 16,	or a leading 0
	   for base 8).

       -E
       --export-dynamic
	   When	creating a dynamically linked executable, add all  symbols  to
	   the	dynamic	 symbol	table.	The dynamic symbol table is the	set of
	   symbols which are visible from dynamic objects at run time.

	   If you do not use this option, the dynamic symbol table  will  nor-
	   mally  contain  only	 those	symbols	 which	are referenced by some
	   dynamic object mentioned in the link.

	   If you use "dlopen" to load a dynamic object	which needs  to	 refer
	   back	 to the	symbols	defined	by the program,	rather than some other
	   dynamic object, then	you will probably need to use this option when
	   linking the program itself.

	   You	can also use the version script	to control what	symbols	should
	   be added to the dynamic symbol table	if the output format  supports
	   it.	See the	description of --version-script	in @ref{VERSION}.

       -EB Link	big-endian objects.  This affects the default output format.

       -EL Link	 little-endian	objects.  This affects the default output for-
	   mat.

       -f
       --auxiliary name
	   When	creating an ELF	shared object, set the	internal  DT_AUXILIARY
	   field  to  the  specified name.  This tells the dynamic linker that
	   the symbol table of the shared object should	be used	as  an	auxil-
	   iary	filter on the symbol table of the shared object	name.

	   If  you later link a	program	against	this filter object, then, when
	   you run the program,	the dynamic linker will	see  the  DT_AUXILIARY
	   field.   If the dynamic linker resolves any symbols from the	filter
	   object, it will first check whether there is	a  definition  in  the
	   shared  object  name.   If there is one, it will be used instead of
	   the definition in the filter	object.	 The shared object  name  need
	   not	exist.	 Thus the shared object	name may be used to provide an
	   alternative implementation of certain functions, perhaps for	debug-
	   ging	or for machine specific	performance.

	   This	 option	 may  be  specified  more than once.  The DT_AUXILIARY
	   entries will	be created in the order	in which they  appear  on  the
	   command line.

       -F name
       --filter	name
	   When	 creating  an  ELF  shared  object, set	the internal DT_FILTER
	   field to the	specified name.	 This tells the	 dynamic  linker  that
	   the symbol table of the shared object which is being	created	should
	   be used as a	filter on the symbol table of the shared object	 name.

	   If  you later link a	program	against	this filter object, then, when
	   you run the program,	the dynamic  linker  will  see	the  DT_FILTER
	   field.   The	 dynamic  linker will resolve symbols according	to the
	   symbol table	of the filter object as	usual, but  it	will  actually
	   link	 to the	definitions found in the shared	object name.  Thus the
	   filter object can be	used to	select a subset	of  the	 symbols  pro-
	   vided by the	object name.

	   Some	 older	linkers	 used  the  -F option throughout a compilation
	   toolchain for specifying object-file	format for both	input and out-
	   put	object	files.	 The GNU linker	uses other mechanisms for this
	   purpose: the	-b, --format, --oformat	options, the "TARGET"  command
	   in  linker  scripts,	and the	"GNUTARGET" environment	variable.  The
	   GNU linker will ignore the -F  option  when	not  creating  an  ELF
	   shared object.

       -fini name
	   When	 creating  an  ELF executable or shared	object,	call NAME when
	   the executable or shared object is unloaded,	by setting DT_FINI  to
	   the	address	 of the	function.  By default, the linker uses "_fini"
	   as the function to call.

       -g  Ignored.  Provided for compatibility	with other tools.

       -Gvalue
       --gpsize=value
	   Set the maximum size	of objects to be optimized using the GP	regis-
	   ter	to size.  This is only meaningful for object file formats such
	   as MIPS ECOFF which supports	putting	large and small	 objects  into
	   different sections.	This is	ignored	for other object file formats.

       -hname
       -soname=name
	   When	creating an ELF	shared	object,	 set  the  internal  DT_SONAME
	   field  to  the specified name.  When	an executable is linked	with a
	   shared object which has a DT_SONAME field, then when	the executable
	   is  run  the	 dynamic linker	will attempt to	load the shared	object
	   specified by	the DT_SONAME field rather than	 the  using  the  file
	   name	given to the linker.

       -i  Perform an incremental link (same as	option -r).

       -init name
	   When	 creating  an  ELF executable or shared	object,	call NAME when
	   the executable or shared object is loaded, by  setting  DT_INIT  to
	   the	address	 of the	function.  By default, the linker uses "_init"
	   as the function to call.

       -larchive
       --library=archive
	   Add archive file archive to the list	of files to link.  This	option
	   may	be used	any number of times.  ld will search its path-list for
	   occurrences of "libarchive.a" for every archive specified.

	   On systems which support shared libraries, ld may also  search  for
	   libraries  with  extensions	other than ".a".  Specifically,	on ELF
	   and SunOS systems, ld will search a directory for a library with an
	   extension  of  ".so"	 before	searching for one with an extension of
	   ".a".  By convention, a ".so" extension indicates a shared library.

	   The	linker will search an archive only once, at the	location where
	   it is specified on the command line.	 If the	archive	defines	a sym-
	   bol	which  was  undefined in some object which appeared before the
	   archive on the command line,	the linker will	include	the  appropri-
	   ate	file(s)	 from the archive.  However, an	undefined symbol in an
	   object appearing later on the  command  line	 will  not  cause  the
	   linker to search the	archive	again.

	   See	the -( option for a way	to force the linker to search archives
	   multiple times.

	   You may list	the same archive multiple times	on the command line.

	   This	type of	archive	searching is standard for Unix linkers.	  How-
	   ever,  if  you  are using ld	on AIX,	note that it is	different from
	   the behaviour of the	AIX linker.

       -Lsearchdir
       --library-path=searchdir
	   Add path searchdir to the list of paths that	ld will	search for ar-
	   chive  libraries  and  ld control scripts.  You may use this	option
	   any number of times.	 The directories are searched in the order  in
	   which  they	are specified on the command line.  Directories	speci-
	   fied	on the command line are	searched before	the  default  directo-
	   ries.   All	-L  options apply to all -l options, regardless	of the
	   order in which the options appear.

	   If searchdir	begins with "=", then the "=" will be replaced by  the
	   sysroot prefix, a path specified when the linker is configured.

	   The default set of paths searched (without being specified with -L)
	   depends on which emulation mode ld is using,	and in some cases also
	   on how it was configured.

	   The	paths  can  also  be  specified	 in  a	link  script  with the
	   "SEARCH_DIR"	command.  Directories specified	this way are  searched
	   at  the  point  in  which  the linker script	appears	in the command
	   line.

       -memulation
	   Emulate the emulation linker.  You can list	the  available	emula-
	   tions with the --verbose or -V options.

	   If  the  -m	option	is  not	 used, the emulation is	taken from the
	   "LDEMULATION" environment variable, if that is defined.

	   Otherwise, the default emulation depends upon how  the  linker  was
	   configured.

       -M
       --print-map
	   Print  a  link  map	to  the	 standard output.  A link map provides
	   information about the link, including the following:

	   *   Where object files and symbols are mapped into memory.

	   *   How common symbols are allocated.

	   *   All archive members included in the link, with a	mention	of the
	       symbol which caused the archive member to be brought in.

       -n
       --nmagic
	   Turn	 off  page  alignment  of  sections,  and  mark	 the output as
	   "NMAGIC" if possible.

       -N
       --omagic
	   Set the text	and data sections to be	readable and writable.	 Also,
	   do  not  page-align	the  data segment, and disable linking against
	   shared libraries.  If the output format supports Unix  style	 magic
	   numbers,  mark  the	output	as "OMAGIC". Note: Although a writable
	   text	section	is allowed for PE-COFF targets,	it does	not conform to
	   the format specification published by Microsoft.

       --no-omagic
	   This	 option	negates	most of	the effects of the -N option.  It sets
	   the text section to be read-only, and forces	the data segment to be
	   page-aligned.   Note	 - this	option does not	enable linking against
	   shared libraries.  Use -Bdynamic for	this.

       -o output
       --output=output
	   Use output as the name for the program  produced  by	 ld;  if  this
	   option  is  not  specified, the name	a.out is used by default.  The
	   script command "OUTPUT" can also specify the	output file name.

       -O level
	   If level is a numeric values	greater	than  zero  ld	optimizes  the
	   output.   This might	take significantly longer and therefore	proba-
	   bly should only be enabled for the final binary.

       -q
       --emit-relocs
	   Leave relocation sections and contents in fully  linked  exececuta-
	   bles.   Post	 link  analysis	 and  optimization tools may need this
	   information in order	to perform correct modifications  of  executa-
	   bles.  This results in larger executables.

	   This	option is currently only supported on ELF platforms.

       -r
       --relocatable
	   Generate  relocatable  output---i.e.,  generate an output file that
	   can in turn serve as	input to ld.  This  is	often  called  partial
	   linking.   As  a side effect, in environments that support standard
	   Unix	magic numbers, this option also	sets the output	 file's	 magic
	   number  to  "OMAGIC".  If this option is not	specified, an absolute
	   file	is produced.  When linking C++ programs, this option will  not
	   resolve references to constructors; to do that, use -Ur.

	   When	 an  input  file  does	not have the same format as the	output
	   file, partial linking is only supported if that input file does not
	   contain any relocations.  Different output formats can have further
	   restrictions; for example some "a.out"-based	formats	do not support
	   partial linking with	input files in other formats at	all.

	   This	option does the	same thing as -i.

       -R filename
       --just-symbols=filename
	   Read	 symbol	 names	and  their addresses from filename, but	do not
	   relocate it or include it in	the output.  This allows  your	output
	   file	 to refer symbolically to absolute locations of	memory defined
	   in other programs.  You may use this	option more than once.

	   For compatibility with other	ELF linkers, if	the -R option is  fol-
	   lowed  by  a	directory name,	rather than a file name, it is treated
	   as the -rpath option.

       -s
       --strip-all
	   Omit	all symbol information from the	output file.

       -S
       --strip-debug
	   Omit	debugger symbol	information (but not  all  symbols)  from  the
	   output file.

       -t
       --trace
	   Print the names of the input	files as ld processes them.

       -T scriptfile
       --script=scriptfile
	   Use	scriptfile  as	the  linker script.  This script replaces ld's
	   default linker script (rather than adding to	 it),  so  commandfile
	   must	 specify  everything  necessary	 to  describe the output file.
	   If scriptfile does not exist	in the current directory,  "ld"	 looks
	   for	it  in	the directories	specified by any preceding -L options.
	   Multiple -T options accumulate.

       -u symbol
       --undefined=symbol
	   Force symbol	to be entered in the output file as an undefined  sym-
	   bol.	  Doing	 this  may, for	example, trigger linking of additional
	   modules from	standard libraries.  -u	may be repeated	with different
	   option  arguments  to  enter	 additional  undefined	symbols.  This
	   option is equivalent	to the "EXTERN"	linker script command.

       -Ur For anything	other than C++ programs, this option is	equivalent  to
	   -r: it generates relocatable	output---i.e., an output file that can
	   in turn serve as input to ld.  When linking C++ programs, -Ur  does
	   resolve references to constructors, unlike -r.  It does not work to
	   use -Ur on files that were themselves linked	 with  -Ur;  once  the
	   constructor	table  has been	built, it cannot be added to.  Use -Ur
	   only	for the	last partial link, and -r for the others.

       --unique[=SECTION]
	   Creates a separate output section for every input section  matching
	   SECTION,  or	 if the	optional wildcard SECTION argument is missing,
	   for every orphan input section.   An	 orphan	 section  is  one  not
	   specifically	mentioned in a linker script.  You may use this	option
	   multiple times on the command line;	It prevents the	normal merging
	   of  input  sections	with  the same name, overriding	output section
	   assignments in a linker script.

       -v
       --version
       -V  Display the version number for ld.  The -V option  also  lists  the
	   supported emulations.

       -x
       --discard-all
	   Delete all local symbols.

       -X
       --discard-locals
	   Delete  all temporary local symbols.	 For most targets, this	is all
	   local symbols whose names begin with	L.

       -y symbol
       --trace-symbol=symbol
	   Print the name of each linked file in which symbol  appears.	  This
	   option  may	be  given  any number of times.	 On many systems it is
	   necessary to	prepend	an underscore.

	   This	option is useful when you have an  undefined  symbol  in  your
	   link	but don't know where the reference is coming from.

       -Y path
	   Add	path  to  the default library search path.  This option	exists
	   for Solaris compatibility.

       -z keyword
	   The recognized keywords are:

	   combreloc
	       Combines	multiple reloc sections	and sorts them to make dynamic
	       symbol lookup caching possible.

	   defs
	       Disallows undefined symbols in object files.  Undefined symbols
	       in shared libraries are still allowed.

	   initfirst
	       This option is only meaningful when building a  shared  object.
	       It  marks  the  object  so that its runtime initialization will
	       occur before the	runtime	initialization of  any	other  objects
	       brought	into the process at the	same time.  Similarly the run-
	       time finalization of the	object will occur  after  the  runtime
	       finalization of any other objects.

	   interpose
	       Marks  the  object  that	its symbol table interposes before all
	       symbols but the primary executable.

	   loadfltr
	       Marks  the object that its filters be processed immediately  at
	       runtime.

	   muldefs
	       Allows multiple definitions.

	   nocombreloc
	       Disables	multiple reloc sections	combining.

	   nocopyreloc
	       Disables	production of copy relocs.

	   nodefaultlib
	       Marks  the  object  that	 the  search  for dependencies of this
	       object will ignore any default library search paths.

	   nodelete
	       Marks the object	shouldn't be unloaded at runtime.

	   nodlopen
	       Marks the object	not available to "dlopen".

	   nodump
	       Marks the object	can not	be dumped by "dldump".

	   now When generating an executable or	shared	library,  mark	it  to
	       tell the	dynamic	linker to resolve all symbols when the program
	       is started, or when the	shared	library	 is  linked  to	 using
	       dlopen,	instead	 of  deferring function	call resolution	to the
	       point when the function is first	called.

	   origin
	       Marks the object	may contain $ORIGIN.

	   Other keywords are ignored for Solaris compatibility.

       -( archives -)
       --start-group archives --end-group
	   The archives	should be a list of archive files.  They may be	either
	   explicit file names,	or -l options.

	   The	specified  archives are	searched repeatedly until no new unde-
	   fined references are	created.  Normally,  an	 archive  is  searched
	   only	 once  in  the order that it is	specified on the command line.
	   If a	symbol in that archive is needed to resolve an undefined  sym-
	   bol	referred  to  by an object in an archive that appears later on
	   the command line, the linker	would not be able to resolve that ref-
	   erence.   By	grouping the archives, they all	be searched repeatedly
	   until all possible references are resolved.

	   Using this option has a significant performance cost.  It  is  best
	   to  use  it	only  when  there  are unavoidable circular references
	   between two or more archives.

       --accept-unknown-input-arch
       --no-accept-unknown-input-arch
	   Tells the linker to accept input files whose	architecture cannot be
	   recognised.	 The  assumption  is that the user knows what they are
	   doing and deliberately wants	to link	in these unknown input	files.
	   This	 was the default behaviour of the linker, before release 2.14.
	   The default behaviour from release 2.14 onwards is to  reject  such
	   input files,	and so the --accept-unknown-input-arch option has been
	   added to restore the	old behaviour.

       --as-needed
       --no-as-needed
	   This	option affects ELF DT_NEEDED tags for dynamic  libraries  men-
	   tioned on the command line after the	--as-needed option.  Normally,
	   the linker will add a DT_NEEDED tag for each	dynamic	 library  men-
	   tioned  on  the  command line, regardless of	whether	the library is
	   actually needed. --as-needed	causes DT_NEEDED tags to only be emit-
	   ted for libraries that satisfy some reference from regular objects.
	   --no-as-needed restores the default behaviour.

       -assert keyword
	   This	option is ignored for SunOS compatibility.

       -Bdynamic
       -dy
       -call_shared
	   Link	against	dynamic	libraries.  This is only meaningful  on	 plat-
	   forms  for  which  shared  libraries	are supported.	This option is
	   normally the	default	on such	platforms.  The	different variants  of
	   this	 option	 are  for compatibility	with various systems.  You may
	   use this option multiple times on  the  command  line:  it  affects
	   library searching for -l options which follow it.

       -Bgroup
	   Set	the "DF_1_GROUP" flag in the "DT_FLAGS_1" entry	in the dynamic
	   section.  This causes the runtime linker to handle lookups in  this
	   object  and its dependencies	to be performed	only inside the	group.
	   --unresolved-symbols=report-all is implied.	This  option  is  only
	   meaningful on ELF platforms which support shared libraries.

       -Bstatic
       -dn
       -non_shared
       -static
	   Do  not  link against shared	libraries.  This is only meaningful on
	   platforms for which shared libraries	are supported.	The  different
	   variants of this option are for compatibility with various systems.
	   You may use this option multiple times  on  the  command  line:  it
	   affects  library  searching	for  -l	options	which follow it.  This
	   option also implies --unresolved-symbols=report-all.

       -Bsymbolic
	   When	creating a shared library, bind	references to  global  symbols
	   to  the definition within the shared	library, if any.  Normally, it
	   is possible for a program linked against a shared library to	 over-
	   ride	the definition within the shared library.  This	option is only
	   meaningful on ELF platforms which support shared libraries.

       --check-sections
       --no-check-sections
	   Asks	the linker not to check	section	addresses after	they have been
	   assigned  to	 see  if there any overlaps.  Normally the linker will
	   perform this	check, and if it finds any overlaps  it	 will  produce
	   suitable error messages.  The linker	does know about, and does make
	   allowances for sections in overlays.	 The default behaviour can  be
	   restored by using the command line switch --check-sections.

       --cref
	   Output a cross reference table.  If a linker	map file is being gen-
	   erated, the cross reference table is	printed	to the map file.  Oth-
	   erwise, it is printed on the	standard output.

	   The	format of the table is intentionally simple, so	that it	may be
	   easily processed by a script	if necessary.  The symbols are printed
	   out,	 sorted	 by  name.   For  each symbol, a list of file names is
	   given.  If the symbol is defined, the  first	 file  listed  is  the
	   location of the definition.	The remaining files contain references
	   to the symbol.

       --no-define-common
	   This	option inhibits	the assignment of addresses to common symbols.
	   The script command "INHIBIT_COMMON_ALLOCATION" has the same effect.

	   The --no-define-common option allows	 decoupling  the  decision  to
	   assign  addresses  to  Common symbols from the choice of the	output
	   file	type; otherwise	a non-Relocatable output type forces assigning
	   addresses  to Common	symbols.  Using	--no-define-common allows Com-
	   mon symbols that  are  referenced  from  a  shared  library	to  be
	   assigned  addresses	only in	the main program.  This	eliminates the
	   unused duplicate space in the shared	library, and also prevents any
	   possible confusion over resolving to	the wrong duplicate when there
	   are many dynamic modules with specialized search paths for  runtime
	   symbol resolution.

       --defsym	symbol=expression
	   Create  a global symbol in the output file, containing the absolute
	   address given by expression.	 You may use this option as many times
	   as  necessary  to  define  multiple symbols in the command line.  A
	   limited form	of arithmetic is supported for the expression in  this
	   context:  you  may  give  a	hexadecimal constant or	the name of an
	   existing symbol, or use "+" and "-" to add or subtract  hexadecimal
	   constants or	symbols.  If you need more elaborate expressions, con-
	   sider using the linker command language from	a script.  Note: there
	   should  be  no white	space between symbol, the equals sign (``=''),
	   and expression.

       --demangle[=style]
       --no-demangle
	   These options control whether to demangle  symbol  names  in	 error
	   messages and	other output.  When the	linker is told to demangle, it
	   tries to present symbol names in  a	readable  fashion:  it	strips
	   leading underscores if they are used	by the object file format, and
	   converts C++	mangled	symbol names into user readable	 names.	  Dif-
	   ferent  compilers  have  different  mangling	 styles.  The optional
	   demangling style argument can be  used  to  choose  an  appropriate
	   demangling  style  for  your	compiler.  The linker will demangle by
	   default unless the environment variable COLLECT_NO_DEMANGLE is set.
	   These options may be	used to	override the default.

       --dynamic-linker	file
	   Set	the  name of the dynamic linker.  This is only meaningful when
	   generating dynamically linked ELF executables.  The default dynamic
	   linker is normally correct; don't use this unless you know what you
	   are doing.

       --embedded-relocs
	   This	option is only meaningful when linking MIPS embedded PIC code,
	   generated  by  the  -membedded-pic  option  to the GNU compiler and
	   assembler.  It causes the linker to create a	 table	which  may  be
	   used	 at runtime to relocate	any data which was statically initial-
	   ized	to pointer values.  See	the  code  in  testsuite/ld-empic  for
	   details.

       --fatal-warnings
	   Treat all warnings as errors.

       --force-exe-suffix
	   Make	sure that an output file has a .exe suffix.

	   If  a  successfully	built fully linked output file does not	have a
	   ".exe" or ".dll" suffix, this option	forces the linker to copy  the
	   output  file	 to  one  of  the same name with a ".exe" suffix. This
	   option  is  useful  when  using  unmodified	Unix  makefiles	 on  a
	   Microsoft Windows host, since some versions of Windows won't	run an
	   image unless	it ends	in a ".exe" suffix.

       --no-gc-sections
       --gc-sections
	   Enable garbage collection of	unused input sections.	It is  ignored
	   on  targets	that  do  not support this option.  This option	is not
	   compatible with -r, nor should it be	 used  with  dynamic  linking.
	   The	default	 behaviour (of not performing this garbage collection)
	   can be restored by specifying --no-gc-sections on the command line.

       --help
	   Print  a summary of the command-line	options	on the standard	output
	   and exit.

       --target-help
	   Print a summary of all target specific options on the standard out-
	   put and exit.

       -Map mapfile
	   Print  a  link map to the file mapfile.  See	the description	of the
	   -M option, above.

       --no-keep-memory
	   ld normally optimizes for speed over	memory usage  by  caching  the
	   symbol  tables  of  input files in memory.  This option tells ld to
	   instead optimize for	memory usage, by rereading the	symbol	tables
	   as  necessary.  This	may be required	if ld runs out of memory space
	   while linking a large executable.

       --no-undefined
       -z defs
	   Report unresolved symbol  references	 from  regular	object	files.
	   This	 is  done even if the linker is	creating a non-symbolic	shared
	   library.  The switch	--[no-]allow-shlib-undefined controls the  be-
	   haviour   for  reporting  unresolved	 references  found  in	shared
	   libraries being linked in.

       --allow-multiple-definition
       -z muldefs
	   Normally when a symbol is defined multiple times, the  linker  will
	   report  a fatal error. These	options	allow multiple definitions and
	   the first definition	will be	used.

       --allow-shlib-undefined
       --no-allow-shlib-undefined
	   Allows (the default)	 or  disallows	undefined  symbols  in	shared
	   libraries.  This switch is similar to --no-undefined	except that it
	   determines the behaviour when the undefined symbols are in a	shared
	   library  rather than	a regular object file.	It does	not affect how
	   undefined symbols in	regular	object files are handled.

	   The reason that --allow-shlib-undefined is the default is that  the
	   shared  library being specified at link time	may not	be the same as
	   the one that	is available at	load time, so the symbols might	 actu-
	   ally	 be resolvable at load time.  Plus there are some systems, (eg
	   BeOS) where undefined symbols in shared libraries is	normal.	  (The
	   kernel  patches  them at load time to select	which function is most
	   appropriate for the current architecture.  This is used for example
	   to  dynamically select an appropriate memset	function).  Apparently
	   it is also normal for HPPA shared libraries to have undefined  sym-
	   bols.

       --no-undefined-version
	   Normally  when  a  symbol has an undefined version, the linker will
	   ignore it. This option disallows symbols with undefined version and
	   a fatal error will be issued	instead.

       --no-warn-mismatch
	   Normally  ld	 will  give an error if	you try	to link	together input
	   files that are mismatched for some  reason,	perhaps	 because  they
	   have	 been compiled for different processors	or for different endi-
	   annesses.  This option tells	ld that	it should silently permit such
	   possible  errors.   This  option  should only be used with care, in
	   cases when you have taken some special action that ensures that the
	   linker errors are inappropriate.

       --no-whole-archive
	   Turn	 off  the  effect of the --whole-archive option	for subsequent
	   archive files.

       --noinhibit-exec
	   Retain the executable output	file  whenever	it  is	still  usable.
	   Normally,  the linker will not produce an output file if it encoun-
	   ters	errors during the link process;	it exits  without  writing  an
	   output file when it issues any error	whatsoever.

       -nostdlib
	   Only	search library directories explicitly specified	on the command
	   line.  Library directories specified	in linker  scripts  (including
	   linker scripts specified on the command line) are ignored.

       --oformat output-format
	   ld  may be configured to support more than one kind of object file.
	   If your ld is configured this way, you can use the --oformat	option
	   to specify the binary format	for the	output object file.  Even when
	   ld is configured to support alternative object formats,  you	 don't
	   usually need	to specify this, as ld should be configured to produce
	   as a	default	output format the most usual format on	each  machine.
	   output-format  is  a	 text  string, the name	of a particular	format
	   supported by	the BFD	libraries.  (You can list the available	binary
	   formats  with  objdump -i.)	The script command "OUTPUT_FORMAT" can
	   also	specify	the output format, but this option overrides it.

       -pie
       --pic-executable
	   Create a position independent executable.  This is  currently  only
	   supported  on  ELF platforms.  Position independent executables are
	   similar to shared libraries in  that	 they  are  relocated  by  the
	   dynamic  linker  to	the  virtual  address  the OS chooses for them
	   (which can vary  between  invocations).   Like  normal  dynamically
	   linked  executables they can	be executed and	symbols	defined	in the
	   executable cannot be	overridden by shared libraries.

       -qmagic
	   This	option is ignored for Linux compatibility.

       -Qy This	option is ignored for SVR4 compatibility.

       --relax
	   An option with machine dependent effects.  This option is only sup-
	   ported on a few targets.

	   On some platforms, the --relax option performs global optimizations
	   that	become possible	when the linker	 resolves  addressing  in  the
	   program,  such  as  relaxing	 address  modes	 and  synthesizing new
	   instructions	in the output object file.

	   On some platforms these link	time  global  optimizations  may  make
	   symbolic debugging of the resulting executable impossible.  This is
	   known to be the case	for the	Matsushita MN10200 and MN10300	family
	   of processors.

	   On  platforms where this is not supported, --relax is accepted, but
	   ignored.

       --retain-symbols-file filename
	   Retain only the symbols listed in the file filename,	discarding all
	   others.   filename  is simply a flat	file, with one symbol name per
	   line.  This option is especially useful in  environments  (such  as
	   VxWorks)  where  a  large global symbol table is accumulated	gradu-
	   ally, to conserve run-time memory.

	   --retain-symbols-file does not discard undefined symbols,  or  sym-
	   bols	needed for relocations.

	   You	may  only  specify  --retain-symbols-file  once	in the command
	   line.  It overrides -s and -S.

       -rpath dir
	   Add a directory to the runtime library search path.	This  is  used
	   when	 linking  an  ELF  executable with shared objects.  All	-rpath
	   arguments are concatenated and passed to the	runtime	linker,	 which
	   uses	 them  to locate shared	objects	at runtime.  The -rpath	option
	   is also used	when locating  shared  objects	which  are  needed  by
	   shared objects explicitly included in the link; see the description
	   of the -rpath-link option.  If -rpath is not	used when  linking  an
	   ELF	 executable,   the   contents	of  the	 environment  variable
	   "LD_RUN_PATH" will be used if it is defined.

	   The -rpath option may also be used on SunOS.	 By default, on	SunOS,
	   the	linker	will  form  a  runtime	search patch out of all	the -L
	   options it is given.	 If a  -rpath  option  is  used,  the  runtime
	   search  path	 will  be formed exclusively using the -rpath options,
	   ignoring the	-L options.  This can be useful	when using gcc,	 which
	   adds	many -L	options	which may be on	NFS mounted filesystems.

	   For	compatibility with other ELF linkers, if the -R	option is fol-
	   lowed by a directory	name, rather than a file name, it  is  treated
	   as the -rpath option.

       -rpath-link DIR
	   When	 using	ELF  or	SunOS, one shared library may require another.
	   This	happens	when an	"ld -shared" link includes a shared library as
	   one of the input files.

	   When	  the  linker  encounters  such	 a  dependency	when  doing  a
	   non-shared, non-relocatable link,  it  will	automatically  try  to
	   locate  the	required shared	library	and include it in the link, if
	   it is not included explicitly.  In such  a  case,  the  -rpath-link
	   option  specifies  the  first  set  of  directories to search.  The
	   -rpath-link option may specify a sequence of	directory names	either
	   by  specifying a list of names separated by colons, or by appearing
	   multiple times.

	   This	option should be used with caution as it overrides the	search
	   path	 that  may  have  been hard compiled into a shared library. In
	   such	a case it is  possible	to  use	 unintentionally  a  different
	   search path than the	runtime	linker would do.

	   The	linker	uses  the  following  search  paths to locate required
	   shared libraries.

	   1.  Any directories specified by -rpath-link	options.

	   2.  Any directories specified by -rpath  options.   The  difference
	       between -rpath and -rpath-link is that directories specified by
	       -rpath options are included in the executable and used at  run-
	       time,  whereas the -rpath-link option is	only effective at link
	       time. It	is for the native linker only.

	   3.  On an ELF system, if the	-rpath and "rpath-link"	 options  were
	       not  used,  search  the	contents  of  the environment variable
	       "LD_RUN_PATH". It is for	the native linker only.

	   4.  On SunOS, if the	-rpath option was not used, search any	direc-
	       tories specified	using -L options.

	   5.  For  a  native linker, the contents of the environment variable
	       "LD_LIBRARY_PATH".

	   6.  For a native ELF	linker,	the  directories  in  "DT_RUNPATH"  or
	       "DT_RPATH"   of	a  shared  library  are	 searched  for	shared
	       libraries needed	by it. The "DT_RPATH" entries are  ignored  if
	       "DT_RUNPATH" entries exist.

	   7.  The default directories,	normally /lib and /usr/lib.

	   8.  For   a	 native	  linker   on  an  ELF	system,	 if  the  file
	       /etc/ld.so.conf exists, the list	of directories found  in  that
	       file.

	   If  the required shared library is not found, the linker will issue
	   a warning and continue with the link.

       -shared
       -Bshareable
	   Create a shared library.  This is currently only supported on  ELF,
	   XCOFF and SunOS platforms.  On SunOS, the linker will automatically
	   create a shared library if the -e option is not used	and there  are
	   undefined symbols in	the link.

       --sort-common
	   This	 option	 tells	ld  to sort the	common symbols by size when it
	   places them in the appropriate output sections.  First come all the
	   one	byte  symbols,	then all the two byte, then all	the four byte,
	   and then everything else.  This is to prevent gaps between  symbols
	   due to alignment constraints.

       --split-by-file [size]
	   Similar  to	--split-by-reloc  but creates a	new output section for
	   each	input file when	size is	reached.  size defaults	to a size of 1
	   if not given.

       --split-by-reloc	[count]
	   Tries  to creates extra sections in the output file so that no sin-
	   gle output section in the file contains  more  than	count  reloca-
	   tions.   This  is useful when generating huge relocatable files for
	   downloading into certain real time kernels  with  the  COFF	object
	   file	 format;  since	 COFF cannot represent more than 65535 reloca-
	   tions in a single section.  Note that this will fail	to  work  with
	   object  file	 formats which do not support arbitrary	sections.  The
	   linker will not split up individual input sections for  redistribu-
	   tion, so if a single	input section contains more than count reloca-
	   tions one output section will contain that many relocations.	 count
	   defaults to a value of 32768.

       --stats
	   Compute  and	 display statistics about the operation	of the linker,
	   such	as execution time and memory usage.

       --traditional-format
	   For some targets, the output	of ld is different in some  ways  from
	   the output of some existing linker.	This switch requests ld	to use
	   the traditional format instead.

	   For example,	on SunOS, ld combines duplicate	entries	in the	symbol
	   string table.  This can reduce the size of an output	file with full
	   debugging information by over 30 percent.  Unfortunately, the SunOS
	   "dbx"  program  can	not  read  the resulting program ("gdb"	has no
	   trouble).  The --traditional-format switch tells ld to not  combine
	   duplicate entries.

       --section-start sectionname=org
	   Locate  a  section in the output file at the	absolute address given
	   by org.  You	may use	this option as	many  times  as	 necessary  to
	   locate multiple sections in the command line.  org must be a	single
	   hexadecimal integer;	for compatibility with other linkers, you  may
	   omit	 the  leading  0x  usually associated with hexadecimal values.
	   Note: there should be  no  white  space  between  sectionname,  the
	   equals sign (``=''),	and org.

       -Tbss org
       -Tdata org
       -Ttext org
	   Same	 as  --section-start,  with  ".bss", ".data" or	".text"	as the
	   sectionname.

       --unresolved-symbols=method
	   Determine how to handle unresolved symbols.	There are four	possi-
	   ble values for method:

	   ignore-all
	       Do not report any unresolved symbols.

	   report-all
	       Report all unresolved symbols.  This is the default.

	   ignore-in-object-files
	       Report	unresolved   symbols  that  are	 contained  in	shared
	       libraries, but ignore them if they  come	 from  regular	object
	       files.

	   ignore-in-shared-libs
	       Report  unresolved symbols that come from regular object	files,
	       but ignore them if they come from shared	libraries.   This  can
	       be  useful  when	creating a dynamic binary and it is known that
	       all the shared libraries	that  it  should  be  referencing  are
	       included	on the linker's	command	line.

	   The	behaviour  for	shared libraries on their own can also be con-
	   trolled by the --[no-]allow-shlib-undefined option.

	   Normally the	 linker	 will  generate	 an  error  message  for  each
	   reported unresolved symbol but the option --warn-unresolved-symbols
	   can change this to a	warning.

       --dll-verbose
       --verbose
	   Display the version number for ld and list  the  linker  emulations
	   supported.	Display	 which	input  files can and cannot be opened.
	   Display the linker script being used	by the linker.

       --version-script=version-scriptfile
	   Specify the name of a version script	to the linker.	This is	 typi-
	   cally  used	when  creating	shared libraries to specify additional
	   information about the version hierarchy for the library being  cre-
	   ated.   This	 option	is only	meaningful on ELF platforms which sup-
	   port	shared libraries.

       --warn-common
	   Warn	when a common symbol is	combined with another common symbol or
	   with	 a symbol definition.  Unix linkers allow this somewhat	sloppy
	   practise, but linkers on some other operating systems do not.  This
	   option  allows you to find potential	problems from combining	global
	   symbols.  Unfortunately, some C libraries use this practise,	so you
	   may	get some warnings about	symbols	in the libraries as well as in
	   your	programs.

	   There are three kinds of global  symbols,  illustrated  here	 by  C
	   examples:

	   int i = 1;
	       A definition, which goes	in the initialized data	section	of the
	       output file.

	   extern int i;
	       An undefined reference, which does not allocate	space.	 There
	       must be either a	definition or a	common symbol for the variable
	       somewhere.

	   int i;
	       A common	symbol.	 If there are only (one	or more)  common  sym-
	       bols  for a variable, it	goes in	the uninitialized data area of
	       the output file.	 The linker merges multiple common symbols for
	       the same	variable into a	single symbol.	If they	are of differ-
	       ent sizes, it picks the largest size.  The linker turns a  com-
	       mon  symbol into	a declaration, if there	is a definition	of the
	       same variable.

	   The --warn-common option can	produce	five kinds of warnings.	  Each
	   warning consists of a pair of lines:	the first describes the	symbol
	   just	encountered, and the  second  describes	 the  previous	symbol
	   encountered	with  the  same	 name.	One or both of the two symbols
	   will	be a common symbol.

	   1.  Turning a common	symbol into  a	reference,  because  there  is
	       already a definition for	the symbol.

		       <file>(<section>): warning: common of `<symbol>'
			  overridden by	definition
		       <file>(<section>): warning: defined here

	   2.  Turning a common	symbol into a reference, because a later defi-
	       nition for the symbol is	encountered.  This is the same as  the
	       previous	 case,	except	that  the symbols are encountered in a
	       different order.

		       <file>(<section>): warning: definition of `<symbol>'
			  overriding common
		       <file>(<section>): warning: common is here

	   3.  Merging a common	symbol with a previous same-sized common  sym-
	       bol.

		       <file>(<section>): warning: multiple common
			  of `<symbol>'
		       <file>(<section>): warning: previous common is here

	   4.  Merging a common	symbol with a previous larger common symbol.

		       <file>(<section>): warning: common of `<symbol>'
			  overridden by	larger common
		       <file>(<section>): warning: larger common is here

	   5.  Merging	a common symbol	with a previous	smaller	common symbol.
	       This is the same	as the previous	case, except that the  symbols
	       are encountered in a different order.

		       <file>(<section>): warning: common of `<symbol>'
			  overriding smaller common
		       <file>(<section>): warning: smaller common is here

       --warn-constructors
	   Warn	 if any	global constructors are	used.  This is only useful for
	   a few object	file formats.  For  formats  like  COFF	 or  ELF,  the
	   linker can not detect the use of global constructors.

       --warn-multiple-gp
	   Warn	 if  multiple global pointer values are	required in the	output
	   file.  This is only meaningful for certain processors, such as  the
	   Alpha.  Specifically, some processors put large-valued constants in
	   a special section.  A special register (the global pointer)	points
	   into	 the  middle  of this section, so that constants can be	loaded
	   efficiently via a base-register relative  addressing	 mode.	 Since
	   the	offset	in base-register relative mode is fixed	and relatively
	   small (e.g.,	16 bits), this limits the maximum size of the constant
	   pool.  Thus,	in large programs, it is often necessary to use	multi-
	   ple global pointer values in	order to be able to address all	possi-
	   ble	constants.  This option	causes a warning to be issued whenever
	   this	case occurs.

       --warn-once
	   Only	warn once for each undefined symbol, rather than once per mod-
	   ule which refers to it.

       --warn-section-align
	   Warn	 if  the  address  of  an output section is changed because of
	   alignment.  Typically, the alignment	will be	set by an  input  sec-
	   tion.  The address will only	be changed if it not explicitly	speci-
	   fied; that is, if the "SECTIONS" command does not specify  a	 start
	   address for the section.

       --warn-unresolved-symbols
	   If  the  linker  is	going  to report an unresolved symbol (see the
	   option --unresolved-symbols)	it will	normally  generate  an	error.
	   This	option makes it	generate a warning instead.

       --error-unresolved-symbols
	   This	 restores  the linker's	default	behaviour of generating	errors
	   when	it is reporting	unresolved symbols.

       --whole-archive
	   For	each  archive  mentioned  on  the  command  line   after   the
	   --whole-archive option, include every object	file in	the archive in
	   the link, rather than searching the archive for the required	object
	   files.  This	is normally used to turn an archive file into a	shared
	   library, forcing every object  to  be  included  in	the  resulting
	   shared library.  This option	may be used more than once.

	   Two	notes when using this option from gcc: First, gcc doesn't know
	   about this option, so you have to use -Wl,-whole-archive.   Second,
	   don't  forget  to  use -Wl,-no-whole-archive	after your list	of ar-
	   chives, because gcc will add	its own	list of	archives to your  link
	   and you may not want	this flag to affect those as well.

       --wrap symbol
	   Use a wrapper function for symbol.  Any undefined reference to sym-
	   bol will be resolved	to "__wrap_symbol".  Any  undefined  reference
	   to "__real_symbol" will be resolved to symbol.

	   This	 can  be used to provide a wrapper for a system	function.  The
	   wrapper function should be called "__wrap_symbol".  If it wishes to
	   call	the system function, it	should call "__real_symbol".

	   Here	is a trivial example:

		   void	*
		   __wrap_malloc (size_t c)
		   {
		     printf ("malloc called with %zu\n", c);
		     return __real_malloc (c);
		   }

	   If you link other code with this file using --wrap malloc, then all
	   calls to "malloc" will call the function  "__wrap_malloc"  instead.
	   The	call  to "__real_malloc" in "__wrap_malloc" will call the real
	   "malloc" function.

	   You may wish	to provide a "__real_malloc" function as well, so that
	   links  without the --wrap option will succeed.  If you do this, you
	   should not put the definition of "__real_malloc" in the  same  file
	   as  "__wrap_malloc";	 if you	do, the	assembler may resolve the call
	   before the linker has a chance to wrap it to	"malloc".

       --enable-new-dtags
       --disable-new-dtags
	   This	linker can create the new dynamic tags in ELF. But  the	 older
	   ELF	 systems   may	 not   understand   them.   If	 you   specify
	   --enable-new-dtags, the dynamic tags	will be	created	as needed.  If
	   you	specify	 --disable-new-dtags, no new dynamic tags will be cre-
	   ated. By default, the new dynamic tags are not created.  Note  that
	   those options are only available for	ELF systems.

       The i386	PE linker supports the -shared option, which causes the	output
       to be a dynamically linked library  (DLL)  instead  of  a  normal  exe-
       cutable.	  You should name the output "*.dll" when you use this option.
       In addition, the	linker fully  supports	the  standard  "*.def"	files,
       which  may  be specified	on the linker command line like	an object file
       (in fact, it should precede archives it exports symbols from, to	ensure
       that they get linked in,	just like a normal object file).

       In  addition  to	 the options common to all targets, the	i386 PE	linker
       support additional command line options that are	specific to  the  i386
       PE target.  Options that	take values may	be separated from their	values
       by either a space or an equals sign.

       --add-stdcall-alias
	   If given, symbols with a stdcall suffix (@nn) will be exported  as-
	   is  and also	with the suffix	stripped.  [This option	is specific to
	   the i386 PE targeted	port of	the linker]

       --base-file file
	   Use file as the name	of a file in which to save the base  addresses
	   of  all  the	 relocations  needed for generating DLLs with dlltool.
	   [This is an i386 PE specific	option]

       --dll
	   Create a DLL	instead	of a regular executable.   You	may  also  use
	   -shared  or	specify	 a  "LIBRARY"  in  a given ".def" file.	 [This
	   option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --enable-stdcall-fixup
       --disable-stdcall-fixup
	   If the link finds a symbol that it cannot resolve, it will  attempt
	   to  do ``fuzzy linking'' by looking for another defined symbol that
	   differs only	in the format of the symbol name  (cdecl  vs  stdcall)
	   and will resolve that symbol	by linking to the match.  For example,
	   the undefined  symbol  "_foo"  might	 be  linked  to	 the  function
	   "_foo@12", or the undefined symbol "_bar@16"	might be linked	to the
	   function "_bar".  When the linker does this,	it prints  a  warning,
	   since  it normally should have failed to link, but sometimes	import
	   libraries generated from third-party	dlls may need this feature  to
	   be  usable.	If you specify --enable-stdcall-fixup, this feature is
	   fully enabled and warnings are not printed.	If you specify	--dis-
	   able-stdcall-fixup,	this  feature  is disabled and such mismatches
	   are considered to be	errors.	 [This option is specific to the  i386
	   PE targeted port of the linker]

       --export-all-symbols
	   If  given,  all  global  symbols in the objects used	to build a DLL
	   will	be exported by the DLL.	 Note that  this  is  the  default  if
	   there otherwise wouldn't be any exported symbols.  When symbols are
	   explicitly exported via DEF files or	implicitly exported via	 func-
	   tion	 attributes, the default is to not export anything else	unless
	   this	option is given.  Note that the	symbols	"DllMain@12",  "DllEn-
	   tryPoint@0",	 "DllMainCRTStartup@12",  and "impure_ptr" will	not be
	   automatically exported.  Also, symbols  imported  from  other  DLLs
	   will	 not  be  re-exported,	nor  will symbols specifying the DLL's
	   internal layout such	as those beginning  with  "_head_"  or	ending
	   with	 "_iname".  In addition, no symbols from "libgcc", "libstd++",
	   "libmingw32", or "crtX.o" will be exported.	 Symbols  whose	 names
	   begin  with "__rtti_" or "__builtin_" will not be exported, to help
	   with	C++ DLLs.  Finally, there is an	extensive list of  cygwin-pri-
	   vate	symbols	that are not exported (obviously, this applies on when
	   building DLLs for  cygwin  targets).	  These	 cygwin-excludes  are:
	   "_cygwin_dll_entry@12",  "_cygwin_crt0_common@8",  "_cygwin_noncyg-
	   win_dll_entry@12",  "_fmode",  "_impure_ptr",  "cygwin_attach_dll",
	   "cygwin_premain0",	"cygwin_premain1",   "cygwin_premain2",	 "cyg-
	   win_premain3", and "environ".  [This	option is specific to the i386
	   PE targeted port of the linker]

       --exclude-symbols symbol,symbol,...
	   Specifies  a	 list  of  symbols  which  should not be automatically
	   exported.  The symbol names may be delimited	by commas  or  colons.
	   [This  option  is  specific	to  the	 i386  PE targeted port	of the
	   linker]

       --exclude-libs lib,lib,...
	   Specifies a list of archive libraries from which symbols should not
	   be  automatically  exported.	 The library names may be delimited by
	   commas or colons.  Specifying "--exclude-libs ALL" excludes symbols
	   in  all archive libraries from automatic export. Symbols explicitly
	   listed in a .def  file  are	still  exported,  regardless  of  this
	   option.   [This  option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of
	   the linker]

       --file-alignment
	   Specify the file alignment.	Sections in the	file will always begin
	   at  file offsets which are multiples	of this	number.	 This defaults
	   to 512.  [This option is specific to	the i386 PE targeted  port  of
	   the linker]

       --heap reserve
       --heap reserve,commit
	   Specify  the	amount of memory to reserve (and optionally commit) to
	   be used as heap for this program.  The default is 1Mb reserved,  4K
	   committed.	[This  option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port
	   of the linker]

       --image-base value
	   Use value as	the base address of your program or dll.  This is  the
	   lowest  memory  location that will be used when your	program	or dll
	   is loaded.  To reduce the need to relocate and improve  performance
	   of  your dlls, each should have a unique base address and not over-
	   lap any other dlls.	The default is 0x400000	for  executables,  and
	   0x10000000  for dlls.  [This	option is specific to the i386 PE tar-
	   geted port of the linker]

       --kill-at
	   If given, the stdcall suffixes (@nn)	will be	stripped from  symbols
	   before  they	are exported.  [This option is specific	to the i386 PE
	   targeted port of the	linker]

       --major-image-version value
	   Sets	the major number of the	``image	 version''.   Defaults	to  1.
	   [This  option  is  specific	to  the	 i386  PE targeted port	of the
	   linker]

       --major-os-version value
	   Sets	the major number of the	``os version''.	 Defaults to 4.	 [This
	   option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --major-subsystem-version value
	   Sets	the major number of the	``subsystem version''.	Defaults to 4.
	   [This option	is specific to	the  i386  PE  targeted	 port  of  the
	   linker]

       --minor-image-version value
	   Sets	 the  minor  number  of	the ``image version''.	Defaults to 0.
	   [This option	is specific to	the  i386  PE  targeted	 port  of  the
	   linker]

       --minor-os-version value
	   Sets	the minor number of the	``os version''.	 Defaults to 0.	 [This
	   option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --minor-subsystem-version value
	   Sets	the minor number of the	``subsystem version''.	Defaults to 0.
	   [This  option  is  specific	to  the	 i386  PE targeted port	of the
	   linker]

       --output-def file
	   The linker will create the file file	which will contain a DEF  file
	   corresponding  to  the DLL the linker is generating.	 This DEF file
	   (which should be called "*.def") may	be used	to  create  an	import
	   library  with  "dlltool" or may be used as a	reference to automati-
	   cally or implicitly exported	symbols.  [This	option is specific  to
	   the i386 PE targeted	port of	the linker]

       --out-implib file
	   The	linker	will create the	file file which	will contain an	import
	   lib corresponding to	the DLL	the linker is generating. This	import
	   lib	(which should be called	"*.dll.a" or "*.a" may be used to link
	   clients against the generated DLL; this behaviour makes it possible
	   to  skip  a separate	"dlltool" import library creation step.	 [This
	   option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

       --enable-auto-image-base
	   Automatically choose	the image base for DLLs, unless	one is	speci-
	   fied	 using the "--image-base" argument.  By	using a	hash generated
	   from	the dllname to create unique image bases for each DLL, in-mem-
	   ory	collisions  and	 relocations which can delay program execution
	   are avoided.	 [This option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port
	   of the linker]

       --disable-auto-image-base
	   Do  not automatically generate a unique image base.	If there is no
	   user-specified image	base ("--image-base") then  use	 the  platform
	   default.   [This option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of
	   the linker]

       --dll-search-prefix string
	   When	linking	dynamically to a dll without an	import library,	search
	   for	"<string><basename>.dll" in preference to "lib<basename>.dll".
	   This	behaviour allows easy distinction between DLLs built  for  the
	   various   "subplatforms":  native,  cygwin,	uwin,  pw,  etc.   For
	   instance,  cygwin  DLLs  typically  use  "--dll-search-prefix=cyg".
	   [This  option  is  specific	to  the	 i386  PE targeted port	of the
	   linker]

       --enable-auto-import
	   Do sophisticated linking of "_symbol" to "__imp__symbol"  for  DATA
	   imports  from  DLLs,	and create the necessary thunking symbols when
	   building the	import libraries with those DATA exports. Note:	Use of
	   the	'auto-import'  extension  will	cause  the text	section	of the
	   image file to be made writable. This	does not conform  to  the  PE-
	   COFF	format specification published by Microsoft.

	   Using 'auto-import' generally will 'just work' -- but sometimes you
	   may see this	message:

	   "variable '<var>' can't be auto-imported. Please read the  documen-
	   tation for ld's "--enable-auto-import" for details."

	   This	 message  occurs when some (sub)expression accesses an address
	   ultimately given by the sum of two constants	(Win32	import	tables
	   only	 allow	one).  Instances where this may	occur include accesses
	   to member fields of struct variables	imported from a	DLL,  as  well
	   as  using  a	 constant index	into an	array variable imported	from a
	   DLL.	 Any multiword variable	(arrays, structs, long long, etc)  may
	   trigger  this  error	 condition.   However, regardless of the exact
	   data	type of	the offending exported variable, ld will always	detect
	   it, issue the warning, and exit.

	   There  are  several	ways to	address	this difficulty, regardless of
	   the data type of the	exported variable:

	   One way is to use --enable-runtime-pseudo-reloc switch. This	leaves
	   the	task  of  adjusting references in your client code for runtime
	   environment,	so this	method works  only  when  runtime  environment
	   supports this feature.

	   A  second solution is to force one of the 'constants' to be a vari-
	   able	-- that	is, unknown and	un-optimizable at compile  time.   For
	   arrays,  there  are	two  possibilities:  a)	 make the indexee (the
	   array's address) a variable,	or b)  make  the  'constant'  index  a
	   variable.  Thus:

		   extern type extern_array[];
		   extern_array[1] -->
		      {	volatile type *t=extern_array; t[1] }

	   or

		   extern type extern_array[];
		   extern_array[1] -->
		      {	volatile int t=1; extern_array[t] }

	   For	structs	 (and most other multiword data	types) the only	option
	   is to make the struct itself	(or the	long long, or the  ...)	 vari-
	   able:

		   extern struct s extern_struct;
		   extern_struct.field -->
		      {	volatile struct	s *t=&extern_struct; t->field }

	   or

		   extern long long extern_ll;
		   extern_ll -->
		     { volatile	long long * local_ll=&extern_ll; *local_ll }

	   A  third  method  of	 dealing  with	this  difficulty is to abandon
	   'auto-import'  for  the  offending  symbol	and   mark   it	  with
	   "__declspec(dllimport)".   However, in practise that	requires using
	   compile-time	#defines to indicate whether you are building  a  DLL,
	   building  client  code  that	will link to the DLL, or merely	build-
	   ing/linking to a static library.   In making	the choice between the
	   various methods of resolving	the 'direct address with constant off-
	   set'	problem, you should consider typical real-world	usage:

	   Original:

		   --foo.h
		   extern int arr[];
		   --foo.c
		   #include "foo.h"
		   void	main(int argc, char **argv){
		     printf("%d\n",arr[1]);
		   }

	   Solution 1:

		   --foo.h
		   extern int arr[];
		   --foo.c
		   #include "foo.h"
		   void	main(int argc, char **argv){
		     /*	This workaround	is for win32 and cygwin; do not	"optimize" */
		     volatile int *parr	= arr;
		     printf("%d\n",parr[1]);
		   }

	   Solution 2:

		   --foo.h
		   /* Note: auto-export	is assumed (no __declspec(dllexport)) */
		   #if (defined(_WIN32)	|| defined(__CYGWIN__))	&& \
		     !(defined(FOO_BUILD_DLL) || defined(FOO_STATIC))
		   #define FOO_IMPORT __declspec(dllimport)
		   #else
		   #define FOO_IMPORT
		   #endif
		   extern FOO_IMPORT int arr[];
		   --foo.c
		   #include "foo.h"
		   void	main(int argc, char **argv){
		     printf("%d\n",arr[1]);
		   }

	   A fourth way	to avoid this problem is to re-code  your  library  to
	   use	a  functional  interface  rather than a	data interface for the
	   offending variables (e.g. set_foo() and  get_foo()  accessor	 func-
	   tions).   [This  option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of
	   the linker]

       --disable-auto-import
	   Do  not  attempt  to	 do  sophisticated  linking  of	 "_symbol"  to
	   "__imp__symbol"  for	 DATA imports from DLLs.  [This	option is spe-
	   cific to the	i386 PE	targeted port of the linker]

       --enable-runtime-pseudo-reloc
	   If your code	contains expressions described in --enable-auto-import
	   section,  that is, DATA imports from	DLL with non-zero offset, this
	   switch will create a	vector of 'runtime pseudo  relocations'	 which
	   can	be  used  by  runtime environment to adjust references to such
	   data	in your	client code.  [This option is specific to the i386  PE
	   targeted port of the	linker]

       --disable-runtime-pseudo-reloc
	   Do  not  create pseudo relocations for non-zero offset DATA imports
	   from	DLLs.  This is the default.  [This option is specific  to  the
	   i386	PE targeted port of the	linker]

       --enable-extra-pe-debug
	   Show	 additional debug info related to auto-import symbol thunking.
	   [This option	is specific to	the  i386  PE  targeted	 port  of  the
	   linker]

       --section-alignment
	   Sets	 the  section alignment.  Sections in memory will always begin
	   at addresses	which are a multiple  of  this	number.	  Defaults  to
	   0x1000.   [This  option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of
	   the linker]

       --stack reserve
       --stack reserve,commit
	   Specify the amount of memory	to reserve (and	optionally commit)  to
	   be used as stack for	this program.  The default is 2Mb reserved, 4K
	   committed.  [This option is specific	to the i386 PE	targeted  port
	   of the linker]

       --subsystem which
       --subsystem which:major
       --subsystem which:major.minor
	   Specifies the subsystem under which your program will execute.  The
	   legal values	for which  are	"native",  "windows",  "console",  and
	   "posix".  You may optionally	set the	subsystem version also.	 [This
	   option is specific to the i386 PE targeted port of the linker]

ENVIRONMENT
       You can change the behaviour of ld with the environment variables "GNU-
       TARGET",	"LDEMULATION" and "COLLECT_NO_DEMANGLE".

       "GNUTARGET" determines the input-file object format if you don't	use -b
       (or its synonym --format).  Its value should be one of  the  BFD	 names
       for an input format.  If	there is no "GNUTARGET"	in the environment, ld
       uses the	natural	format	of  the	 target.  If  "GNUTARGET"  is  set  to
       "default"  then	BFD attempts to	discover the input format by examining
       binary input files; this	method often succeeds, but there are potential
       ambiguities, since there	is no method of	ensuring that the magic	number
       used to specify object-file formats is unique.  However,	the configura-
       tion  procedure	for  BFD on each system	places the conventional	format
       for that	system first in	the search-list, so ambiguities	 are  resolved
       in favor	of convention.

       "LDEMULATION"  determines the default emulation if you don't use	the -m
       option.	The emulation can affect various aspects of linker  behaviour,
       particularly  the  default  linker  script.  You	can list the available
       emulations with the --verbose or	-V options.  If	the -m option  is  not
       used,  and  the	"LDEMULATION" environment variable is not defined, the
       default emulation depends upon how the linker was configured.

       Normally, the linker will default to demangling symbols.	  However,  if
       "COLLECT_NO_DEMANGLE"  is  set in the environment, then it will default
       to not demangling symbols.  This	environment variable is	used in	a sim-
       ilar  fashion  by the "gcc" linker wrapper program.  The	default	may be
       overridden by the --demangle and	--no-demangle options.

SEE ALSO
       ar(1), nm(1), objcopy(1), objdump(1), readelf(1)	and the	 Info  entries
       for binutils and	ld.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright  (c)  1991, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 2000, 2001, 2002,
       2003, 2004 Free Software	Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to	copy, distribute and/or	modify	this  document
       under  the  terms of the	GNU Free Documentation License,	Version	1.1 or
       any later version published by the Free Software	 Foundation;  with  no
       Invariant  Sections,  with no Front-Cover Texts,	and with no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is	included in the	section	entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

binutils-2.15			  2004-05-17				 LD(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | COPYRIGHT

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