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join(1)				 User Commands			       join(1)

NAME
       join - relational database operator

SYNOPSIS
       join [-a	filenumber | -v	filenumber]  [-1 fieldnumber] [-2 fieldnumber]
       [-o list] [-e string] [-t char] file1 file2

       join [-a	filenumber] [-j	fieldnumber] [-j1 fieldnumber]	[-j2 fieldnum-
       ber] [-o	list] [-e string] [-t char] file1 file2

DESCRIPTION
       The join	command	forms, on the standard output, a join of the two rela-
       tions specified by the lines of file1 and file2.

       There is	one line in the	output for each	pair of	 lines	in  file1  and
       file2  that  have  identical join fields. The output line normally con-
       sists of	the common field, then the rest	of the line from  file1,  then
       the  rest  of  the line from file2. This	format can be changed by using
       the -o option (see below). The -a option	can be used to	add  unmatched
       lines to	the output. The	-v option can be used to output	only unmatched
       lines.

       The default input field separators are blank, tab, or new-line. In this
       case,  multiple	separators  count  as one field	separator, and leading
       separators are ignored. The default output field	separator is a	blank.

       If  the	input files are	not in the appropriate collating sequence, the
       results are unspecified.

OPTIONS
       Some of the options below use the argument  filenumber.	This  argument
       should  be a 1 or a 2 referring to either file1 or file2, respectively.

       - a filenumber
	     In	addition to  the  normal  output,  produce  a  line  for  each
	     unpairable	 line  in file filenumber, where filenumber is 1 or 2.
	     If	both -a	1 and -a 2 are specified, all unpairable lines will be
	     output.

       -e string
	     Replace  empty  output  fields  in	the list selected by option -o
	     with the string string.

       -j fieldnumber
	     Equivalent	to -1fieldnumber -2fieldnumber.

       -j1 fieldnumber
	     Equivalent	to -1fieldnumber.

       -j2 fieldnumber
	     Equivalent	to -2fieldnumber. Fields are numbered starting with 1.

       -o list
	     Each  output  line	 includes the fields specified in list.	Fields
	     selected by list that do not appear in the	input will be  treated
	     as	 empty	output	fields.	 (See  the -e option.) Each element of
	     which has the either the form filenumber.fieldnumber, or 0, which
	     represents	the join field.	The common field is not	printed	unless
	     specifically requested.

       -t char
	     Use character char	as a separator.	Every appearance of char in  a
	     line is significant. The character	char is	used as	the field sep-
	     arator for	both input and output. With this option	specified, the
	     collating	term should be the same	as sort	without	the -b option.

       -v filenumber
	     Instead of	the default output,  produce  a	 line  only  for  each
	     unpairable	 line  in  filenumber, where filenumber	is 1 or	2.  If
	     both -v 1 and -v 2	are specified, all unpairable  lines  will  be
	     output.

       -1 fieldnumber
	     Join  on  the  fieldnumberth  field of file 1. Fields are decimal
	     integers starting with 1.

       -2fieldnumber
	     Join on the fieldnumberth field of	file  2.  Fields  are  decimal
	     integers starting with 1.

OPERANDS
       The following operands are supported:

	file1

       file2 A	path  name  of	a file to be joined. If	either of the file1 or
	     file2 operands is -, the standard input is	used in	its place.

       file1 and file2 must be sorted  in  increasing  collating  sequence  as
       determined  by LC_COLLATE on the	fields on which	they are to be joined,
       normally	the first in each line (see sort(1)).

USAGE
       See largefile(5)	for the	description  of	 the  behavior	of  join  when
       encountering files greater than or equal	to 2 Gbyte ( 2**31bytes).

EXAMPLES
       Example 1: Joining the password file and	group file

       The  following  command	line will join the password file and the group
       file, matching on the numeric group ID, and outputting the login	 name,
       the  group  name	 and the login directory. It is	assumed	that the files
       have been sorted	in ASCII collating sequence on the group ID fields.

       example%	join -j1 4-j2 3	-o 1.1 2.1 1.6 -t:/etc/passwd /etc/group

       Example 2: Using	the -o option

       The -o 0	field essentially selects the union of the  join  fields.  For
       example,	given file phone:

       !Name	       Phone Number
       Don	       +1 123-456-7890
       Hal	       +1 234-567-8901
       Yasushi	       +2 345-678-9012

       and file	fax:

       !Name	       Fax Number

       Don	       +1 123-456-7899

       Keith	       +1 456-789-0122

       Yasushi	       +2 345-678-9011

       where  the  large expanses of white space are meant to each represent a
       single tab character), the command:

       example%	join -t"tab" -a	1 -a 2 -e '(unknown)' -o 0,1.2,2.2 phone fax

       would produce

       !Name	       Phone Number	      Fax Number
       Don	       +1 123-456-7890	       +1 123-456-7899
       Hal	       +1 234-567-8901	       (unknown
       Keith	       (unknown)	       +1 456-789-012
       Yasushi	       +2 345-678-9012	       +2 345-678-9011

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following	environment  variables
       that  affect  the execution of join: LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES, LC_COLLATE,
       and NLSPATH.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values are returned:

	0    All input files were output successfully.

       >0    An	error occurred.

ATTRIBUTES
       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |      ATTRIBUTE	TYPE	     |	    ATTRIBUTE VALUE	   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |Availability		     |SUNWcsu			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+
       |CSI			     |Enabled			   |
       +-----------------------------+-----------------------------+

SEE ALSO
       awk(1), comm(1),	sort(1), uniq(1),  attributes(5),  environ(5),	large-
       file(5)

NOTES
       With  default  field separation,	the collating sequence is that of sort
       -b; with	-t, the	sequence is that of a plain sort.

       The conventions of the join, sort, comm,	uniq,  and  awk	 commands  are
       wildly incongruous.

SunOS 5.9			  8 Feb	2000			       join(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | OPERANDS | USAGE | EXAMPLES | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | EXIT STATUS | ATTRIBUTES | SEE ALSO | NOTES

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