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IPNAT(5)							      IPNAT(5)

NAME
       ipnat, ipnat.conf - IPFilter NAT	file format

DESCRIPTION
       The  ipnat.conf	file  is used to specify rules for the Network Address
       Translation (NAT) component of IPFilter.	 To load  rules	 specified  in
       the ipnat.conf file, the	ipnat(8) program is used.

       For  standard  NAT functionality, a rule	should start with map and then
       proceeds	to specify the interface for which outgoing packets will  have
       their source address rewritten.	Following this it is expected that the
       old source address, and optionally port number, will be specified.

       In general, all NAT rules conform to the	following  layout:  the	 first
       word  indicates	what  type of NAT rule is present, this	is followed by
       some stanzas to match a packet, followed	by a "->"  and	this  is  then
       followed	 by  several more stanzas describing the new data to be	put in
       the packet.

       In this text and	in others, use of the term "left hand side" (LHS) when
       talking	about  a  NAT rule refers to text that appears before the "->"
       and the "right hand side" (RHS) for text	that  appears  after  it.   In
       essence,	 the LHS is the	packet matching	and the	RHS is the new data to
       be used.

VARIABLES
       This configuration file,	like all others	used with  IPFilter,  supports
       the use of variable substitution	throughout the text.

       nif="ppp0";
       map $nif	0/0 -> 0/32

       would become

       map ppp0	0/0 -> 0/32

       Variables  can  be used recursively, such as 'foo="$bar baz";', so long
       as $bar exists when the parser reaches the assignment for foo.

       See ipnat(8) for	instructions on	how to define  variables  to  be  used
       from a shell environment.

OUTBOUND SOURCE	TRANSLATION (map'ing)
       Changing	 the  source  address  of  a packet is traditionally performed
       using map rules.	 Both the source address and  optionally  port	number
       can be changed according	to various controls.

       To start	out with, a common rule	used is	of the form:

       map le0 0/0 -> 0/32

       Here we're saying change	the source address of all packets going	out of
       le0 (the	address/mask pair of 0/0 matching all packets) to that of  the
       interface le0 (0/32 is a	synonym	for the	interface's own	address	at the
       current point in	time.)	If we wanted to	pass the packet	 through  with
       no change in address, we	would write it as:

       map le0 0/0 -> 0/0

       If  we  only  want to change a portion of our internal network and to a
       different address that is routed	back through this host,	we might do:

       map le0 10.1.1.0/24 -> 192.168.55.3/32

       In some instances, we  may  have	 an  entire  subnet  to	 map  internal
       addresses  out  onto,  in  which	case we	can express the	translation as
       this:

       map le0 10.0.0.0/8 -> 192.168.55.0/24

       IPFilter	 will  cycle  through  each  of	 the  256  addresses  in   the
       192.168.55.0/24 address space to	ensure that they all get used.

       Of  course  this	poses a	problem	for TCP	and UDP, with many connections
       made, each with its own port number pair.  If we're  unlucky,  transla-
       tions  can be dropped because the new address/port pair mapping already
       exists.	To mitigate this problem, we add in port translation  or  port
       mapping:

       map le0 10.0.0.0/8 -> 192.168.55.0/24 portmap tcp/udp auto

       In this instance, the word "auto" tells IPFilter	to calculate a private
       range of	port numbers for each address on the LHS to use	 without  fear
       of  them	 being trampled	by others.  This can lead to problems if there
       are connections being generated mire quickly than IPFilter  can	expire
       them.   In  this	 instance,  and	 if we want to get away	from a private
       range of	port numbers, we can say:

       map le0 10.0.0.0/8 -> 192.168.55.0/24 portmap tcp/udp 5000:65000

       And now each connection through le0 will	add to the enumeration of  the
       port  number  space  5000-65000	as  well  as  the IP address subnet of
       192.168.55.0/24.

       If the new addresses to be used are in a	consecutive range, rather than
       a complete subnet, we can express this as:

       map le0 10.0.0.0/8 -> range 192.168.55.10-192.168.55.249
			     portmap tcp/udp 5000:65000

       This  tells IPFilter that it has	a range	of 240 IP address to use, from
       192.168.55.10 to	192.168.55.249,	inclusive.

       If there	were several ranges of addresses for use, we can use each  one
       in a round-robin	fashion	as followed:

       map le0 10.0.0.0/8 -> range 192.168.55.10-192.168.55.29
			     portmap tcp/udp 5000:65000	round-robin
       map le0 10.0.0.0/8 -> range 192.168.55.40-192.168.55.49
			     portmap tcp/udp 5000:65000	round-robin

       To  specify  translation	 rules that impact a specific IP protocol, the
       protocol	name or	number is appended to the rule like this:

       map le0 10.0.0.0/8 -> 192.168.55.0/24 tcp/udp
       map le0 10.0.0.0/8 -> 192.168.55.1/32 icmp
       map le0 10.0.0.0/8 -> 192.168.55.2/32 gre

       For TCP connections exiting a connection	such as	PPPoE where the	MTU is
       slightly	 smaller  than normal ethernet,	it can be useful to reduce the
       Maximum Segment Size (MSS) offered by the internal machines  to	match,
       reducing	the liklihood that the either end will attempt to send packets
       that are	too big	and result in fragmentation.  This is  acheived	 using
       the mssclamp option with	TCP map	rules like this:

       map pppoe0 0/0 -> 0/32 mssclamp 1400 tcp

       For ICMP	packets, we can	map the	ICMP id	space in query packets:

       map le0 10.0.0.0/8 -> 192.168.55.1/32 icmpidmap icmp 1000:20000

       If  we  wish to be more specific	about our initial matching criteria on
       the LHS,	we can expand to using	a  syntax  more	 similar  to  that  in
       ipf.conf(5) :

       map le0 from 10.0.0.0/8 to 26.0.0.0/8 ->
			     192.168.55.1
       map le0 from 10.0.0.0/8 port > 1024 to 26.0.0.0/8 ->
			     192.168.55.2 portmap 5000:9999 tcp/udp
       map le0 from 10.0.0.0/8 ! to 26.0.0.0/8 ->
			     192.168.55.3 portmap 5000:9999 tcp/udp

       NOTE:  negation matching	with source addresses is NOT possible with map
	      /	map-block rules.

       The NAT code has	builtin	 default  timeouts  for	 TCP,  UDP,  ICMP  and
       another	for all	other protocols.  In general, the timeout for an entry
       to be deleted shrinks once a reply  packet  has	been  seen  (excluding
       TCP.)   If  you wish to specify your own	timeouts, this can be achieved
       either by setting one timeout for both directions:

       map le0 0/0 -> 0/32 gre age 30

       or setting a different timeout for the reply:

       map le0 from any	to any port = 53 -> 0/32 age 60/10 udp

       A pressing problem that many people encounter when using	 NAT  is  that
       the address protocol can	be embedded inside an application's communica-
       tion.  To address this problem, IPFilter	provides a number of  built-in
       proxies for the more common trouble makers, such	as FTP.	 These proxies
       can be used as follows:

       map le0 0/0 -> 0/32 proxy port 21 ftp/tcp

       In this rule, the word "proxy" tells us that we want to connect up this
       translation with	an internal proxy.  The	"port 21" is an	extra restric-
       tion that requires the destination port number to be 21 if this rule is
       to  be activated.  The word "ftp" is the	proxy identifier that the ker-
       nel will	try and	resolve	internally, "tcp" the  protocol	 that  packets
       must match.

       See below for a list of proxies and their relative staus.

       To  associate NAT rules with filtering rules, it	is possible to set and
       match tags during either	inbound	or outbound  processing.   At  present
       the tags	for forwarded packets are not preserved	by forwarding, so once
       the packet leaves IPFilter, the tag is forgotten.  For  map  rules,  we
       can match tags set by filter rules like this:

       map le0 0/0 -> 0/32 proxy portmap 5000:5999 tag lan1 tcp

       This would be used with "pass out" rules	that includes a	stanza such as
       "set-tag	(nat = lan1)".

       If the interface	in which packets are received is  different  from  the
       interface  on  which  packets  are  sent	out, then the translation rule
       needs to	be written to take this	into account:

       map hme0,le0 0/0	-> 0/32

       Although	this might seem	counterintuitive, the interfaces  when	listed
       in rules	for ipnat.conf are always in the inbound , outbound order.  In
       this case, hme0 would be	the return interface and le0 would be the out-
       going interface.	 If you	wish to	allow return packets on	any interface,
       the correct syntax to use would be:

       map *,le0 0/0 ->	0/32

       A special variant of map	rules exists, called map-block.	 This  command
       is  intended  for use when there	is a large network to be mapped	onto a
       smaller network,	where the difference in	netmasks is upto 14 bits  dif-
       ference	in  size.   This is achieved by	dividing the address space and
       port space up to	ensure that each source	address	has  its  own  private
       range of	ports to use.  For example, this rule:

       map-block ppp0 172.192.0.0/16 ->	209.1.2.0/24 ports auto

       would  result  in 172.192.0.0/24	being mapped to	209.1.2.0/32 with each
       address,	from 172.192.0.0 to 172.192.0.255 having 252 ports of its own.
       As  opposed  to	the  above  use	of map,	if for some reason the user of
       (say) 172.192.0.2 wanted	260 simultaneous connections going  out,  they
       would  be  limited  to 252 with map-block but would just	move on	to the
       next IP address with the	map command.

   Extended matching
       If it is	desirable to match on both the source  and  destination	 of  a
       packet  before  applying	 an  address  translation  to  it, this	can be
       achieved	by using the same from-to syntax as is	used  in  ipf.conf(5).
       What  follows  applies equally to the map rules discussed above and rdr
       rules discussed below.  A simple	example	is as follows:

       map bge0	from 10.1.0.0/16 to 192.168.1.0/24 -> 172.12.1.4

       This would only match packets that are coming from hosts	 that  have  a
       source	address	  matching  10.1.0.0/16	 and  a	 destination  matching
       192.168.1.0/24.	This can be expanded upon  with	 ports	for  TCP  like
       this:

       rdr bge0	from 10.1.0.0/16 to any	port = 25 -> 127.0.0.1 port 2501 tcp

       Where  only  TCP	packets	from 10.1.0.0/16 to port 25 will be redirected
       to port 2501.

       As with ipf.conf(5), if we have a large set of  networks	 or  addresses
       that  we	 would	like  to match up with then we can define a pool using
       ippool(8) in ippool.conf(5) and then refer to it	in an ipnat rule  like
       this:

       map bge0	from pool/100 to any port = 25 -> 127.0.0.1 port 2501 tcp

       NOTE:  In  this	situation, the rule is considered to have a netmask of
	      "0" and thus is looked at	last, after any	rules  with  /16's  or
	      /24's in them, even if the defined pool only has /24's or	/32's.
	      Pools  may  also	be  used  wherever  the	 from-to   syntax   in
	      ipnat.conf(5) is allowed.

INBOUND	DESTINATION TRANSLATION	(redirection)
       Redirection  of	packets	 is used to change the destination fields in a
       packet and is supported for packets that	are moving  in	on  a  network
       interface.   While  the same general syntax for map rules is supported,
       there are differences and limitations.

       Firstly,	by default all redirection rules target	a single  IP  address,
       not  a  network	or  range of network addresses,	so a rule written like
       this:

       rdr le0 0/0 -> 192.168.1.0

       Will not	spread packets across all 256 IP addresses  in	that  class  C
       network.	 If you	were to	try a rule like	this:

       rdr le0 0/0 -> 192.168.1.0/24

       then you	will receive a parsing error.

       The from-to source-destination matching used with map rules can be used
       with rdr	rules, along with negation, however the	 restriction  moves  -
       only a source address match can be negated:

       rdr le0 from 1.1.0.0/16 to any -> 192.168.1.3
       rdr le0 ! from 1.1.0.0/16 to any	-> 192.168.1.4

       If  there is a consective set of	addresses you wish to spread the pack-
       ets over, then this can be done in one of two ways,  the	 word  "range"
       optional	to preserve:

       rdr le0 0/0 -> 192.168.1.1 - 192.168.1.5
       rdr le0 0/0 -> range 192.168.1.1	- 192.168.1.5

       If there	are only two addresses to split	the packets across, the	recom-
       mended method is	to use a comma (",") like this:

       rdr le0 0/0 -> 192.168.1.1,192.168.1.2

       If there	is a large group of destination	addresses  that	 are  somewhat
       disjoint	in nature, we can cycle	through	them using a round-robin tech-
       nique like this:

       rdr le0 0/0 -> 192.168.1.1,192.168.1.2 round-robin
       rdr le0 0/0 -> 192.168.1.5,192.168.1.7 round-robin
       rdr le0 0/0 -> 192.168.1.9 round-robin

       If there	are a large number of redirect rules and hosts being targetted
       then it may be desirable	to have	all those from a single	source address
       be targetted at the same	destination address.   To  achieve  this,  the
       word sticky is appended to the rule like	this:

       rdr le0 0/0 -> 192.168.1.1,192.168.1.2 sticky
       rdr le0 0/0 -> 192.168.1.5,192.168.1.7 round-robin sticky
       rdr le0 0/0 -> 192.168.1.9 round-robin sticky

       The sticky feature can only be combined with round-robin	and the	use of
       comma.

       For TCP and UDP packets,	it is possible	to  both  match	 on  the  des-
       tiantion	port number and	to modify it.  For example, to change the des-
       tination	port from 80 to	3128, we would use a rule like this:

       rdr de0 0/0 port	80 -> 127.0.0.1	port 3128 tcp

       If a range of ports is given on the LHS and a single port is  given  on
       the  RHS,  the  entire range of ports is	moved.	For example, if	we had
       this:

       rdr le0 0/0 port	80-88 -> 127.0.0.1 port	3128 tcp

       then port 80 would become 3128, port 81 would become 3129, etc.	If  we
       want  to	 redirect a number of different	pots to	just a single port, an
       equals sign ("=") is placed before the port  number  on	the  RHS  like
       this:

       rdr le0 0/0 port	80-88 -> 127.0.0.1 port	= 3128 tcp

       In this case, port 80 goes to 3128, port	81 to 3128, etc.

       As  with	 map rules, it is possible to manually set a timeout using the
       age option, like	this:

       rdr le0 0/0 port	53 -> 127.0.0.1	port 10053 udp age 5/5

       The use of proxies is not restricted to map  rules  and	outbound  ses-
       sions.  Proxies can also	be used	with redirect rules, although the syn-
       tax is slightly different:

       rdr ge0 0/0 port	21 -> 127.0.0.1	port 21	tcp proxy ftp

       For rdr rules, the interfaces supplied are in the  same	order  as  map
       rules  -	 input	first,	then output.  In situations where the outgoing
       interface is not	certain, it is also possible to	use a  wildcard	 ("*")
       to effect a match on any	interface.

       rdr le0,* 0/0 ->	192.168.1.0

       A  single  rule,	 with as many options set as possible would look some-
       thing like this:

       rdr le0,ppp0 9.8.7.6/32 port 80 -> 1.1.1.1,1.1.1.2 port 80 tcp
	   round-robin frag age	40/40 sticky mssclamp 1000 tag tagged

REWRITING SOURCE AND DESTINATION
       Whilst the above	two commands provide a lot of flexibility in  changing
       addressing  fields  in packets, often it	can be of benefit to translate
       both source and destination at the same time or to  change  the	source
       address	on  input  or the destination address on output.  Doing	all of
       these things can	be accomplished	using rewrite NAT rules.

       A rewrite rule requires the same	level of packet	 matching  as  before,
       protocol	 and  source/destination  information  but  in addition	allows
       either in or out	to be specified	like this:

       rewrite in on ppp0 proto	tcp from any to	any port = 80 ->
	    src	0/0 dst	127.0.0.1,3128;
       rewrite out on ppp0 from	any to any ->
	    src	0/32 dst 10.1.1.0/24;

       On the RHS we can specify both new source and  destination  information
       to  place  into the packet being	sent out.  As with other rules used in
       ipnat.conf, there are shortcuts syntaxes	available to use the  original
       address	information  (0/0) and the address associated with the network
       interface (0/32.)  For TCP and UDP, both	address	and  port  information
       can  be	changed.   At  present it is only possible to specify either a
       range of	port numbers to	be used	(X-Y) or a single port number (= X) as
       follows:

       rewrite in on le0 proto tcp from	any to any port	= 80 ->
	    src	0/0,2000-20000 dst 127.0.0.1,port = 3128;

       There  are four fields that are stepped through in enumerating the num-
       ber space available for creating	a new destination:

       source address

       source port

       destination address

       destination port

       If one of these happens to be a static then it will be skipped and  the
       next one	incremented.  As an example:

       rewrite out on le0 proto	tcp from any to	any port = 80 ->
	    src	1.0.0.0/8,5000-5999 dst	2.0.0.0/24,6000-6999;

       The translated packets would be:

       1st src=1.0.0.1,5000 dst=2.0.0.1,6000

       2nd src=1.0.0.2,5000 dst=2.0.0.1,6000

       3rd src=1.0.0.2,5001 dst=2.0.0.1,6000

       4th src=1.0.0.2,5001 dst=2.0.0.2,6000

       5th src=1.0.0.2,5001 dst=2.0.0.2,6001

       6th src=1.0.0.3,5001 dst=2.0.0.2,6001

       and so on.

       As  with	 map  rules, it	is possible to specify a range of addresses by
       including the word range	before the addresses:

       rewrite from any	to any port = 80 ->
	    src	1.1.2.3	- 1.1.2.6 dst 2.2.3.4 -	2.2.3.6;

DIVERTING PACKETS
       If you'd	like to	send packets to	a UDP socket rather than just  another
       computer	 to be decapsulated, this can be achieved using	a divert rule.

       Divert rules can	be be used  with  both	inbound	 and  outbound	packet
       matching	 however  the  rule  must specify host addresses for the outer
       packet, not ranges of addresses or  netmasks,  just  single  addresses.
       Additionally  the  syntax must supply required information for UDP.  An
       example of what a divert	rule looks ike is as follows:

       divert in on le0	proto udp from any to any port = 53 ->
	    src	192.1.1.1,54 dst 192.168.1.22.1,5300;

       On the LHS is a normal set of matching capabilities but on the  RHS  it
       is  a  requirement to specify both the source and destination addresses
       and ports.

       As this feature is intended to be used with targetting packets at sock-
       ets  and	 not  IPFilter running on other	systems, there is no rule pro-
       vided to	undivert packets.

       NOTE:  Diverted packets may be fragmented if the	addition of the	encap-
	      sulating	IP  header plus	UDP header causes the packet to	exceed
	      the size allowed by the outbound network interface.  At  present
	      it is not	possible to cause Path MTU discovery to	happen as this
	      feature is intended to be	transparent to both  endpoints.	  Path
	      MTU  Discovery  If  Path MTU discovery is	being used and the "do
	      not fragment" flag is set	in packets to be encapsulated, an ICMP
	      error  message will be sent back to the sender if	the new	packet
	      would need to be fragmented.

COMMON OPTIONS
       This section deals with options that are	available with all rules.

       purge  When the purge keyword is	added to the end of  a	NAT  rule,  it
	      will cause all of	the active NAT sessions	to be removed when the
	      rule is removed as an individual operation. If all  of  the  NAT
	      rules  are  flushed  out,	 it is expected	that the operator will
	      similarly	flush the NAT table and	 thus  NAT  sessions  are  not
	      removed when the NAT rules are flushed out.

RULE ORDERING
       NOTE: Rules in ipnat.conf are read in sequentially as listed and	loaded
       into the	kernel in this fashion BUT packet matching is done on netmask,
       going  from  32	down to	0.  If a rule uses pool	or hash	to reference a
       set of addresses	or networks, the netmask value	for  these  fields  is
       considered to be	"0".  So if your ipnat.conf has	the following rules:

       rdr le0 192.0.0.0/8 port	80 -> 127.0.0.1	3132 tcp
       rdr le0 192.2.0.0/16 port 80 -> 127.0.0.1 3131 tcp
       rdr le0 from any	to pool/100 port 80 -> 127.0.0.1 port 3130 tcp
       rdr le0 192.2.2.0/24 port 80 -> 127.0.0.1 3129 tcp
       rdr le0 192.2.2.1 port 80 -> 127.0.0.1 3128 tcp

       then  the  rule with 192.2.2.1 will match first,	regardless of where it
       appears in the ordering of the above rules.   In	 fact,	the  order  in
       which they would	be used	to match a packet is:

       rdr le0 192.2.2.1 port 80 -> 127.0.0.1 3128 tcp
       rdr le0 192.2.2.0/24 port 80 -> 127.0.0.1 3129 tcp
       rdr le0 192.2.0.0/16 port 80 -> 127.0.0.1 3131 tcp
       rdr le0 192.0.0.0/8 port	80 -> 127.0.0.1	3132 tcp
       rdr le0 from any	to pool/100 port 80 -> 127.0.0.1 port 3130 tcp

       where the first line is actually	a /32.

       If your ipnat.conf file has entries with	matching target	fields (source
       address for map rules and destination address for rdr rules), then  the
       ordering	in the ipnat.conf file does matter.  So	if you had the follow-
       ing:

       rdr le0 from 1.1.0.0/16 to 192.2.2.1 port 80 -> 127.0.0.1 3129 tcp
       rdr le0 from 1.1.1.0/24 to 192.2.2.1 port 80 -> 127.0.0.1 3128 tcp

       Then no packets will match the 2nd rule,	they'll	all match the first.

IPv6
       In all of the examples above, where an IPv4 address is present, an IPv6
       address can also	be used. All rules must	use either IPv4	addresses with
       both halves of the NAT rule or IPv6 addresses for both  halves.	Mixing
       IPv6 addresses with IPv4	addresses, in a	single rule, will result in an
       error.

       For shorthand notations such as "0/32",	the  equivalent	 for  IPv6  is
       "0/128".	IPFilter will treat any	netmask	greater	than 32	as an implicit
       direction that the address should be IPv6, not IPv4.  To	be unambiguous
       with 0/0, for IPv6 use ::0/0.

KERNEL PROXIES
       IP Filter comes with a few, simple, proxies built into the code that is
       loaded into the kernel to allow secondary channels to be	opened without
       forcing	the  packets through a user program.  The current state	of the
       proxies is listed below,	as one of three	states:

       Aging - protocol	is roughly understood from the time at which the proxy
	      was written but it is not	well tested or maintained;

       Developmental  -	basic functionality exists, works most of the time but
	      may be problematic in extended real use;

       Experimental - rough support for	the protocol at	best, may or  may  not
	      work  as testing has been	at best	sporadic, possible large scale
	      changes to the code in order to properly support the protocol.

       Mature -	well tested, protocol is properly understood by	the proxy;

       The currently compiled in proxy list is as follows:

       FTP - Mature
	      (map ... proxy port ftp ftp/tcp)

       IRC - Experimental
	      (proxy port 6667 irc/tcp)

       rpcbind - Experimental

       PPTP - Experimental

       H.323 - Experimental
	      (map ... proxy port 1720 h323/tcp)

       Real Audio (PNA)	- Aging

       DNS - Developmental
	      (map ... proxy port 53 dns/udp { block .cnn.com; })

       IPsec - Developmental
	      (map ... proxy port 500 ipsec/tcp)

       netbios - Experimental

       R-command - Mature
	      (map ... proxy port shell	rcmd/tcp)

KERNEL PROXIES
FILES
       /dev/ipnat
       /etc/protocols
       /etc/services
       /etc/hosts

SEE ALSO
       ipnat(4), hosts(5), ipf(5), services(5),	ipf(8),	ipnat(8)

								      IPNAT(5)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | VARIABLES | OUTBOUND SOURCE TRANSLATION (map'ing) | INBOUND DESTINATION TRANSLATION (redirection) | REWRITING SOURCE AND DESTINATION | DIVERTING PACKETS | COMMON OPTIONS | RULE ORDERING | IPv6 | KERNEL PROXIES | KERNEL PROXIES | FILES | SEE ALSO

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