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INTRO(4)							      INTRO(4)

NAME
       intro  -	 introduction to device	drivers, protocols, and	network	inter-
       faces

DESCRIPTION
       This section describes device drivers, high-speed  network  interfaces,
       and protocols available under SunOS.  The system	provides drivers for a
       variety of hardware devices, such as disks, magnetic tapes, serial com-
       munication  lines,  mice, and frame buffers, as well as virtual devices
       such as pseudo-terminals	and windows.  SunOS provides hardware  support
       and  a network interface	for the	10-Megabit Ethernet, along with	inter-
       faces for the IP	protocol family	and a STREAMS-based Network  Interface
       Tap (NIT) facility.

       In  addition  to	 describing  device  drivers that are supported	by the
       4.3BSD  operating  system,  this	 section  contains  subsections	  that
       describe:

       o  SunOS-specific device	drivers, under `4S'.

       o  Protocol families, under `4F'.

       o  Protocols and	raw interfaces,	under `4P'.

       o  STREAMS modules, under `4M'.

       o  Network interfaces, under `4N'.

   Configuration
       The  SunOS  kernel  can	be  configured	to include or omit many	of the
       device drivers described	in this	section.  The CONFIG  section  of  the
       manual  page  gives  the	line(s)	to include in the kernel configuration
       file for	each machine architecture on which a device is supported.   If
       no  specific  architectures  are	 indicated,  the  configuration	syntax
       applies to all Sun systems.

       The GENERIC kernel is the default configuration for SunOS.  It contains
       all of the optional drivers for a given machine architecture.  See con-
       fig(8), for details on configuring a new	SunOS kernel.

       The manual page for a device driver may also include a DIAGNOSTICS sec-
       tion,  listing error messages that the driver might produce.  Normally,
       these messages are logged to the	appropriate system log using the  ker-
       nel's  standard	message-buffering mechanism (see syslogd(8)); they may
       also appear on the system console.

   Ioctls
       Various special functions, such as querying or altering	the  operating
       characteristics	of  a  device,	are performed by supplying appropriate
       parameters to the ioctl(2) system call.	 These	parameters  are	 often
       referred	 to as ``ioctls.''  Ioctls for a specific device are presented
       in the manual page for that device.  Ioctls that	pertain	to a class  of
       devices are listed in a manual page with	a name that suggests the class
       of device, and ending in	 `io',	such  as  mtio(4)  for	magnetic  tape
       devices,	 or  dkio(4S)  for disk	controllers.  In addition, some	ioctls
       operate directly	on higher-level	 objects  such	as  files,  terminals,
       sockets,	and streams:

       o  Ioctls that operate directly on files, file descriptors, and sockets
	  are described	in filio(4).  Note: the	fcntl(2V) system call  is  the
	  primary  method  for	operating  on file descriptors as such,	rather
	  than on the underlying files.	 Also note that	the setsockopt	system
	  call	(see  getsockopt(2))  is  the  primary method for operating on
	  sockets as such, rather than on the underlying protocol  or  network
	  interface.   Ioctls  for a specific network interface	are documented
	  in the manual	page for that interface.

       o  Ioctls for terminals,	including pseudo-terminals, are	 described  in
	  termio(4).  This manual page includes	information about both the BSD
	  termios structure, as	well as	the System V termio structure.

       o  Ioctls for STREAMS are described in streamio(4).

   Devices Always Present
       Device drivers present in every kernel include:

       o  The paging device; see drum(4).

       o  Drivers for accessing	physical, virtual, and I/O  space  in  memory;
	  see mem(4S).

       o  The data sink; see null(4).

   Terminals and Serial	Communications Devices
       Serial  communication  lines  are  normally  supported  by the terminal
       driver; see tty(4).  This driver	manages	serial lines provided by  com-
       munications  drivers,  such  as	those described	in mti(4S) and zs(4S).
       The terminal driver also	handles	serial lines provided by virtual  ter-
       minals,	such  as the Sun console monitor described in console(4S), and
       true pseudo-terminals, described	in pty(4).

   Disk	Devices
       Drivers for the following disk controllers provide standard  block  and
       raw interfaces under SunOS:

       o  SCSI controllers, in sd(4S),

       o  Xylogics 450 and 451 SMD controllers,	in xy(4S),

       o  Xylogics 7053	SMD controllers, in xd(4S),

       o  IPI controllers, in id(4S).

       Ioctls to query or set a	disk's geometry	and partitioning are described
       in dkio(4S).

   Magnetic Tape Devices
       Magnetic	tape devices supported by SunOS	 include  those	 described  in
       ar(4S), tm(4S), st(4S), and xt(4S).  Ioctls for all tape-device drivers
       are described in	mtio(4S).

   Frame Buffers
       Frame buffer devices include  color  frame  buffers  described  in  the
       cg*(4S)	and gt(4S) manual pages, monochrome frame buffers described in
       the bw*(4S) manual pages, graphics processor  interfaces	 described  in
       the  gp*(4S) manual pages, and an indirect device for the console frame
       buffer described	in fb(4S).  Ioctls for all  frame-buffer  devices  are
       described in fbio(4S).

   Miscellaneous Devices
       Miscellaneous   devices	include	 the  console  keyboard	 described  in
       kbd(4S),	the console  mouse  described  in  mouse(4S),  window  devices
       described  in  win(4S), and the DES encryption-chip interface described
       in des(4S).

   Network-Interface Devices
       SunOS supports the 10-Megabit Ethernet as its  primary  network	inter-
       face;  see ie(4S) and le(4S) for	details.  However, a software loopback
       interface, lo(4)	is also	supported.  General properties of  these  net-
       work  interfaces	 are  described	 in if(4N), along with the ioctls that
       operate on them.

       Support for network routing is described	in routing(4N).

   Protocols and Protocol Families
       SunOS supports both socket-based	and STREAMS-based  network  communica-
       tions.	The  Internet  protocol	 family, described in inet(4F),	is the
       primary protocol	family primary supported by SunOS, although the	system
       can  support  a number of others.  The raw interface provides low-level
       services,  such	as  packet  fragmentation  and	reassembly,   routing,
       addressing,  and	 basic	transport  for	socket-based  implementations.
       Facilities for communicating using an Internet-family protocol are gen-
       erally accessed by specifying the AF_INET address family	when binding a
       socket; see socket(2) for details.

       Major protocols in the Internet family include:

       o  The Internet Protocol	(IP)  itself,  which  supports	the  universal
	  datagram format, as described	in ip(4P).  This is the	default	proto-
	  col for SOCK_RAW type	sockets	within the AF_INET domain.

       o  The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP); see tcp(4P).	 This  is  the
	  default protocol for SOCK_STREAM type	sockets.

       o  The  User Datagram Protocol (UDP); see udp(4P).  This	is the default
	  protocol for SOCK_DGRAM type sockets.

       o  The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP); see arp(4P).

       o  The Internet Control Message Protocol	(ICMP);	see icmp(4P).

       The Network Interface Tap (NIT) protocol, described in  nit(4P),	 is  a
       STREAMS-based facility for accessing the	network	at the link level.

SEE ALSO
       fcntl(2V),   getsockopt(2),   ioctl(2),	 socket(2),  ar(4S),  arp(4P),
       dkio(4S),  drum(4),  fb(4S),  fbio(4S),	filio(4),  icmp(4P),   if(4N),
       inet(4F),  ip(4P),  kbd(4S),  le(4S), lo(4), mem(4S), mti(4S), mtio(4),
       nit(4P),	null(4),  pty(4),  routing(4N),	 sd(4S),  st(4S)  streamio(4),
       tcp(4P),	 termio(4),  tm(4S), tty(4), udp(4P), win(4S), xd(4S), xy(4S),
       zs(4S)

LIST OF	DEVICES, INTERFACES AND	PROTOCOLS
       Name		   Appears on Page Description

				 29 April 1992			      INTRO(4)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | SEE ALSO | LIST OF DEVICES, INTERFACES AND PROTOCOLS

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