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IFCONFIG(8)		FreeBSD	System Manager's Manual		   IFCONFIG(8)

NAME
     ifconfig -- configure network interface parameters

SYNOPSIS
     ifconfig [-L] [-k]	[-m] [-n] interface [create] [address_family] [address
	      [dest_address]] [parameters]
     ifconfig interface	destroy
     ifconfig -a [-L] [-d] [-m]	[-u] [-v] [address_family]
     ifconfig -l [-d] [-u] [address_family]
     ifconfig [-L] [-d]	[-k] [-m] [-u] [-v] [-C]
     ifconfig [-g groupname]

DESCRIPTION
     The ifconfig utility is used to assign an address to a network interface
     and/or configure network interface	parameters.  The ifconfig utility must
     be	used at	boot time to define the	network	address	of each	interface
     present on	a machine; it may also be used at a later time to redefine an
     interface's address or other operating parameters.

     The following options are available:

     address
	     For the DARPA-Internet family, the	address	is either a host name
	     present in	the host name data base, hosts(5), or a	DARPA Internet
	     address expressed in the Internet standard	``dot notation''.

	     It	is also	possible to use	the CIDR notation (also	known as the
	     slash notation) to	include	the netmask.  That is, one can specify
	     an	address	like 192.168.0.1/16.

	     For the ``inet6'' family, it is also possible to specify the pre-
	     fix length	using the slash	notation, like ::1/128.	 See the
	     prefixlen parameter below for more	information.

	     The link-level (``link'') address is specified as a series	of
	     colon-separated hex digits.  This can be used to e.g., set	a new
	     MAC address on an ethernet	interface, though the mechanism	used
	     is	not ethernet-specific.	If the interface is already up when
	     this option is used, it will be briefly brought down and then
	     brought back up again in order to ensure that the receive filter
	     in	the underlying ethernet	hardware is properly reprogrammed.

     address_family
	     Specify the address family	which affects interpretation of	the
	     remaining parameters.  Since an interface can receive transmis-
	     sions in differing	protocols with different naming	schemes, spec-
	     ifying the	address	family is recommended.	The address or proto-
	     col families currently supported are ``inet'', ``inet6'',
	     ``atalk'',	``ipx'', and ``link''.	The default is ``inet''.
	     ``ether'' and ``lladdr'' are synonyms for ``link''.

     dest_address
	     Specify the address of the	correspondent on the other end of a
	     point to point link.

     interface
	     This parameter is a string	of the form ``name unit'', for exam-
	     ple, ``ed0''.

     groupname
	     List the interfaces in the	given group.

     The following parameters may be set with ifconfig:

     add     Another name for the alias	parameter.  Introduced for compatibil-
	     ity with BSD/OS.

     alias   Establish an additional network address for this interface.  This
	     is	sometimes useful when changing network numbers,	and one	wishes
	     to	accept packets addressed to the	old interface.	If the address
	     is	on the same subnet as the first	network	address	for this
	     interface,	a non-conflicting netmask must be given.  Usually
	     0xffffffff	is most	appropriate.

     -alias  Remove the	network	address	specified.  This would be used if you
	     incorrectly specified an alias, or	it was no longer needed.  If
	     you have incorrectly set an NS address having the side effect of
	     specifying	the host portion, removing all NS addresses will allow
	     you to respecify the host portion.

     anycast
	     (Inet6 only.)  Specify that the address configured	is an anycast
	     address.  Based on	the current specification, only	routers	may
	     configure anycast addresses.  Anycast address will	not be used as
	     source address of any of outgoing IPv6 packets.

     arp     Enable the	use of the Address Resolution Protocol (arp(4))	in
	     mapping between network level addresses and link level addresses
	     (default).	 This is currently implemented for mapping between
	     DARPA Internet addresses and IEEE 802 48-bit MAC addresses	(Eth-
	     ernet, FDDI, and Token Ring addresses).

     -arp    Disable the use of	the Address Resolution Protocol	(arp(4)).

     staticarp
	     If	the Address Resolution Protocol	is enabled, the	host will only
	     reply to requests for its addresses, and will never send any
	     requests.

     -staticarp
	     If	the Address Resolution Protocol	is enabled, the	host will per-
	     form normally, sending out	requests and listening for replies.

     broadcast
	     (Inet only.)  Specify the address to use to represent broadcasts
	     to	the network.  The default broadcast address is the address
	     with a host part of all 1's.

     debug   Enable driver dependent debugging code; usually, this turns on
	     extra console error logging.

     -debug  Disable driver dependent debugging	code.

     promisc
	     Put interface into	permanently promiscuous	mode.

     -promisc
	     Disable permanently promiscuous mode.

     delete  Another name for the -alias parameter.

     description value,	descr value
	     Specify a description of the interface.  This can be used to
	     label interfaces in situations where they may otherwise be	diffi-
	     cult to distinguish.

     -description, -descr
	     Clear the interface description.

     down    Mark an interface ``down''.  When an interface is marked
	     ``down'', the system will not attempt to transmit messages
	     through that interface.  If possible, the interface will be reset
	     to	disable	reception as well.  This action	does not automatically
	     disable routes using the interface.

     group group-name
	     Assign the	interface to a ``group''.  Any interface can be	in
	     multiple groups.

	     Cloned interfaces are members of their interface family group by
	     default.  For example, a PPP interface such as ppp0 is a member
	     of	the PPP	interface family group,	ppp.

     -group group-name
	     Remove the	interface from the given ``group''.

     eui64   (Inet6 only.)  Fill interface index (lowermost 64bit of an	IPv6
	     address) automatically.

     fib fib_number
	     Specify interface FIB.  A FIB fib_number is assigned to all
	     frames or packets received	on that	interface.  The	FIB is not
	     inherited,	e.g., vlans or other sub-interfaces will use the
	     default FIB (0) irrespective of the parent	interface's FIB.  The
	     kernel needs to be	tuned to support more than the default FIB
	     using the ROUTETABLES kernel configuration	option,	or the
	     net.fibs tunable.

     ipdst   This is used to specify an	Internet host who is willing to
	     receive IP	packets	encapsulating IPX packets bound	for a remote
	     network.  An apparent point to point link is constructed, and the
	     address specified will be taken as	the IPX	address	and network of
	     the destination.

     maclabel label
	     If	Mandatory Access Control support is enabled in the kernel, set
	     the MAC label to label.

     media type
	     If	the driver supports the	media selection	system,	set the	media
	     type of the interface to type.  Some interfaces support the mutu-
	     ally exclusive use	of one of several different physical media
	     connectors.  For example, a 10Mbit/s Ethernet interface might
	     support the use of	either AUI or twisted pair connectors.	Set-
	     ting the media type to 10base5/AUI	would change the currently
	     active connector to the AUI port.	Setting	it to 10baseT/UTP
	     would activate twisted pair.  Refer to the	interfaces' driver
	     specific documentation or man page	for a complete list of the
	     available types.

     mediaopt opts
	     If	the driver supports the	media selection	system,	set the	speci-
	     fied media	options	on the interface.  The opts argument is	a
	     comma delimited list of options to	apply to the interface.	 Refer
	     to	the interfaces'	driver specific	man page for a complete	list
	     of	available options.

     -mediaopt opts
	     If	the driver supports the	media selection	system,	disable	the
	     specified media options on	the interface.

     mode mode
	     If	the driver supports the	media selection	system,	set the	speci-
	     fied operating mode on the	interface to mode.  For	IEEE 802.11
	     wireless interfaces that support multiple operating modes this
	     directive is used to select between 802.11a (11a),	802.11b	(11b),
	     and 802.11g (11g) operating modes.

     inst minst, instance minst
	     Set the media instance to minst.  This is useful for devices
	     which have	multiple physical layer	interfaces (PHYs).

     name name
	     Set the interface name to name.

     rxcsum, txcsum
	     If	the driver supports user-configurable checksum offloading,
	     enable receive (or	transmit) checksum offloading on the inter-
	     face.  Some drivers may not be able to enable these flags inde-
	     pendently of each other, so setting one may also set the other.
	     The driver	will offload as	much checksum work as it can reliably
	     support, the exact	level of offloading varies between drivers.

     -rxcsum, -txcsum
	     If	the driver supports user-configurable checksum offloading,
	     disable receive (or transmit) checksum offloading on the inter-
	     face.  These settings may not always be independent of each
	     other.

     tso     If	the driver supports tcp(4) segmentation	offloading, enable TSO
	     on	the interface.	Some drivers may not be	able to	support	TSO
	     for ip(4) and ip6(4) packets, so they may enable only one of
	     them.

     -tso    If	the driver supports tcp(4) segmentation	offloading, disable
	     TSO on the	interface.  It will always disable TSO for ip(4) and
	     ip6(4).

     lro     If	the driver supports tcp(4) large receive offloading, enable
	     LRO on the	interface.

     -lro    If	the driver supports tcp(4) large receive offloading, disable
	     LRO on the	interface.

     wol, wol_ucast, wol_mcast,	wol_magic
	     Enable Wake On Lan	(WOL) support, if available.  WOL is a facil-
	     ity whereby a machine in a	low power state	may be woken in
	     response to a received packet.  There are three types of packets
	     that may wake a system: ucast (directed solely to the machine's
	     mac address), mcast (directed to a	broadcast or multicast
	     address), or magic	(unicast or multicast frames with a ``magic
	     contents'').  Not all devices support WOL,	those that do indicate
	     the mechanisms they support in their capabilities.	 wol is	a syn-
	     onym for enabling all available WOL mechanisms.  To disable WOL
	     use -wol.

     vlanmtu, vlanhwtag, vlanhwfilter, vlanhwcsum, vlanhwtso
	     If	the driver offers user-configurable VLAN support, enable
	     reception of extended frames, tag processing in hardware, frame
	     filtering in hardware, checksum offloading, or TSO	on VLAN,
	     respectively.  Note that this must	be issued on a physical	inter-
	     face associated with vlan(4), not on a vlan(4) interface itself.

     -vlanmtu, -vlanhwtag, -vlanhwfilter, -vlanhwtso
	     If	the driver offers user-configurable VLAN support, disable
	     reception of extended frames, tag processing in hardware, frame
	     filtering in hardware, or TSO on VLAN, respectively.

     vnet jail
	     Move the interface	to the jail(8),	specified by name or JID.  If
	     the jail has a virtual network stack, the interface will disap-
	     pear from the current environment and become visible to the jail.

     -vnet jail
	     Reclaim the interface from	the jail(8), specified by name or JID.
	     If	the jail has a virtual network stack, the interface will dis-
	     appear from the jail, and become visible to the current network
	     environment.

     polling
	     Turn on polling(4)	feature	and disable interrupts on the inter-
	     face, if driver supports this mode.

     -polling
	     Turn off polling(4) feature and enable interrupt mode on the
	     interface.

     create  Create the	specified network pseudo-device.  If the interface is
	     given without a unit number, try to create	a new device with an
	     arbitrary unit number.  If	creation of an arbitrary device	is
	     successful, the new device	name is	printed	to standard output
	     unless the	interface is renamed or	destroyed in the same ifconfig
	     invocation.

     destroy
	     Destroy the specified network pseudo-device.

     plumb   Another name for the create parameter.  Included for Solaris com-
	     patibility.

     unplumb
	     Another name for the destroy parameter.  Included for Solaris
	     compatibility.

     metric n
	     Set the routing metric of the interface to	n, default 0.  The
	     routing metric is used by the routing protocol (routed(8)).
	     Higher metrics have the effect of making a	route less favorable;
	     metrics are counted as additional hops to the destination network
	     or	host.

     mtu n   Set the maximum transmission unit of the interface	to n, default
	     is	interface specific.  The MTU is	used to	limit the size of
	     packets that are transmitted on an	interface.  Not	all interfaces
	     support setting the MTU, and some interfaces have range restric-
	     tions.

     netmask mask
	     (Inet only.)  Specify how much of the address to reserve for sub-
	     dividing networks into sub-networks.  The mask includes the net-
	     work part of the local address and	the subnet part, which is
	     taken from	the host field of the address.	The mask can be	speci-
	     fied as a single hexadecimal number with a	leading	`0x', with a
	     dot-notation Internet address, or with a pseudo-network name
	     listed in the network table networks(5).  The mask	contains 1's
	     for the bit positions in the 32-bit address which are to be used
	     for the network and subnet	parts, and 0's for the host part.  The
	     mask should contain at least the standard network portion,	and
	     the subnet	field should be	contiguous with	the network portion.

	     The netmask can also be specified in CIDR notation	after the
	     address.  See the address option above for	more information.

     prefixlen len
	     (Inet6 only.)  Specify that len bits are reserved for subdividing
	     networks into sub-networks.  The len must be integer, and for
	     syntactical reason	it must	be between 0 to	128.  It is almost
	     always 64 under the current IPv6 assignment rule.	If the parame-
	     ter is omitted, 64	is used.

	     The prefix	can also be specified using the	slash notation after
	     the address.  See the address option above	for more information.

     range netrange
	     Under appletalk, set the interface	to respond to a	netrange of
	     the form startnet-endnet.	Appletalk uses this scheme instead of
	     netmasks though FreeBSD implements	it internally as a set of net-
	     masks.

     remove  Another name for the -alias parameter.  Introduced	for compati-
	     bility with BSD/OS.

     phase   The argument following this specifies the version (phase) of the
	     Appletalk network attached	to the interface.  Values of 1 or 2
	     are permitted.

     link[0-2]
	     Enable special processing of the link level of the	interface.
	     These three options are interface specific	in actual effect, how-
	     ever, they	are in general used to select special modes of opera-
	     tion.  An example of this is to enable SLIP compression, or to
	     select the	connector type for some	Ethernet cards.	 Refer to the
	     man page for the specific driver for more information.

     -link[0-2]
	     Disable special processing	at the link level with the specified
	     interface.

     monitor
	     Put the interface in monitor mode.	 No packets are	transmitted,
	     and received packets are discarded	after bpf(4) processing.

     -monitor
	     Take the interface	out of monitor mode.

     up	     Mark an interface ``up''.	This may be used to enable an inter-
	     face after	an ``ifconfig down''.  It happens automatically	when
	     setting the first address on an interface.	 If the	interface was
	     reset when	previously marked down,	the hardware will be re-ini-
	     tialized.

     The following parameters are for ICMPv6 Neightbor Discovery Protocol:

     accept_rtadv
	     Set a flag	to enable accepting ICMPv6 Router Advertisement	mes-
	     sages.

     -accept_rtadv
	     Clear a flag accept_rtadv.

     defaultif
	     Set the specified interface as the	default	route when there is no
	     default router.

     -defaultif
	     Clear a flag defaultif.

     ifdisabled
	     Set a flag	to disable all of IPv6 network communications on the
	     specified interface.

     -ifdisabled
	     Clear a flag ifdisabled.

     nud     Set a flag	to enable Neighbor Unreachability Detection.

     -nud    Clear a flag nud.

     prefer_source
	     Set a flag	to prefer addesses on the interface as candidates of
	     the source	address	for outgoing packets.

     -prefer_source
	     Clear a flag prefer_source.

     The following parameters are specific to cloning IEEE 802.11 wireless
     interfaces	with the create	request:

     wlandev device
	     Use device	as the parent for the cloned device.

     wlanmode mode
	     Specify the operating mode	for this cloned	device.	 mode is one
	     of	sta, ahdemo (or	adhoc-demo ), ibss, (or	adhoc ), ap, (or
	     hostap ), wds, tdma, mesh,	and monitor.  The operating mode of a
	     cloned interface cannot be	changed.  The tdma mode	is actually
	     implemented as an adhoc-demo interface with special properties.

     wlanbssid bssid
	     The 802.11	mac address to use for the bssid.  This	must be	speci-
	     fied at create time for a legacy wds device.

     wlanaddr address
	     The local mac address.  If	this is	not specified then a mac
	     address will automatically	be assigned to the cloned device.
	     Typically this address is the same	as the address of the parent
	     device but	if the bssid parameter is specified then the driver
	     will craft	a unique address for the device	(if supported).

     wdslegacy
	     Mark a wds	device as operating in ``legacy	mode''.	 Legacy	wds
	     devices have a fixed peer relationship and	do not,	for example,
	     roam if their peer	stops communicating.  For completeness a
	     Dynamic WDS (DWDS)	interface may marked as	-wdslegacy.

     bssid   Request a unique local mac	address	for the	cloned device.	This
	     is	only possible if the device supports multiple mac addresses.
	     To	force use of the parent's mac address use -bssid.

     beacons
	     Mark the cloned interface as depending on hardware	support	to
	     track received beacons.  To have beacons tracked in software use
	     -beacons.	For hostap mode	-beacons can also be used to indicate
	     no	beacons	should be transmitted; this can	be useful when creat-
	     ing a WDS configuration but wds interfaces	can only be created as
	     companions	to an access point.

     The following parameters are specific to IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces
     cloned with a create operation:

     ampdu   Enable sending and	receiving AMPDU	frames when using 802.11n
	     (default).	 The 802.11n specification states a compliant station
	     must be capable of	receiving AMPDU	frames but transmision is
	     optional.	Use -ampdu to disable all use of AMPDU with 802.11n.
	     For testing and/or	to work	around interoperability	problems one
	     can use ampdutx and ampdurx to control use	of AMPDU in one	direc-
	     tion.

     ampdudensity density
	     Set the AMPDU density parameter used when operating with 802.11n.
	     This parameter controls the inter-packet gap for AMPDU frames.
	     The sending device	normally controls this setting but a receiving
	     station may request wider gaps.  Legal values for density are 0,
	     .25, .5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 (microseconds).  A value of - is
	     treated the same as 0.

     ampdulimit	limit
	     Set the limit on packet size for receiving	AMPDU frames when
	     operating with 802.11n.  Legal values for limit are 8192, 16384,
	     32768, and	65536 but one can also specify just the	unique prefix:
	     8,	16, 32,	64.  Note the sender may limit the size	of AMPDU
	     frames to be less than the	maximum	specified by the receiving
	     station.

     amsdu   Enable sending and	receiving AMSDU	frames when using 802.11n.  By
	     default AMSDU is received but not transmitted.  Use -amsdu	to
	     disable all use of	AMSDU with 802.11n.  For testing and/or	to
	     work around interoperability problems one can use amsdutx and
	     amsdurx to	control	use of AMSDU in	one direction.

     amsdulimit	limit
	     Set the limit on packet size for sending and receiving AMSDU
	     frames when operating with	802.11n.  Legal	values for limit are
	     7935 and 3839 (bytes).  Note the sender may limit the size	of
	     AMSDU frames to be	less than the maximum specified	by the receiv-
	     ing station.  Note	also that devices are not required to support
	     the 7935 limit, only 3839 is required by the specification	and
	     the larger	value may require more memory to be dedicated to sup-
	     port functionality	that is	rarely used.

     apbridge
	     When operating as an access point,	pass packets between wireless
	     clients directly (default).  To instead let them pass up through
	     the system	and be forwarded using some other mechanism, use
	     -apbridge.	 Disabling the internal	bridging is useful when	traf-
	     fic is to be processed with packet	filtering.

     authmode mode
	     Set the desired authentication mode in infrastructure mode.  Not
	     all adapters support all modes.  The set of valid modes is	none,
	     open, shared (shared key),	8021x (IEEE 802.1x), and wpa (IEEE
	     WPA/WPA2/802.11i).	 The 8021x and wpa modes are only useful when
	     using an authentication service (a	supplicant for client opera-
	     tion or an	authenticator when operating as	an access point).
	     Modes are case insensitive.

     bgscan  Enable background scanning	when operating as a station.  Back-
	     ground scanning is	a technique whereby a station associated to an
	     access point will temporarily leave the channel to	scan for
	     neighboring stations.  This allows	a station to maintain a	cache
	     of	nearby access points so	that roaming between access points can
	     be	done without a lengthy scan operation.	Background scanning is
	     done only when a station is not busy and any outbound traffic
	     will cancel a scan	operation.  Background scanning	should never
	     cause packets to be lost though there may be some small latency
	     if	outbound traffic interrupts a scan operation.  By default
	     background	scanning is enabled if the device is capable.  To dis-
	     able background scanning, use -bgscan.  Background	scanning is
	     controlled	by the bgscanidle and bgscanintvl parameters.  Back-
	     ground scanning must be enabled for roaming; this is an artifact
	     of	the current implementation and may not be required in the
	     future.

     bgscanidle	idletime
	     Set the minimum time a station must be idle (not transmitting or
	     receiving frames) before a	background scan	is initiated.  The
	     idletime parameter	is specified in	milliseconds.  By default a
	     station must be idle at least 250 milliseconds before a back-
	     ground scan is initiated.	The idle time may not be set to	less
	     than 100 milliseconds.

     bgscanintvl interval
	     Set the interval at which background scanning is attempted.  The
	     interval parameter	is specified in	seconds.  By default a back-
	     ground scan is considered every 300 seconds (5 minutes).  The
	     interval may not be set to	less than 15 seconds.

     bintval interval
	     Set the interval at which beacon frames are sent when operating
	     in	ad-hoc or ap mode.  The	interval parameter is specified	in
	     TU's (1024	usecs).	 By default beacon frames are transmitted
	     every 100 TU's.

     bmissthreshold count
	     Set the number of consecutive missed beacons at which the station
	     will attempt to roam (i.e., search	for a new access point).  The
	     count parameter must be in	the range 1 to 255; though the upper
	     bound may be reduced according to device capabilities.  The
	     default threshold is 7 consecutive	missed beacons;	but this may
	     be	overridden by the device driver.  Another name for the
	     bmissthreshold parameter is bmiss.

     bssid address
	     Specify the MAC address of	the access point to use	when operating
	     as	a station in a BSS network.  This overrides any	automatic
	     selection done by the system.  To disable a previously selected
	     access point, supply any, none, or	- for the address.  This
	     option is useful when more	than one access	point uses the same
	     SSID.  Another name for the bssid parameter is ap.

     burst   Enable packet bursting.  Packet bursting is a transmission	tech-
	     nique whereby the wireless	medium is acquired once	to send	multi-
	     ple frames	and the	interframe spacing is reduced.	This technique
	     can significantly increase	throughput by reducing transmission
	     overhead.	Packet bursting	is supported by	the 802.11e QoS	speci-
	     fication and some devices that do not support QoS may still be
	     capable.  By default packet bursting is enabled if	a device is
	     capable of	doing it.  To disable packet bursting, use -burst.

     chanlist channels
	     Set the desired channels to use when scanning for access points,
	     neighbors in an IBSS network, or looking for unoccupied channels
	     when operating as an access point.	 The set of channels is	speci-
	     fied as a comma-separated list with each element in the list rep-
	     resenting either a	single channel number or a range of the	form
	     ``a-b''.  Channel numbers must be in the range 1 to 255 and be
	     permissible according to the operating characteristics of the
	     device.

     channel number
	     Set a single desired channel.  Channels range from	1 to 255, but
	     the exact selection available depends on the region your adaptor
	     was manufactured for.  Setting the	channel	to any,	or - will
	     clear any desired channel and, if the device is marked up,	force
	     a scan for	a channel to operate on.  Alternatively	the frequency,
	     in	megahertz, may be specified instead of the channel number.

	     When there	are several ways to use	a channel the channel num-
	     ber/frequency may be appended with	attributes to clarify.	For
	     example, if a device is capable of	operating on channel 6 with
	     802.11n and 802.11g then one can specify that g-only use should
	     be	used by	specifying ``6:g''.  Similarly the channel width can
	     be	specified by appending it with ``/''; e.g., ``6/40'' specifies
	     a 40MHz wide channel, These attributes can	be combined as in:
	     ``6:ht/40''.  The full set	of flags specified following a `:''
	     are: a (802.11a), b (802.11b), d (Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode), g
	     (802.11g),	h or n (802.11n	aka HT), s (Atheros Static Turbo
	     mode), and	t (Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode, or appended to ``st''
	     and ``dt'').  The full set	of channel widths following a '/' are:
	     5 (5MHz aka quarter-rate channel),	10 (10MHz aka half-rate	chan-
	     nel), 20 (20MHz mostly for	use in specifying ht20), and 40	(40MHz
	     mostly for	use in specifying ht40), In addition, a	40MHz HT chan-
	     nel specification may include the location	of the extension chan-
	     nel by appending ``+'' or ``-'' for above and below, respec-
	     tively; e.g. ``2437:ht/40+'' specifies 40MHz wide HT operation
	     with the center channel at	frequency 2437 and the extension chan-
	     nel above.

     country name
	     Set the country code to use in calculating	the regulatory con-
	     straints for operation.  In particular the	set of available chan-
	     nels, how the wireless device will	operation on the channels, and
	     the maximum transmit power	that can be used on a channel are
	     defined by	this setting.  Country/Region codes are	specified as a
	     2-character abbreviation defined by ISO 3166 or using a longer,
	     but possibly ambiguous, spelling; e.g., "ES" and "Spain".	The
	     set of country codes are taken from /etc/regdomain.xml and	can
	     also be viewed with the ``list countries''	request.  Note that
	     not all devices support changing the country code from a default
	     setting; typically	stored in EEPROM.  See also regdomain, indoor,
	     outdoor, and anywhere.

     dfs     Enable Dynamic Frequency Selection	(DFS) as specified in 802.11h.
	     DFS embodies several facilities including detection of overlap-
	     ping radar	signals, dynamic transmit power	control, and channel
	     selection according to a least-congested criteria.	 DFS support
	     is	mandatory for some 5GHz	frequencies in certain locales (e.g.,
	     ETSI).  By	default	DFS is enabled according to the	regulatory
	     definitions specified in /etc/regdomain.xml and the curent	coun-
	     try code, regdomain, and channel.	Note the underlying device
	     (and driver) must support radar detection for full	DFS support to
	     work.  To be fully	compliant with the local regulatory agency
	     frequencies that require DFS should not be	used unless it is
	     fully supported.  Use -dfs	to disable this	functionality for
	     testing.

     dotd    Enable support for	the 802.11d specification (default).  When
	     this support is enabled in	station	mode, beacon frames that
	     advertise a country code different	than the currently configured
	     country code will cause an	event to be dispatched to user appli-
	     cations.  This event can be used by the station to	adopt that
	     country code and operate according	to the associated regulatory
	     constraints.  When	operating as an	access point with 802.11d
	     enabled the beacon	and probe response frames transmitted will
	     advertise the current regulatory domain settings.	To disable
	     802.11d use -dotd.

     doth    Enable 802.11h support including spectrum management.  When
	     802.11h is	enabled	beacon and probe response frames will have the
	     SpectrumMgt bit set in the	capabilities field and country and
	     power constraint information elements will	be present.  802.11h
	     support also includes handling Channel Switch Announcements (CSA)
	     which are a mechanism to coordinate channel changes by an access
	     point.  By	default	802.11h	is enabled if the device is capable.
	     To	disable	802.11h	use -doth.

     deftxkey index
	     Set the default key to use	for transmission.  Typically this is
	     only set when using WEP encryption.  Note that you	must set a
	     default transmit key for the system to know which key to use in
	     encrypting	outbound traffic.  The weptxkey	is an alias for	this
	     request; it is provided for backwards compatibility.

     dtimperiod	period
	     Set the DTIM period for transmitting buffered multicast data
	     frames when operating in ap mode.	The period specifies the num-
	     ber of beacon intervals between DTIM and must be in the range 1
	     to	15.  By	default	DTIM is	1 (i.e., DTIM occurs at	each beacon).

     dturbo  Enable the	use of Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode when communicating
	     with another Dynamic Turbo-capable	station.  Dynamic Turbo	mode
	     is	an Atheros-specific mechanism by which stations	switch between
	     normal 802.11 operation and a ``boosted'' mode in which a 40MHz
	     wide channel is used for communication.  Stations using Dynamic
	     Turbo mode	operate	boosted	only when the channel is free of non-
	     dturbo stations; when a non-dturbo	station	is identified on the
	     channel all stations will automatically drop back to normal oper-
	     ation.  By	default, Dynamic Turbo mode is not enabled, even if
	     the device	is capable.  Note that turbo mode (dynamic or static)
	     is	only allowed on	some channels depending	on the regulatory con-
	     straints; use the list chan command to identify the channels
	     where turbo mode may be used.  To disable Dynamic Turbo mode use
	     -dturbo.

     dwds    Enable Dynamic WDS	(DWDS) support.	 DWDS is a facility by which
	     4-address traffic can be carried between stations operating in
	     infrastructure mode.  A station first associates to an access
	     point and authenticates using normal procedures (e.g., WPA).
	     Then 4-address frames are passed to carry traffic for stations
	     operating on either side of the wireless link.  DWDS extends the
	     normal WDS	mechanism by leveraging	existing security protocols
	     and eliminating static binding.

	     When DWDS is enabled on an	access point 4-address frames received
	     from an authorized	station	will generate a	``DWDS discovery''
	     event to user applications.  This event should be used to create
	     a WDS interface that is bound to the remote station (and usually
	     plumbed into a bridge).  Once the WDS interface is	up and running
	     4-address traffic then logically flows through that interface.

	     When DWDS is enabled on a station,	traffic	with a destination
	     address different from the	peer station are encapsulated in a
	     4-address frame and transmitted to	the peer.  All 4-address traf-
	     fic uses the security information of the stations (e.g., crypto-
	     graphic keys).  A station is associated using 802.11n facilities
	     may transport 4-address traffic using these same mechanisms; this
	     depends on	available resources and	capabilities of	the device.
	     The DWDS implementation guards against layer 2 routing loops of
	     multicast traffic.

     ff	     Enable the	use of Atheros Fast Frames when	communicating with
	     another Fast Frames-capable station.  Fast	Frames are an encapsu-
	     lation technique by which two 802.3 frames	are transmitted	in a
	     single 802.11 frame.  This	can noticeably improve throughput but
	     requires that the receiving station understand how	to decapsulate
	     the frame.	 Fast frame use	is negotiated using the	Atheros	802.11
	     vendor-specific protocol extension	so enabling use	is safe	when
	     communicating with	non-Atheros devices.  By default, use of fast
	     frames is enabled if the device is	capable.  To explicitly	dis-
	     able fast frames, use -ff.

     fragthreshold length
	     Set the threshold for which transmitted frames are	broken into
	     fragments.	 The length argument is	the frame size in bytes	and
	     must be in	the range 256 to 2346.	Setting	length to 2346,	any,
	     or	- disables transmit fragmentation.  Not	all adapters honor the
	     fragmentation threshold.

     hidessid
	     When operating as an access point,	do not broadcast the SSID in
	     beacon frames or respond to probe request frames unless they are
	     directed to the ap	(i.e., they include the	ap's SSID).  By
	     default, the SSID is included in beacon frames and	undirected
	     probe request frames are answered.	 To re-enable the broadcast of
	     the SSID etc., use	-hidessid.

     ht	     Enable use	of High	Throughput (HT)	when using 802.11n (default).
	     The 802.11n specification includes	mechanisms for operation on
	     20MHz and 40MHz wide channels using different signalling mecha-
	     nisms than	specified in 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11a.  Stations
	     negotiate use of these facilities,	termed HT20 and	HT40, when
	     they associate.  To disable all use of 802.11n use	-ht.  To dis-
	     able use of HT20 (e.g., to	force only HT40	use) use -ht20.	 To
	     disable use of HT40 use -ht40.

	     HT	configuration is used to ``auto	promote'' operation when sev-
	     eral choices are available.  For example, if a station associates
	     to	an 11n-capable access point it controls	whether	the station
	     uses legacy operation, HT20, or HT40.  When an 11n-capable	device
	     is	setup as an access point and Auto Channel Selection is used to
	     locate a channel to operate on, HT	configuration controls whether
	     legacy, HT20, or HT40 operation is	setup on the selected channel.
	     If	a fixed	channel	is specified for a station then	HT configura-
	     tion can be given as part of the channel specification; e.g.,
	     6:ht/20 to	setup HT20 operation on	channel	6.

     htcompat
	     Enable use	of compatibility support for pre-802.11n devices
	     (default).	 The 802.11n protocol specification went through sev-
	     eral incompatible iterations.  Some vendors implemented 11n sup-
	     port to older specifications that will not	interoperate with a
	     purely 11n-compliant station.  In particular the information ele-
	     ments included in management frames for old devices are differ-
	     ent.  When	compatibility support is enabled both standard and
	     compatible	data will be provided.	Stations that associate	using
	     the compatiblity mechanisms are flagged in	``list sta''.  To dis-
	     able compatiblity support use -htcompat.

     htprotmode	technique
	     For interfaces operating in 802.11n, use the specified technique
	     for protecting HT frames in a mixed legacy/HT network.  The set
	     of	valid techniques is off, and rts (RTS/CTS, default).  Tech-
	     nique names are case insensitive.

     inact   Enable inactivity processing for stations associated to an	access
	     point (default).  When operating as an access point the 802.11
	     layer monitors the	activity of each associated station.  When a
	     station is	inactive for 5 minutes it will send several ``probe
	     frames'' to see if	the station is still present.  If no response
	     is	received then the station is deauthenticated.  Applications
	     that prefer to handle this	work can disable this facility by
	     using -inact.

     indoor  Set the location to use in	calculating regulatory constraints.
	     The location is also advertised in	beacon and probe response
	     frames when 802.11d is enabled with dotd.	See also outdoor,
	     anywhere, country,	and regdomain.

     list active
	     Display the list of channels available for	use taking into
	     account any restrictions set with the chanlist directive.	See
	     the description of	list chan for more information.

     list caps
	     Display the adaptor's capabilities, including the operating modes
	     supported.

     list chan
	     Display the list of channels available for	use.  Channels are
	     shown with	their IEEE channel number, equivalent frequency, and
	     usage modes.  Channels identified as `11g'	are also usable	in
	     `11b' mode.  Channels identified as `11a Turbo' may be used only
	     for Atheros' Static Turbo mode (specified with mediaopt turbo).
	     Channels marked with a `*'	have a regulatory constraint that they
	     be	passively scanned.  This means a station is not	permitted to
	     transmit on the channel until it identifies the channel is	being
	     used for 802.11 communication; typically by hearing a beacon
	     frame from	an access point	operating on the channel.  list	freq
	     is	another	way of requesting this information.  By	default	a com-
	     pacted list of channels is	displayed; if the -v option is speci-
	     fied then all channels are	shown.

     list countries
	     Display the set of	country	codes and regulatory domains that can
	     be	used in	regulatory configuration.

     list mac
	     Display the current MAC Access Control List state.	 Each address
	     is	prefixed with a	character that indicates the current policy
	     applied to	it: `+'	indicates the address is allowed access, `-'
	     indicates the address is denied access, `*' indicates the address
	     is	present	but the	current	policy open (so	the ACL	is not con-
	     sulted).

     list mesh
	     Displays the mesh routing table, used for forwarding packets on a
	     mesh network.

     list regdomain
	     Display the current regulatory settings including the available
	     channels and transmit power caps.

     list roam
	     Display the parameters that govern	roaming	operation.

     list txparam
	     Display the parameters that govern	transmit operation.

     list txpower
	     Display the transmit power	caps for each channel.

     list scan
	     Display the access	points and/or ad-hoc neighbors located in the
	     vicinity.	This information may be	updated	automatically by the
	     adapter with a scan request or through background scanning.
	     Depending on the capabilities of the stations the following flags
	     can be included in	the output:

	     A	  Authorized.  Indicates that the station is permitted to
		  send/receive data frames.

	     E	  Extended Rate	Phy (ERP).  Indicates that the station is
		  operating in an 802.11g network using	extended transmit
		  rates.

	     H	  High Throughput (HT).	 Indicates that	the station is using
		  HT transmit rates.  If a `+' follows immediately after then
		  the station associated using deprecated mechanisms supported
		  only when htcompat is	enabled.

	     P	  Power	Save.  Indicates that the station is operating in
		  power	save mode.

	     Q	  Quality of Service (QoS).  Indicates that the	station	is
		  using	QoS encapsulation for data frame.  QoS encapsulation
		  is enabled only when WME mode	is enabled.

	     S	  Short	Preamble.  Indicates that the station is doing short
		  preamble to optionally improve throughput performance	with
		  802.11g and 802.11b.

	     T	  Transitional Security	Network	(TSN).	Indicates that the
		  station associated using TSN;	see also tsn below.

	     W	  Wi-Fi	Protected Setup	(WPS).	Indicates that the station
		  associated using WPS.

	     By	default	interesting information	elements captured from the
	     neighboring stations are displayed	at the end of each row.	 Pos-
	     sible elements include: WME (station supports WME), WPA (station
	     supports WPA), WPS	(station supports WPS),	RSN (station supports
	     802.11i/RSN), HTCAP (station supports 802.11n/HT communication),
	     ATH (station supports Atheros protocol extensions), VEN (station
	     supports unknown vendor-specific extensions).  If the -v flag is
	     used all the information elements and their contents will be
	     shown.  Specifying	the -v flag also enables display of long
	     SSIDs.  The list ap command is another way	of requesting this
	     information.

     list sta
	     When operating as an access point display the stations that are
	     currently associated.  When operating in ad-hoc mode display sta-
	     tions identified as neighbors in the IBSS.	 When operating	in
	     mesh mode display stations	identified as neighbors	in the MBSS.
	     When operating in station mode display the	access point.  Capa-
	     bilities advertised by the	stations are described under the scan
	     request.  Depending on the	capabilities of	the stations the fol-
	     lowing flags can be included in the output:

	     A	  Authorized.  Indicates that the station is permitted to
		  send/receive data frames.

	     E	  Extended Rate	Phy (ERP).  Indicates that the station is
		  operating in an 802.11g network using	extended transmit
		  rates.

	     H	  High Throughput (HT).	 Indicates that	the station is using
		  HT transmit rates.  If a `+' follows immediately after then
		  the station associated using deprecated mechanisms supported
		  only when htcompat is	enabled.

	     P	  Power	Save.  Indicates that the station is operating in
		  power	save mode.

	     Q	  Quality of Service (QoS).  Indicates that the	station	is
		  using	QoS encapsulation for data frame.  QoS encapsulation
		  is enabled only when WME mode	is enabled.

	     S	  Short	Preamble.  Indicates that the station is doing short
		  preamble to optionally improve throughput performance	with
		  802.11g and 802.11b.

	     T	  Transitional Security	Network	(TSN).	Indicates that the
		  station associated using TSN;	see also tsn below.

	     W	  Wi-Fi	Protected Setup	(WPS).	Indicates that the station
		  associated using WPS.

	     By	default	information elements received from associated stations
	     are displayed in a	short form; the	-v flag	causes this informa-
	     tion to be	displayed symbolically.

     list wme
	     Display the current channel parameters to use when	operating in
	     WME mode.	If the -v option is specified then both	channel	and
	     BSS parameters are	displayed for each AC (first channel, then
	     BSS).  When WME mode is enabled for an adaptor this information
	     will be displayed with the	regular	status;	this command is	mostly
	     useful for	examining parameters when WME mode is disabled.	 See
	     the description of	the wme	directive for information on the vari-
	     ous parameters.

     maxretry count
	     Set the maximum number of tries to	use in sending unicast frames.
	     The default setting is 6 but drivers may override this with a
	     value they	choose.

     mcastrate rate
	     Set the rate for transmitting multicast/broadcast frames.	Rates
	     are specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g.,	5.5 for	5.5
	     Mb/s.  This rate should be	valid for the current operating	condi-
	     tions; if an invalid rate is specified drivers are	free to	chose
	     an	appropriate rate.

     mgtrate rate
	     Set the rate for transmitting management and/or control frames.
	     Rates are specified as megabits/second in decimal;	e.g., 5.5 for
	     5.5 Mb/s.

     outdoor
	     Set the location to use in	calculating regulatory constraints.
	     The location is also advertised in	beacon and probe response
	     frames when 802.11d is enabled with dotd.	See also anywhere,
	     country, indoor, and regdomain.

     powersave
	     Enable powersave operation.  When operating as a client, the sta-
	     tion will conserve	power by periodically turning off the radio
	     and listening for messages	from the access	point telling it there
	     are packets waiting.  The station must then retrieve the packets.
	     Not all devices support power save	operation as a client.	The
	     802.11 specification requires that	all access points support
	     power save	but some drivers do not.  Use -powersave to disable
	     powersave operation when operating	as a client.

     powersavesleep sleep
	     Set the desired max powersave sleep time in TU's (1024 usecs).
	     By	default	the max	powersave sleep	time is	100 TU's.

     protmode technique
	     For interfaces operating in 802.11g, use the specified technique
	     for protecting OFDM frames	in a mixed 11b/11g network.  The set
	     of	valid techniques is off, cts (CTS to self), and	rtscts
	     (RTS/CTS).	 Technique names are case insensitive.	Not all
	     devices support cts as a protection technique.

     pureg   When operating as an access point in 802.11g mode allow only 11g-
	     capable stations to associate (11b-only stations are not permit-
	     ted to associate).	 To allow both 11g and 11b-only	stations to
	     associate,	use -pureg.

     puren   When operating as an access point in 802.11n mode allow only HT-
	     capable stations to associate (legacy stations are	not permitted
	     to	associate).  To	allow both HT and legacy stations to asso-
	     ciate, use	-puren.

     regdomain sku
	     Set the regulatory	domain to use in calculating the regulatory
	     constraints for operation.	 In particular the set of available
	     channels, how the wireless	device will operation on the channels,
	     and the maximum transmit power that can be	used on	a channel are
	     defined by	this setting.  Regdomain codes (SKU's) are taken from
	     /etc/regdomain.xml	and can	also be	viewed with the	``list coun-
	     tries'' request.  Note that not all devices support changing the
	     regdomain from a default setting; typically stored	in EEPROM.
	     See also country, indoor, outdoor,	and anywhere.

     rifs    Enable use	of Reduced InterFrame Spacing (RIFS) when operating in
	     802.11n on	an HT channel.	Note that RIFS must be supported by
	     both the station and access point for it to be used.  To disable
	     RIFS use -rifs.

     roam:rate rate
	     Set the threshold for controlling roaming when operating in a
	     BSS.  The rate parameter specifies	the transmit rate in megabits
	     at	which roaming should be	considered.  If	the current transmit
	     rate drops	below this setting and background scanning is enabled,
	     then the system will check	if a more desirable access point is
	     available and switch over to it.  The current scan	cache contents
	     are used if they are considered valid according to	the scanvalid
	     parameter;	otherwise a background scan operation is triggered
	     before any	selection occurs.  Each	channel	type has a separate
	     rate threshold; the default values	are: 12	Mb/s (11a), 2 Mb/s
	     (11b), 2 Mb/s (11g), MCS 1	(11na, 11ng).

     roam:rssi rssi
	     Set the threshold for controlling roaming when operating in a
	     BSS.  The rssi parameter specifies	the receive signal strength in
	     dBm units at which	roaming	should be considered.  If the current
	     rssi drops	below this setting and background scanning is enabled,
	     then the system will check	if a more desirable access point is
	     available and switch over to it.  The current scan	cache contents
	     are used if they are considered valid according to	the scanvalid
	     parameter;	otherwise a background scan operation is triggered
	     before any	selection occurs.  Each	channel	type has a separate
	     rssi threshold; the default values	are all	7 dBm.

     roaming mode
	     When operating as a station, control how the system will behave
	     when communication	with the current access	point is broken.  The
	     mode argument may be one of device	(leave it to the hardware
	     device to decide),	auto (handle either in the device or the oper-
	     ating system--as appropriate), manual (do nothing until explic-
	     itly instructed).	By default, the	device is left to handle this
	     if	it is capable; otherwise, the operating	system will automati-
	     cally attempt to reestablish communication.  Manual mode is used
	     by	applications such as wpa_supplicant(8) that want to control
	     the selection of an access	point.

     rtsthreshold length
	     Set the threshold for which transmitted frames are	preceded by
	     transmission of an	RTS control frame.  The	length argument	is the
	     frame size	in bytes and must be in	the range 1 to 2346.  Setting
	     length to 2346, any, or - disables	transmission of	RTS frames.
	     Not all adapters support setting the RTS threshold.

     scan    Initiate a	scan of	neighboring stations, wait for it to complete,
	     and display all stations found.  Only the super-user can initiate
	     a scan.  See list scan for	information on the display.  By
	     default a background scan is done;	otherwise a foreground scan is
	     done and the station may roam to a	different access point.	 The
	     list scan request can be used to show recent scan results without
	     initiating	a new scan.

     scanvalid threshold
	     Set the maximum time the scan cache contents are considered
	     valid; i.e., will be used without first triggering	a scan opera-
	     tion to refresh the data.	The threshold parameter	is specified
	     in	seconds	and defaults to	60 seconds.  The minimum setting for
	     threshold is 10 seconds.  One should take care setting this
	     threshold;	if it is set too low then attempts to roam to another
	     access point may trigger unnecessary background scan operations.

     shortgi
	     Enable use	of Short Guard Interval	when operating in 802.11n on
	     an	HT channel.  NB: this currently	enables	Short GI on both HT40
	     and HT20 channels.	 To disable Short GI use -shortgi.

     smps    Enable use	of Static Spatial Multiplexing Power Save (SMPS) when
	     operating in 802.11n.  A station operating	with Static SMPS main-
	     tains only	a single receive chain active (this can	significantly
	     reduce power consumption).	 To disable SMPS use -smps.

     smpsdyn
	     Enable use	of Dynamic Spatial Multiplexing	Power Save (SMPS) when
	     operating in 802.11n.  A station operating	with Dynamic SMPS
	     maintains only a single receive chain active but switches to mul-
	     tiple receive chains when it receives an RTS frame	(this can sig-
	     nificantly	reduce power consumption).  Note that stations cannot
	     distinguish between RTS/CTS intended to enable multiple receive
	     chains and	those used for other purposes.	To disable SMPS	use
	     -smps.

     ssid ssid
	     Set the desired Service Set Identifier (aka network name).	 The
	     SSID is a string up to 32 characters in length and	may be speci-
	     fied as either a normal string or in hexadecimal when preceded by
	     `0x'.  Additionally, the SSID may be cleared by setting it	to
	     `-'.

     tdmaslot slot
	     When operating with TDMA, use the specified slot configuration.
	     The slot is a number between 0 and	the maximum number of slots in
	     the BSS.  Note that a station configured as slot 0	is a master
	     and will broadcast	beacon frames advertising the BSS; stations
	     configured	to use other slots will	always scan to locate a	master
	     before they ever transmit.	 By default tdmaslot is	set to 1.

     tdmaslotcnt cnt
	     When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS with	cnt slots.  The	slot
	     count may be at most 8.  The current implementation is only
	     tested with two stations (i.e., point to point applications).
	     This setting is only meaningful when a station is configured as
	     slot 0; other stations adopt this setting from the	BSS they join.
	     By	default	tdmaslotcnt is set to 2.

     tdmaslotlen len
	     When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS such	that each station has
	     a slot len	microseconds long.  The	slot length must be at least
	     150 microseconds (1/8 TU) and no more than	65 milliseconds.  Note
	     that setting too small a slot length may result in	poor channel
	     bandwidth utilization due to factors such as timer	granularity
	     and guard time.  This setting is only meaningful when a station
	     is	configured as slot 0; other stations adopt this	setting	from
	     the BSS they join.	 By default tdmaslotlen	is set to 10 millisec-
	     onds.

     tdmabintval intval
	     When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS such	that beacons are
	     transmitted every intval superframes to synchronize the TDMA slot
	     timing.  A	superframe is defined as the number of slots times the
	     slot length; e.g.,	a BSS with two slots of	10 milliseconds	has a
	     20	millisecond superframe.	 The beacon interval may not be	zero.
	     A lower setting of	tdmabintval causes the timers to be resynchro-
	     nized more	often; this can	be help	if significant timer drift is
	     observed.	By default tdmabintval is set to 5.

     tsn     When operating as an access point with WPA/802.11i	allow legacy
	     stations to associate using static	key WEP	and open authentica-
	     tion.  To disallow	legacy station use of WEP, use -tsn.

     txpower power
	     Set the power used	to transmit frames.  The power argument	is
	     specified in .5 dBm units.	 Out of	range values are truncated.
	     Typically only a few discreet power settings are available	and
	     the driver	will use the setting closest to	the specified value.
	     Not all adapters support changing the transmit power.

     ucastrate rate
	     Set a fixed rate for transmitting unicast frames.	Rates are
	     specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g., 5.5	for 5.5	Mb/s.
	     This rate should be valid for the current operating conditions;
	     if	an invalid rate	is specified drivers are free to chose an
	     appropriate rate.

     wepmode mode
	     Set the desired WEP mode.	Not all	adapters support all modes.
	     The set of	valid modes is off, on,	and mixed.  The	mixed mode
	     explicitly	tells the adaptor to allow association with access
	     points which allow	both encrypted and unencrypted traffic.	 On
	     these adapters, on	means that the access point must only allow
	     encrypted connections.  On	other adapters,	on is generally
	     another name for mixed.  Modes are	case insensitive.

     weptxkey index
	     Set the WEP key to	be used	for transmission.  This	is the same as
	     setting the default transmission key with deftxkey.

     wepkey key|index:key
	     Set the selected WEP key.	If an index is not given, key 1	is
	     set.  A WEP key will be either 5 or 13 characters (40 or 104
	     bits) depending of	the local network and the capabilities of the
	     adaptor.  It may be specified either as a plain string or as a
	     string of hexadecimal digits preceded by `0x'.  For maximum
	     portability, hex keys are recommended; the	mapping	of text	keys
	     to	WEP encryption is usually driver-specific.  In particular, the
	     Windows drivers do	this mapping differently to FreeBSD.  A	key
	     may be cleared by setting it to `-'.  If WEP is supported then
	     there are at least	four keys.  Some adapters support more than
	     four keys.	 If that is the	case, then the first four keys (1-4)
	     will be the standard temporary keys and any others	will be	adap-
	     tor specific keys such as permanent keys stored in	NVRAM.

	     Note that you must	set a default transmit key with	deftxkey for
	     the system	to know	which key to use in encrypting outbound	traf-
	     fic.

     wme     Enable Wireless Multimedia	Extensions (WME) support, if avail-
	     able, for the specified interface.	 WME is	a subset of the	IEEE
	     802.11e standard to support the efficient communication of	real-
	     time and multimedia data.	To disable WME support,	use -wme.
	     Another name for this parameter is	wmm.

	     The following parameters are meaningful only when WME support is
	     in	use.  Parameters are specified per-AC (Access Category)	and
	     split into	those that are used by a station when acting as	an
	     access point and those for	client stations	in the BSS.  The lat-
	     ter are received from the access point and	may not	be changed (at
	     the station).  The	following Access Categories are	recognized:

	     AC_BE  (or	BE) best effort	delivery,
	     AC_BK  (or	BK) background traffic,
	     AC_VI  (or	VI) video traffic,
	     AC_VO  (or	VO) voice traffic.

	     AC	parameters are case-insensitive.  Traffic classification is
	     done in the operating system using	the vlan priority associated
	     with data frames or the ToS (Type of Service) indication in IP-
	     encapsulated frames.  If neither information is present, traffic
	     is	assigned to the	Best Effort (BE) category.

	     ack ac  Set the ACK policy	for QoS	transmissions by the local
		     station; this controls whether or not data	frames trans-
		     mitted by a station require an ACK	response from the
		     receiving station.	 To disable waiting for	an ACK use
		     -ack.  This parameter is applied only to the local	sta-
		     tion.

	     acm ac  Enable the	Admission Control Mandatory (ACM) mechanism
		     for transmissions by the local station.  To disable the
		     ACM use -acm.  On stations	in a BSS this parameter	is
		     read-only and indicates the setting received from the
		     access point.  NB:	ACM is not supported right now.

	     aifs ac count
		     Set the Arbitration Inter Frame Spacing (AIFS) channel
		     access parameter to use for transmissions by the local
		     station.  On stations in a	BSS this parameter is read-
		     only and indicates	the setting received from the access
		     point.

	     cwmin ac count
		     Set the CWmin channel access parameter to use for trans-
		     missions by the local station.  On	stations in a BSS this
		     parameter is read-only and	indicates the setting received
		     from the access point.

	     cwmax ac count
		     Set the CWmax channel access parameter to use for trans-
		     missions by the local station.  On	stations in a BSS this
		     parameter is read-only and	indicates the setting received
		     from the access point.

	     txoplimit ac limit
		     Set the Transmission Opportunity Limit channel access
		     parameter to use for transmissions	by the local station.
		     This parameter defines an interval	of time	when a WME
		     station has the right to initiate transmissions onto the
		     wireless medium.  On stations in a	BSS this parameter is
		     read-only and indicates the setting received from the
		     access point.

	     bss:aifs ac count
		     Set the AIFS channel access parameter to send to stations
		     in	a BSS.	This parameter is meaningful only when operat-
		     ing in ap mode.

	     bss:cwmin ac count
		     Set the CWmin channel access parameter to send to sta-
		     tions in a	BSS.  This parameter is	meaningful only	when
		     operating in ap mode.

	     bss:cwmax ac count
		     Set the CWmax channel access parameter to send to sta-
		     tions in a	BSS.  This parameter is	meaningful only	when
		     operating in ap mode.

	     bss:txoplimit ac limit
		     Set the TxOpLimit channel access parameter	to send	to
		     stations in a BSS.	 This parameter	is meaningful only
		     when operating in ap mode.

     wps     Enable Wireless Privacy Subscriber	support.  Note that WPS	sup-
	     port requires a WPS-capable supplicant.  To disable this function
	     use -wps.

     The following parameters support an optional access control list feature
     available with some adapters when operating in ap mode; see wlan_acl(4).
     This facility allows an access point to accept/deny association requests
     based on the MAC address of the station.  Note that this feature does not
     significantly enhance security as MAC address spoofing is easy to do.

     mac:add address
	     Add the specified MAC address to the database.  Depending on the
	     policy setting association	requests from the specified station
	     will be allowed or	denied.

     mac:allow
	     Set the ACL policy	to permit association only by stations regis-
	     tered in the database.

     mac:del address
	     Delete the	specified MAC address from the database.

     mac:deny
	     Set the ACL policy	to deny	association only by stations regis-
	     tered in the database.

     mac:kick address
	     Force the specified station to be deauthenticated.	 This typi-
	     cally is done to block a station after updating the address data-
	     base.

     mac:open
	     Set the ACL policy	to allow all stations to associate.

     mac:flush
	     Delete all	entries	in the database.

     mac:radius
	     Set the ACL policy	to permit association only by stations
	     approved by a RADIUS server.  Note	that this feature requires the
	     hostapd(8)	program	be configured to do the	right thing as it han-
	     dles the RADIUS processing	(and marks stations as authorized).

     The following parameters are related to a wireless	interface operating in
     mesh mode:

     meshid meshid
	     Set the desired Mesh Identifier.  The Mesh	ID is a	string up to
	     32	characters in length.  A mesh interface	must have a Mesh Iden-
	     tifier specified to reach an operational state.

     meshttl ttl
	     Set the desired ``time to live'' for mesh forwarded packets; this
	     is	the number of hops a packet may	be forwarded before it is dis-
	     carded.  The default setting for meshttl is 31.

     meshpeering
	     Enable or disable peering with neighbor mesh stations.  Stations
	     must peer before any data packets can be exchanged.  By default
	     meshpeering is enabled.

     meshforward
	     Enable or disable forwarding packets by a mesh interface.	By
	     default meshforward is enabled.

     meshmetric	protocol
	     Set the specified protocol	as the link metric protocol used on a
	     mesh network.  The	default	protocol is called AIRTIME.  The mesh
	     interface will restart after changing this	setting.

     meshpath protocol
	     Set the specified protocol	as the path selection protocol used on
	     a mesh network.  The only available protocol at the moment	is
	     called HWMP (Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol).  The mesh interface
	     will restart after	changing this setting.

     hwmprootmode mode
	     Stations on a mesh	network	can operate as ``root nodes.''	Root
	     nodes try to find paths to	all mesh nodes and advertise them-
	     selves regularly.	When there is a	root mesh node on a network,
	     other mesh	nodes can setup	paths between themselves faster
	     because they can use the root node	to find	the destination.  This
	     path may not be the best, but on-demand routing will eventually
	     find the best path.  The following	modes are recognized:

	     DISABLED	Disable	root mode.
	     NORMAL	Send broadcast path requests every two seconds.	 Nodes
			on the mesh without a path to this root	mesh station
			with try to discover a path to us.
	     PROACTIVE	Send broadcast path requests every two seconds and
			every node must	reply with with	a path reply even if
			it already has a path to this root mesh	station,
	     RANN	Send broadcast root annoucement	(RANN) frames.	Nodes
			on the mesh without a path to this root	mesh station
			with try to discover a path to us.
	     By	default	hwmprootmode is	set to DISABLED.

     hwmpmaxhops cnt
	     Set the maximum number of hops allowed in an HMWP path to cnt.
	     The default setting for hwmpmaxhops is 31.

     The following parameters are for compatibility with other systems:

     nwid ssid
	     Another name for the ssid parameter.  Included for	NetBSD compat-
	     ibility.

     stationname name
	     Set the name of this station.  The	station	name is	not part of
	     the IEEE 802.11 protocol though some interfaces support it.  As
	     such it only seems	to be meaningful to identical or virtually
	     identical equipment.  Setting the station name is identical in
	     syntax to setting the SSID.  One can also use station for BSD/OS
	     compatibility.

     wep     Another way of saying wepmode on.	Included for BSD/OS compati-
	     bility.

     -wep    Another way of saying wepmode off.	 Included for BSD/OS compati-
	     bility.

     nwkey key
	     Another way of saying: ``wepmode on weptxkey 1 wepkey 1:key
	     wepkey 2:-	wepkey 3:- wepkey 4:-''.  Included for NetBSD compati-
	     bility.

     nwkey n:k1,k2,k3,k4
	     Another way of saying ``wepmode on	weptxkey n wepkey 1:k1 wepkey
	     2:k2 wepkey 3:k3 wepkey 4:k4''.  Included for NetBSD compatibil-
	     ity.

     -nwkey  Another way of saying wepmode off.	 Included for NetBSD compati-
	     bility.

     The following parameters are specific to bridge interfaces:

     addm interface
	     Add the interface named by	interface as a member of the bridge.
	     The interface is put into promiscuous mode	so that	it can receive
	     every packet sent on the network.

     deletem interface
	     Remove the	interface named	by interface from the bridge.  Promis-
	     cuous mode	is disabled on the interface when it is	removed	from
	     the bridge.

     maxaddr size
	     Set the size of the bridge	address	cache to size.	The default is
	     2000 entries.

     timeout seconds
	     Set the timeout of	address	cache entries to seconds seconds.  If
	     seconds is	zero, then address cache entries will not be expired.
	     The default is 1200 seconds.

     addr    Display the addresses that	have been learned by the bridge.

     static interface-name address
	     Add a static entry	into the address cache pointing	to
	     interface-name.  Static entries are never aged out	of the cache
	     or	re-placed, even	if the address is seen on a different inter-
	     face.

     deladdr address
	     Delete address from the address cache.

     flush   Delete all	dynamically-learned addresses from the address cache.

     flushall
	     Delete all	addresses, including static addresses, from the
	     address cache.

     discover interface
	     Mark an interface as a ``discovering'' interface.	When the
	     bridge has	no address cache entry (either dynamic or static) for
	     the destination address of	a packet, the bridge will forward the
	     packet to all member interfaces marked as ``discovering''.	 This
	     is	the default for	all interfaces added to	a bridge.

     -discover interface
	     Clear the ``discovering'' attribute on a member interface.	 For
	     packets without the ``discovering'' attribute, the	only packets
	     forwarded on the interface	are broadcast or multicast packets and
	     packets for which the destination address is known	to be on the
	     interface's segment.

     learn interface
	     Mark an interface as a ``learning'' interface.  When a packet
	     arrives on	such an	interface, the source address of the packet is
	     entered into the address cache as being a destination address on
	     the interface's segment.  This is the default for all interfaces
	     added to a	bridge.

     -learn interface
	     Clear the ``learning'' attribute on a member interface.

     sticky interface
	     Mark an interface as a ``sticky'' interface.  Dynamically learned
	     address entries are treated at static once	entered	into the
	     cache.  Sticky entries are	never aged out of the cache or
	     replaced, even if the address is seen on a	different interface.

     -sticky interface
	     Clear the ``sticky'' attribute on a member	interface.

     private interface
	     Mark an interface as a ``private''	interface.  A private inter-
	     face does not forward any traffic to any other port that is also
	     a private interface.

     -private interface
	     Clear the ``private'' attribute on	a member interface.

     span interface
	     Add the interface named by	interface as a span port on the
	     bridge.  Span ports transmit a copy of every frame	received by
	     the bridge.  This is most useful for snooping a bridged network
	     passively on another host connected to one	of the span ports of
	     the bridge.

     -span interface
	     Delete the	interface named	by interface from the list of span
	     ports of the bridge.

     stp interface
	     Enable Spanning Tree protocol on interface.  The if_bridge(4)
	     driver has	support	for the	IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree protocol
	     (STP).  Spanning Tree is used to detect and remove	loops in a
	     network topology.

     -stp interface
	     Disable Spanning Tree protocol on interface.  This	is the default
	     for all interfaces	added to a bridge.

     edge interface
	     Set interface as an edge port.  An	edge port connects directly to
	     end stations cannot create	bridging loops in the network, this
	     allows it to transition straight to forwarding.

     -edge interface
	     Disable edge status on interface.

     autoedge interface
	     Allow interface to	automatically detect edge status.  This	is the
	     default for all interfaces	added to a bridge.

     -autoedge interface
	     Disable automatic edge status on interface.

     ptp interface
	     Set the interface as a point to point link.  This is required for
	     straight transitions to forwarding	and should be enabled on a
	     direct link to another RSTP capable switch.

     -ptp interface
	     Disable point to point link status	on interface.  This should be
	     disabled for a half duplex	link and for an	interface connected to
	     a shared network segment, like a hub or a wireless	network.

     autoptp interface
	     Automatically detect the point to point status on interface by
	     checking the full duplex link status.  This is the	default	for
	     interfaces	added to the bridge.

     -autoptp interface
	     Disable automatic point to	point link detection on	interface.

     maxage seconds
	     Set the time that a Spanning Tree protocol	configuration is
	     valid.  The default is 20 seconds.	 The minimum is	6 seconds and
	     the maximum is 40 seconds.

     fwddelay seconds
	     Set the time that must pass before	an interface begins forwarding
	     packets when Spanning Tree	is enabled.  The default is 15 sec-
	     onds.  The	minimum	is 4 seconds and the maximum is	30 seconds.

     hellotime seconds
	     Set the time between broadcasting of Spanning Tree	protocol con-
	     figuration	messages.  The hello time may only be changed when
	     operating in legacy stp mode.  The	default	is 2 seconds.  The
	     minimum is	1 second and the maximum is 2 seconds.

     priority value
	     Set the bridge priority for Spanning Tree.	 The default is	32768.
	     The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 61440.

     proto value
	     Set the Spanning Tree protocol.  The default is rstp.  The	avail-
	     able options are stp and rstp.

     holdcnt value
	     Set the transmit hold count for Spanning Tree.  This is the num-
	     ber of packets transmitted	before being rate limited.  The
	     default is	6.  The	minimum	is 1 and the maximum is	10.

     ifpriority	interface value
	     Set the Spanning Tree priority of interface to value.  The
	     default is	128.  The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 240.

     ifpathcost	interface value
	     Set the Spanning Tree path	cost of	interface to value.  The
	     default is	calculated from	the link speed.	 To change a previ-
	     ously selected path cost back to automatic, set the cost to 0.
	     The minimum is 1 and the maximum is 200000000.

     ifmaxaddr interface size
	     Set the maximum number of hosts allowed from an interface,	pack-
	     ets with unknown source addresses are dropped until an existing
	     host cache	entry expires or is removed.  Set to 0 to disable.

     The following parameters are specific to lagg interfaces:

     laggport interface
	     Add the interface named by	interface as a port of the aggregation
	     interface.

     -laggport interface
	     Remove the	interface named	by interface from the aggregation
	     interface.

     laggproto proto
	     Set the aggregation protocol.  The	default	is failover.  The
	     available options are failover, fec, lacp,	loadbalance,
	     roundrobin	and none.

     lagghash option[,option]
	     Set the packet layers to hash for aggregation protocols which
	     load balance.  The	default	is ``l2,l3,l4''.  The options can be
	     combined using commas.

	     l2	 src/dst mac address and optional vlan number.
	     l3	 src/dst address for IPv4 or IPv6.
	     l4	 src/dst port for TCP/UDP/SCTP.

     The following parameters are specific to IP tunnel	interfaces, gif(4):

     tunnel src_addr dest_addr
	     Configure the physical source and destination address for IP tun-
	     nel interfaces.  The arguments src_addr and dest_addr are inter-
	     preted as the outer source/destination for	the encapsulating
	     IPv4/IPv6 header.

     -tunnel
	     Unconfigure the physical source and destination address for IP
	     tunnel interfaces previously configured with tunnel.

     deletetunnel
	     Another name for the -tunnel parameter.

     accept_rev_ethip_ver
	     Set a flag	to acccept both	correct	EtherIP	packets	and ones with
	     reversed version field.  Enabled by default.  This	is for back-
	     ward compatibility	with FreeBSD 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.0, and 7.1.

     -accept_rev_ethip_ver
	     Clear a flag accept_rev_ethip_ver.

     send_rev_ethip_ver
	     Set a flag	to send	EtherIP	packets	with reversed version field
	     intentionally.  Disabled by default.  This	is for backward	com-
	     patibility	with FreeBSD 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.0, and 7.1.

     -send_rev_ethip_ver
	     Clear a flag send_rev_ethip_ver.

     The following parameters are specific to GRE tunnel interfaces, gre(4):

     grekey key
	     Configure the GRE key to be used for outgoing packets.  Note that
	     gre(4) will always	accept GRE packets with	invalid	or absent
	     keys. This	command	will result in a four byte MTU reduction on
	     the interface.

     The following parameters are specific to pfsync(4)	interfaces:

     maxupd n
	     Set the maximum number of updates for a single state which	can be
	     collapsed into one.  This is an 8-bit number; the default value
	     is	128.

     The following parameters are specific to vlan(4) interfaces:

     vlan vlan_tag
	     Set the VLAN tag value to vlan_tag.  This value is	a 16-bit num-
	     ber which is used to create an 802.1Q VLAN	header for packets
	     sent from the vlan(4) interface.  Note that vlan and vlandev must
	     both be set at the	same time.

     vlandev iface
	     Associate the physical interface iface with a vlan(4) interface.
	     Packets transmitted through the vlan(4) interface will be
	     diverted to the specified physical	interface iface	with 802.1Q
	     VLAN encapsulation.  Packets with 802.1Q encapsulation received
	     by	the parent interface with the correct VLAN tag will be
	     diverted to the associated	vlan(4)	pseudo-interface.  The vlan(4)
	     interface is assigned a copy of the parent	interface's flags and
	     the parent's ethernet address.  The vlandev and vlan must both be
	     set at the	same time.  If the vlan(4) interface already has a
	     physical interface	associated with	it, this command will fail.
	     To	change the association to another physical interface, the
	     existing association must be cleared first.

	     Note: if the hardware tagging capability is set on	the parent
	     interface,	the vlan(4) pseudo interface's behavior	changes: the
	     vlan(4) interface recognizes that the parent interface supports
	     insertion and extraction of VLAN tags on its own (usually in
	     firmware) and that	it should pass packets to and from the parent
	     unaltered.

     -vlandev [iface]
	     If	the driver is a	vlan(4)	pseudo device, disassociate the	parent
	     interface from it.	 This breaks the link between the vlan(4)
	     interface and its parent, clears its VLAN tag, flags and its link
	     address and shuts the interface down.  The	iface argument is use-
	     less and hence deprecated.

     The following parameters are specific to carp(4) interfaces:

     advbase seconds
	     Specifies the base	of the advertisement interval in seconds.  The
	     acceptable	values are 1 to	255.  The default value	is 1.

     advskew interval
	     Specifies the skew	to add to the base advertisement interval to
	     make one host advertise slower than another host.	It is speci-
	     fied in 1/256 of seconds.	The acceptable values are 1 to 254.
	     The default value is 0.

     pass phrase
	     Set the authentication key	to phrase.

     vhid n  Set the virtual host ID.  This is a required setting.  Acceptable
	     values are	1 to 255.

     state state
	     Force the interface into state state.  Valid states are INIT,
	     BACKUP, and MASTER. Note that manually setting the	state to INIT
	     is	ignored	by carp(4).  This state	is set automatically when the
	     underlying	interface is down.

     The ifconfig utility displays the current configuration for a network
     interface when no optional	parameters are supplied.  If a protocol	family
     is	specified, ifconfig will report	only the details specific to that pro-
     tocol family.

     If	the -m flag is passed before an	interface name,	ifconfig will display
     the capability list and all of the	supported media	for the	specified
     interface.	 If -L flag is supplied, address lifetime is displayed for
     IPv6 addresses, as	time offset string.

     Optionally, the -a	flag may be used instead of an interface name.	This
     flag instructs ifconfig to	display	information about all interfaces in
     the system.  The -d flag limits this to interfaces	that are down, and -u
     limits this to interfaces that are	up.  When no arguments are given, -a
     is	implied.

     The -l flag may be	used to	list all available interfaces on the system,
     with no other additional information.  Use	of this	flag is	mutually
     exclusive with all	other flags and	commands, except for -d	(only list
     interfaces	that are down) and -u (only list interfaces that are up).

     The -v flag may be	used to	get more verbose status	for an interface.

     The -C flag may be	used to	list all of the	interface cloners available on
     the system, with no additional information.  Use of this flag is mutually
     exclusive with all	other flags and	commands.

     The -k flag causes	keying information for the interface, if available, to
     be	printed.  For example, the values of 802.11 WEP	keys will be printed,
     if	accessible to the current user.	 This information is not printed by
     default, as it may	be considered sensitive.

     If	the network interface driver is	not present in the kernel then
     ifconfig will attempt to load it.	The -n flag disables this behavior.

     Only the super-user may modify the	configuration of a network interface.

EXAMPLES
     Assign the	IPv4 address 192.0.2.10, with a	network	mask of	255.255.255.0,
     to	the interface fxp0:
	   # ifconfig fxp0 inet	192.0.2.10 netmask 255.255.255.0

     Add the IPv4 address 192.0.2.45, with the CIDR network prefix /28,	to the
     interface ed0, using add as a synonym for the canonical form of the
     option alias:
	   # ifconfig ed0 inet 192.0.2.45/28 add

     Remove the	IPv4 address 192.0.2.45	from the interface ed0:
	   # ifconfig ed0 inet 192.0.2.45 -alias

     Add the IPv6 address 2001:DB8:DBDB::123/48	to the interface em0:
	   # ifconfig em0 inet6	2001:db8:bdbd::123 prefixlen 48	alias
     Note that lower case hexadecimal IPv6 addresses are acceptable.

     Remove the	IPv6 address added in the above	example, using the / character
     as	shorthand for the network prefix, and using delete as a	synonym	for
     the canonical form	of the option -alias:
	   # ifconfig em0 inet6	2001:db8:bdbd::123/48 delete

     Configure the interface xl0, to use 100baseTX, full duplex	Ethernet media
     options:
	   # ifconfig xl0 media	100baseTX mediaopt full-duplex

     Label the em0 interface as	an uplink:
	   # ifconfig em0 description "Uplink to Gigabit Switch	2"

     Create the	software network interface gif1:
	   # ifconfig gif1 create

     Destroy the software network interface gif1:
	   # ifconfig gif1 destroy

     Display available wireless	networks using wlan0:
	   # ifconfig wlan0 list scan

DIAGNOSTICS
     Messages indicating the specified interface does not exist, the requested
     address is	unknown, or the	user is	not privileged and tried to alter an
     interface's configuration.

SEE ALSO
     netstat(1), carp(4), gif(4), netintro(4), pfsync(4), polling(4), vlan(4),
     devd.conf(5), devd(8), rc(8), routed(8), jail(8), sysctl(8)

HISTORY
     The ifconfig utility appeared in 4.2BSD.

BUGS
     Basic IPv6	node operation requires	a link-local address on	each interface
     configured	for IPv6.  Normally, such an address is	automatically config-
     ured by the kernel	on each	interface added	to the system; this behaviour
     may be disabled by	setting	the sysctl MIB variable
     net.inet6.ip6.auto_linklocal to 0.

     If	you delete such	an address using ifconfig, the kernel may act very
     odd.  Do this at your own risk.

FreeBSD	10.1		       November	7, 2012			  FreeBSD 10.1

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXAMPLES | DIAGNOSTICS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | BUGS

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