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GROFF(1)							      GROFF(1)

NAME
       groff - front-end for the groff document	formatting system

SYNOPSIS
       groff [-abcegilpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir]	[-I dir]
	     [-L arg] [-m name]	[-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-P	arg] [-r cn]
	     [-T dev] [-w name]	[-W name] [file	...]
       groff -h	| --help
       groff -v	| --version [option ...]

       The  command line is parsed according to	the usual GNU convention.  The
       whitespace between a command line option	and its	argument is  optional.
       Options can be grouped behind a single -	(minus character).  A filename
       of - (minus character) denotes the standard input.

DESCRIPTION
       This document describes the groff program, the main front-end  for  the
       groff document formatting system.  The groff program and	macro suite is
       the implementation of a roff(7) system within the free software collec-
       tion  GNU  <http://www.gnu.org>.	  The groff system has all features of
       the classical roff, but adds many extensions.

       The groff program allows	to control the whole groff system  by  command
       line  options.	This  is  a  great simplification in comparison	to the
       classical case (which uses pipes	only).

OPTIONS
       As groff	is a wrapper program for troff both programs share  a  set  of
       options.	 But the groff program has some	additional, native options and
       gives a new meaning to some troff options.  On the other	hand, not  all
       troff options can be fed	into groff.

   Native groff	Options
       The  following options either do	not exist for troff or are differently
       interpreted by groff.

       -e     Preprocess with eqn.

       -g     Preprocess with grn.

       -G     Preprocess with grap.

       -h --help
	      Print a help message.

       -I dir This option may be used to specify a  directory  to  search  for
	      files  (both  those on the command line and those	named in .psbb
	      and .so requests,	and \X'ps: import' and \X'ps: file'  escapes).
	      The current directory is always searched first.  This option may
	      be specified more	than once; the directories will	be searched in
	      the order	specified.  No directory search	is performed for files
	      specified	using an absolute path.	 This option  implies  the  -s
	      option.

       -l     Send  the	output to a spooler program for	printing.  The command
	      that should be used for this is specified	by the	print  command
	      in the device description	file, see groff_font(5).  If this com-
	      mand is not present, the output is piped into the	lpr(1) program
	      by default.  See options -L and -X.

       -L arg Pass  arg	 to  the spooler program.  Several arguments should be
	      passed with a separate -L	option each.  Note that	groff does not
	      prepend -	(a minus sign) to arg before passing it	to the spooler
	      program.

       -N     Don't allow newlines within eqn delimiters.  This	is the same as
	      the -N option in eqn.

       -p     Preprocess with pic.

       -P -option
       -P -option -P arg
	      Pass  -option  or	 -option arg to	the postprocessor.  The	option
	      must be specified	with the necessary preceding minus sign(s) `-'
	      or `--' because groff does not prepend any dashes	before passing
	      it to the	postprocessor.	For example, to	pass a	title  to  the
	      gxditview	postprocessor, the shell command

	      sh# groff	-X -P -title -P	'groff it' foo

	      is equivalent to

	      sh# groff	-X -Z foo | gxditview -title 'groff it'	-

       -R     Preprocess with refer.  No mechanism is provided for passing ar-
	      guments to refer because most refer options have equivalent lan-
	      guage  elements  that can	be specified within the	document.  See
	      refer(1) for more	details.

       -s     Preprocess with soelim.

       -S     Safer mode.  Pass	the -S option to pic and disable the following
	      troff requests: .open, .opena, .pso, .sy,	and .pi.  For security
	      reasons, safer mode is enabled by	default.

       -t     Preprocess with tbl.

       -T dev Set output device	to dev.	 For this device, troff	generates  the
	      intermediate output; see groff_out(5).  Then groff calls a post-
	      processor	to convert troff's intermediate	output	to  its	 final
	      format.  Real devices in groff are

		     dvi    TeX	DVI format (postprocessor is grodvi).

		     html   HTML   output   (preprocessors   are   soelim  and
			    pre-grohtml, postprocessor is post-grohtml).

		     lbp    Canon CAPSL	printers (LBP-4	and LBP-8 series laser
			    printers; postprocessor is grolbp).

		     lj4    HP LaserJet4 compatible (or	other PCL5 compatible)
			    printers (postprocessor is grolj4).

		     ps	    PostScript output (postprocessor is	grops).

	      For the following	TTY output devices  (postprocessor  is	always
	      grotty), -T selects the output encoding:

		     ascii  7bit ASCII.

		     cp1047 Latin-1 character set for EBCDIC hosts.

		     latin1 ISO	8859-1.

		     utf8   Unicode character set in UTF-8 encoding.

	      The  following arguments select gxditview	as the `postprocessor'
	      (it is rather a viewing program):

		     X75    75dpi resolution, 10pt document base font.

		     X75-12 75dpi resolution, 12pt document base font.

		     X100   100dpi resolution, 10pt document base font.

		     X100-12
			    100dpi resolution, 12pt document base font.

	      The default device is ps.

       -U     Unsafe mode.  Reverts to the (old) unsafe	behaviour; see	option
	      -S.

       -v --version
	      Output version information of groff and of all programs that are
	      run by it; that is, the given command line is parsed in the usu-
	      al way, passing -v to all	subprograms.

       -V     Output  the  pipeline  that  would be run	by groff (as a wrapper
	      program) on the standard output, but do not execute it.  If giv-
	      en  more	than  once,  the  commands will	be both	printed	on the
	      standard error and run.

       -X     Use gxditview  instead  of  using	 the  usual  postprocessor  to
	      (pre)view	a document.  The printing spooler behavior as outlined
	      with options -l and -L is	carried	over to	gxditview(1) by	deter-
	      mining an	argument for the -printCommand option of gxditview(1).
	      This sets	the default Print action and  the  corresponding  menu
	      entry  to	 that value.  -X only produces good results with -Tps,
	      -TX75, -TX75-12, -TX100, and -TX100-12.  The default  resolution
	      for  previewing  -Tps  output  is	 75dpi;	this can be changed by
	      passing the -resolution option to	gxditview, for example

	      sh# groff	-X -P-resolution -P100 -man foo.1

       -z     Suppress output generated	by troff.  Only	error messages will be
	      printed.

       -Z     Print  the  groff	 intermediate  output  to standard output; see
	      groff_out(5).  Normally groff calls automatically	a  postproces-
	      sor.   With this option, the output of troff for the device, the
	      so-called	intermediate output is issued without  postprocessing.

   Transparent Options
       The  following  options	are transparently handed over to the formatter
       program troff that is called by groff subsequently.  These options  are
       described in more detail	in troff(1).

       -a     ascii approximation of output.

       -b     backtrace	on error or warning.

       -c     disable color output.  Please consult the	grotty(1) man page for
	      more details.

       -C     enable compatibility mode.

       -d cs
       -d name=s
	      define string.

       -E     disable troff error messages.

       -f fam set default font family.

       -F dir set path for font	DESC files.

       -i     process standard input after the specified input files.

       -m name
	      include  macro  file  name.tmac	(or   tmac.name);   see	  also
	      groff_tmac(5).

       -M dir path for macro files.

       -n num number the first page num.

       -o list
	      output only pages	in list.

       -r cn
       -r name=n
	      set number register.

       -w name
	      enable warning name.

       -W name
	      disable warning name.

USING GROFF
       The  groff  system implements the infrastructure	of classical roff; see
       roff(7) for a survey on how a roff system works in general.  Due	to the
       front-end  programs  available  within the groff	system,	using groff is
       much easier than	classical roff.	 This section gives an overview	of the
       parts  that  constitute	the groff system.  It complements roff(7) with
       groff-specific features.	 This section can be regarded as  a  guide  to
       the documentation around	the groff system.

   Paper Size
       The  virtual paper size used by troff to	format the input is controlled
       globally	with the requests .po, .pl, and	.ll.   See  groff_tmac(5)  for
       the `papersize' macro package which provides a convenient interface.

       The  physical  paper  size,  giving  the	actual dimensions of the paper
       sheets, is controlled by	output devices like  grops  with  the  command
       line  options  -p  and  -l.  See	groff_font(5) and the man pages	of the
       output devices for more details.	 groff uses the	command	line option -P
       to  pass	 options to output devices; for	example, the following selects
       A4 paper	in landscape orientation for the PS device:

	      groff -Tps -P-pa4	-P-l ...

   Front-ends
       The groff program is a wrapper around the troff(1) program.  It	allows
       to  specify the preprocessors by	command	line options and automatically
       runs the	postprocessor that is appropriate  for	the  selected  device.
       Doing  so,  the sometimes tedious piping	mechanism of classical roff(7)
       can be avoided.

       The grog(1) program can be used for guessing the	correct	groff  command
       line to format a	file.

       The  groffer(1)	program	 is an allround-viewer for groff files and man
       pages.

   Preprocessors
       The groff preprocessors are reimplementations  of  the  classical  pre-
       processors  with	 moderate  extensions.	 The preprocessors distributed
       with the	groff package are

       eqn(1) for mathematical formulae,

       grn(1) for including gremlin(1) pictures,

       pic(1) for drawing diagrams,

       refer(1)
	      for bibliographic	references,

       soelim(1)
	      for including macro files	from standard locations,

       and

       tbl(1) for tables.

       Besides these, there are	some internal preprocessors that are automati-
       cally run with some devices.  These aren't visible to the user.

   Macro Packages
       Macro  packages	can be included	by option -m.  The groff system	imple-
       ments and extends all classical macro packages in a compatible way  and
       adds  some packages of its own.	Actually, the following	macro packages
       come with groff:

       man    The traditional man page format; see groff_man(7).   It  can  be
	      specified	on the command line as -man or -m man.

       mandoc The  general  package for	man pages; it automatically recognizes
	      whether the documents uses  the  man  or	the  mdoc  format  and
	      branches	to  the	corresponding macro package.  It can be	speci-
	      fied on the command line as -mandoc or -m	mandoc.

       mdoc   The BSD-style man	page format; see  groff_mdoc(7).   It  can  be
	      specified	on the command line as -mdoc or	-m mdoc.

       me     The  classical  me  document format; see groff_me(7).  It	can be
	      specified	on the command line as -me or -m me.

       mm     The classical mm document	format;	see groff_mm(7).   It  can  be
	      specified	on the command line as -mm or -m mm.

       ms     The  classical  ms  document format; see groff_ms(7).  It	can be
	      specified	on the command line as -ms or -m ms.

       www    HTML-like	macros for inclusion in	arbitrary groff	documents; see
	      groff_www(7).

       Details	on  the	naming of macro	files and their	placement can be found
       in groff_tmac(5); this man page also documents some other, minor	auxil-
       iary macro packages not mentioned here.

   Programming Language
       General concepts	common to all roff programming languages are described
       in roff(7).

       The groff extensions to the classical troff language are	documented  in
       groff_diff(7).

       The  groff  language  as	a whole	is described in	the (still incomplete)
       groff info file;	a short	(but  complete)	 reference  can	 be  found  in
       groff(7).

   Formatters
       The  central  roff  formatter  within the groff system is troff(1).  It
       provides	the features of	both the classical troff and nroff, as well as
       the  groff  extensions.	The command line option	-C switches troff into
       compatibility mode which	tries to emulate classical  roff  as  much  as
       possible.

       There  is a shell script	nroff(1) that emulates the behavior of classi-
       cal nroff.  It tries to automatically select the	proper	output	encod-
       ing, according to the current locale.

       The  formatter program generates	intermediate output; see groff_out(7).

   Devices
       In roff,	the output targets are called devices.	 A  device  can	 be  a
       piece of	hardware, e.g. a printer, or a software	file format.  A	device
       is specified by the option -T.  The groff devices are as	follows.

       ascii  Text output using	the ascii(7) character set.

       cp1047 Text output using	the EBCDIC code	page IBM cp1047	 (e.g.	OS/390
	      Unix).

       dvi    TeX DVI format.

       html   HTML output.

       latin1 Text  output  using  the ISO Latin-1 (ISO	8859-1)	character set;
	      see iso_8859_1(7).

       koi8-r Text output using	the Russian KOI8-R character set.

       lbp    Output for Canon CAPSL printers (LBP-4 and  LBP-8	 series	 laser
	      printers).

       lj4    HP LaserJet4-compatible (or other	PCL5-compatible) printers.

       ps     PostScript  output;  suitable  for  printers and previewers like
	      gv(1).

       utf8   Text output using	the Unicode (ISO  10646)  character  set  with
	      UTF-8 encoding; see unicode(7).

       X75    75dpi  X	Window	System	output	suitable  for  the  previewers
	      xditview(1x) and gxditview(1).  A	variant	for  a	12pt  document
	      base font	is X75-12.

       X100   100dpi  X	 Window	 System	 output	 suitable  for	the previewers
	      xditview(1x) and gxditview(1).  A	variant	for  a	12pt  document
	      base font	is X100-12.

       The  postprocessor  to be used for a device is specified	by the postpro
       command in the device description file; see groff_font(5).  This	can be
       overridden with the -X option.

       The default device is ps.

   Postprocessors
       groff provides 3	hardware postprocessors:

       grolbp(1)
	      for some Canon printers,

       grolj4(1)
	      for printers compatible to the HP	LaserJet 4 and PCL5,

       grotty(1)
	      for  text	 output	using various encodings, e.g. on text-oriented
	      terminals	or line-printers.

       Today, most printing or drawing hardware	is handled  by	the  operating
       system, by device drivers, or by	software interfaces, usually accepting
       PostScript.  Consequently, there	isn't an urgent	need for more hardware
       device postprocessors.

       The groff software devices for conversion into other document file for-
       mats are

       grodvi(1)
	      for the DVI format,

       grohtml(1)
	      for HTML format,

       grops(1)
	      for PostScript.

       Combined	with the many existing free conversion tools  this  should  be
       sufficient to convert a troff document into virtually any existing data
       format.

   Utilities
       The following utility programs around groff are available.

       addftinfo(1)
	      Add information to troff font description	 files	for  use  with
	      groff.

       afmtodit(1)
	      Create font description files for	PostScript device.

       groffer(1)
	      General viewer program for groff files and man pages.

       gxditview(1)
	      The groff	X viewer, the GNU version of xditview.

       hpftodit(1)
	      Create font description files for	lj4 device.

       indxbib(1)
	      Make inverted index for bibliographic databases.

       lkbib(1)
	      Search bibliographic databases.

       lookbib(1)
	      Interactively search bibliographic databases.

       pfbtops(1)
	      Translate	a PostScript font in .pfb format to ASCII.

       tfmtodit(1)
	      Create font description files for	TeX DVI	device.

       xditview(1x)
	      roff viewer distributed with X window.

ENVIRONMENT
       Normally,  the path separator in	the following environment variables is
       the colon; this may vary	depending on the operating system.  For	 exam-
       ple, DOS	and Windows use	a semicolon instead.

       GROFF_BIN_PATH
	      This  search  path, followed by $PATH, will be used for commands
	      that are executed	by groff.  If it is not	set then the directory
	      where the	groff binaries were installed is prepended to PATH.

       GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX
	      When  there  is  a need to run different roff implementations at
	      the same time groff provides the facility	to prepend a prefix to
	      most  of	its  programs that could provoke name clashings	at run
	      time (default is to have none).  Historically, this  prefix  was
	      the  character  g,  but it can be	anything.  For example,	gtroff
	      stood for	groff's	troff, gtbl for	the groff version of tbl.   By
	      setting  GROFF_COMMAND_PREFIX to different values, the different
	      roff installations can be	addressed.  More exactly, if it	is set
	      to  prefix  xxx  then groff as a wrapper program will internally
	      call xxxtroff instead of troff.  This also applies to  the  pre-
	      processors  eqn, grn, pic, refer,	tbl, soelim, and to the	utili-
	      ties indxbib and lookbib.	 This feature does not	apply  to  any
	      programs	different  from	the ones above (most notably groff it-
	      self) since they are unique to the groff package.

       GROFF_FONT_PATH
	      A	list of	directories in which to	search for the devname	direc-
	      tory  in	addition  to  the  default  ones.   See	 troff(1)  and
	      groff_font(5) for	more details.

       GROFF_TMAC_PATH
	      A	list of	directories in which to	search for macro files in  ad-
	      dition   to   the	  default   directories.    See	 troff(1)  and
	      groff_tmac(5) for	more details.

       GROFF_TMPDIR
	      The directory in which temporary files will be created.  If this
	      is  not  set but the environment variable	TMPDIR instead,	tempo-
	      rary files will be created in the	directory $TMPDIR.  On	MS-DOS
	      and Windows 32 platforms,	the environment	variables TMP and TEMP
	      (in that	order)	are  searched  also,  after  GROFF_TMPDIR  and
	      TMPDIR.	Otherwise,  temporary  files  will be created in /tmp.
	      The refer(1), groffer(1),	grohtml(1), and	grops(1) commands  use
	      temporary	files.

       GROFF_TYPESETTER
	      Preset  the default device.  If this is not set the ps device is
	      used as default.	This device name is overwritten	by the	option
	      -T.

FILES
       There  are  some	 directories  in  which	groff installs all of its data
       files.  Due to different	installation  habits  on  different  operating
       systems,	 their	locations are not absolutely fixed, but	their function
       is clearly defined and coincides	on all systems.

   groff Macro Directory
       This contains all information related to	 macro	packages.   Note  that
       more  than a single directory is	searched for those files as documented
       in groff_tmac(5).  For the groff	 installation  corresponding  to  this
       document,  it  is located at /usr/share/tmac.  The following files con-
       tained in the groff macro directory have	a special meaning:

       troffrc
	      Initialization file for troff.  This is interpreted by troff be-
	      fore reading the macro sets and any input.

       troffrc-end
	      Final  startup file for troff, it	is parsed after	all macro sets
	      have been	read.

       name.tmac
       tmac.name
	      Macro file for macro package name.

   groff Font Directory
       This contains all information related to	 output	 devices.   Note  that
       more than a single directory is searched	for those files; see troff(1).
       For the groff installation corresponding	to this	document, it is	locat-
       ed  at  /usr/share/groff_font.	The  following	files contained	in the
       groff font directory have a special meaning:

       devname/DESC
	      Device description file for device name, see groff_font(5).

       devname/F
	      Font file	for font F of device name.

EXAMPLES
       The following example illustrates the power of the groff	program	 as  a
       wrapper around troff.

       To  process  a roff file	using the preprocessors	tbl and	pic and	the me
       macro set, classical troff had to be called by

       sh# pic foo.me |	tbl | troff -me	-Tlatin1 | grotty

       Using groff, this pipe can be shortened to the equivalent command

       sh# groff -p -t -me -T latin1 foo.me

       An even easier way to call this is to use grog(1)  to  guess  the  pre-
       processor and macro options and execute the generated command (by using
       backquotes to specify shell command substitution)

       sh# `grog -Tlatin1 foo.me`

       The simplest way	is to view the contents	in an automated	way by calling

       sh# groffer foo.me

BUGS
       On  EBCDIC  hosts  (e.g.	 OS/390	Unix), output devices ascii and	latin1
       aren't available.  Similarly, output for	EBCDIC code page cp1047	is not
       available on ASCII based	operating systems.

       Report  bugs  to	bug-groff@gnu.org.  Include a complete,	self-contained
       example that will allow the bug to be reproduced, and say which version
       of groff	you are	using.

AVAILABILITY
       Information on how to get groff and related information is available at
       the GNU website <http://www.gnu.org/software/groff>.  The  most	recent
       released	version	of groff is available for anonymous ftp	at the groff
       development site	<ftp://ftp.ffii.org/pub/groff/devel/
       groff-current.tar.gz>.

       Three groff mailing lists are available:

       bug-groff@gnu.org
	      for reporting bugs,

       groff@gnu.org
	      for general discussion of	groff,

       groff-commit@ffii.org
	      a	 read-only list	showing	logs of	commitments to the CVS reposi-
	      tory.

       Details on CVS access and much more can be found	in the file README  at
       the top directory of the	groff source package.

       There is	a free implementation of the grap preprocessor,	written	by Ted
       Faber <faber@lunabase.org>.  The	actual version can be found at the
       grap   website	<http://www.lunabase.org/~faber/Vault/software/grap/>.
       This is the only	grap version supported by groff.

AUTHORS
       Copyright (C) 1989, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005  Free	 Software  Foundation,
       Inc.

       This document is	distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation License) version 1.1 or later.	 You should  have  received  a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft	site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.

       This document is	based on the original groff man	page written by	 James
       Clark  <jjc@jclark.com>.	 It was	rewritten, enhanced, and put under the
       FDL license by Bernd  Warken.   It  is  maintained  by  Werner  Lemberg
       <wl@gnu.org>.

       groff  is  a GNU	free software project.	All parts of the groff package
       are protected by	GNU copyleft licenses.	The software  files  are  dis-
       tributed	under the terms	of the GNU General Public License (GPL), while
       the documentation files mostly use the GNU Free	Documentation  License
       (FDL).

SEE ALSO
       The groff info file contains all	information on the groff system	within
       a single	document.  Beneath the detailed	documentation of all  aspects,
       it provides examples and	background information.	 See info(1) on	how to
       read it.

       Due to its complex structure, the groff	system	has  many  man	pages.
       They can	be read	with man(1) or groffer(1).

       Introduction, history and further readings:
	      roff(7).

       Viewer for groff	files:
	      groffer(1), gxditview(1),	xditview(1x).

       Wrapper programs	for formatters:
	      groff(1),	grog(1).

       Roff preprocessors:
	      eqn(1), grn(1), pic(1), refer(1),	soelim(1), tbl(1), grap(1).

       Roff language with the groff extensions:
	      groff(7),	groff_char(7), groff_diff(7), groff_font(5).

       Roff formatter programs:
	      nroff(1),	troff(1), ditroff(7).

       The    intermediate output language: groff_out(7).

       Postprocessors for the output devices:
	      grodvi(1),   grohtml(1),	 grolbp(1),   grolj4(1),  lj4_font(5),
	      grops(1),	grotty(1).

       Groff macro packages and	macro-specific utilities:
	      groff_tmac(5),   groff_man(7),	groff_mdoc(7),	  groff_me(7),
	      groff_mm(7),     groff_mmse(7),	 groff_mom(7),	  groff_ms(7),
	      groff_www(7), groff_trace(7), mmroff(7).

       The following utilities are available:
	      addftinfo(1),    afmtodit(1),    eqn2graph(1),	grap2graph(1),
	      groffer(1),  gxditview(1),  hpftodit(1), indxbib(1), lookbib(1),
	      pfbtops(1), pic2graph(1),	tfmtodit(1).

Groff Version 1.19.2		  2 June 2013			      GROFF(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | USING GROFF | ENVIRONMENT | FILES | EXAMPLES | BUGS | AVAILABILITY | AUTHORS | SEE ALSO

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