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GRAID(8)		FreeBSD	System Manager's Manual		      GRAID(8)

NAME
     graid -- control utility for software RAID	devices

SYNOPSIS
     graid label [-f] [-o fmtopt] [-S size] [-s	strip] format label level prov
	   ...
     graid add [-f] [-S	size] [-s strip] name label level
     graid delete [-f] name [label | num]
     graid insert name prov ...
     graid remove name prov ...
     graid fail	name prov ...
     graid stop	[-fv] name ...
     graid list
     graid status
     graid load
     graid unload

DESCRIPTION
     The graid utility is used to manage software RAID configurations, sup-
     ported by the GEOM	RAID class.  GEOM RAID class uses on-disk metadata to
     provide access to software-RAID volumes defined by	different RAID BIOSes.
     Depending on RAID BIOS type and its metadata format, different subsets of
     configurations and	features are supported.	 To allow booting from RAID
     volume, the metadata format should	match the RAID BIOS type and its capa-
     bilities.	To guarantee that these	match, it is recommended to create
     volumes via the RAID BIOS interface, while	experienced users are free to
     do	it using this utility.

     The first argument	to graid indicates an action to	be performed:

     label    Create an	array with single volume.  The format argument speci-
	      fies the on-disk metadata	format to use for this array, such as
	      "Intel".	The label argument specifies the label of the created
	      volume.  The level argument specifies the	RAID level of the cre-
	      ated volume, such	as: "RAID0", "RAID1", etc.  The	subsequent
	      list enumerates providers	to use as array	components.  The spe-
	      cial name	"NONE" can be used to reserve space for	absent disks.
	      The order	of components can be important,	depending on specific
	      RAID level and metadata format.

	      Additional options include:

	      -f	Enforce	specified configuration	creation if it is
			officially unsupported,	but technically	can be cre-
			ated.

	      -o fmtopt
			Specifies metadata format options.

	      -S size	Use size bytes on each component for this volume.
			Should be used if several volumes per array are
			planned, or if smaller components going	to be inserted
			later.	Defaults to size of the	smallest component.

	      -s strip	Specifies strip	size in	bytes.	Defaults to 131072.

     add      Create another volume on the existing array.  The	name argument
	      is the name of the existing array, reported by label command.
	      The rest of arguments are	the same as for	the label command.

     delete   Delete volume(s) from the	existing array.	 When the last volume
	      is deleted, the array is also deleted and	its metadata erased.
	      The name argument	is the name of existing	array.	Optional label
	      or num arguments allow specifying	volume for deletion.

	      Additional options include:

	      -f  Delete volume(s) even	if it is still open.

     insert   Insert specified provider(s) into	specified array	instead	of the
	      first missing or failed components.  If there are	no such	compo-
	      nents, mark disk(s) as spare.

     remove   Remove the specified provider(s) from the	specified array	and
	      erase metadata.  If there	are spare disks	present, the removed
	      disk(s) will be replaced by spares.

     fail     Mark the given disks(s) as failed, removing from active use
	      unless absolutely	necessary due to exhausted redundancy.	If
	      there are	spare disks present - failed disk(s) will be replaced
	      with one of them.

     stop     Stop the given array.  The metadata will not be erased.

	      Additional options include:

	      -f  Stop the given array even if some of its volumes are opened.

     list     See geom(8).

     status   See geom(8).

     load     See geom(8).

     unload   See geom(8).

     Additional	options	include:

     -v	 Be more verbose.

SUPPORTED METADATA FORMATS
     The GEOM RAID class follows a modular design, allowing different metadata
     formats to	be used.  Support is currently implemented for the following
     formats:

     DDF    The	format defined by the SNIA Common RAID Disk Data Format	v2.0
	    specification.  Used by some Adaptec RAID BIOSes and some hardware
	    RAID controllers.  Because of high format flexibility different
	    implementations support different set of features and have differ-
	    ent	on-disk	metadata layouts.  To provide compatibility, the GEOM
	    RAID class mimics capabilities of the first	detected DDF array.
	    Respecting that, it	may support different number of	disks per vol-
	    ume, volumes per array, partitions per disk, etc.  The following
	    configurations are supported: RAID0	(2+ disks), RAID1 (2+ disks),
	    RAID1E (3+ disks), RAID3 (3+ disks), RAID4 (3+ disks), RAID5 (3+
	    disks), RAID5E (4+ disks), RAID5EE (4+ disks), RAID5R (3+ disks),
	    RAID6 (4+ disks), RAIDMDF (4+ disks), RAID10 (4+ disks), SINGLE (1
	    disk), CONCAT (2+ disks).

	    Format supports two	options	"BE" and "LE", that mean big-endian
	    byte order defined by specification	(default) and little-endian
	    used by some Adaptec controllers.

     Intel  The	format used by Intel RAID BIOS.	 Supports up to	two volumes
	    per	array.	Supports configurations: RAID0 (2+ disks), RAID1 (2
	    disks), RAID5 (3+ disks), RAID10 (4	disks).	 Configurations	not
	    supported by Intel RAID BIOS, but enforceable on your own risk:
	    RAID1 (3+ disks), RAID1E (3+ disks), RAID10	(6+ disks).

     JMicron
	    The	format used by JMicron RAID BIOS.  Supports one	volume per
	    array.  Supports configurations: RAID0 (2+ disks), RAID1 (2
	    disks), RAID10 (4 disks), CONCAT (2+ disks).  Configurations not
	    supported by JMicron RAID BIOS, but	enforceable on your own	risk:
	    RAID1 (3+ disks), RAID1E (3+ disks), RAID10	(6+ disks), RAID5 (3+
	    disks).

     NVIDIA
	    The	format used by NVIDIA MediaShield RAID BIOS.  Supports one
	    volume per array.  Supports	configurations:	RAID0 (2+ disks),
	    RAID1 (2 disks), RAID5 (3+ disks), RAID10 (4+ disks), SINGLE (1
	    disk), CONCAT (2+ disks).  Configurations not supported by NVIDIA
	    MediaShield	RAID BIOS, but enforceable on your own risk: RAID1 (3+
	    disks).

     Promise
	    The	format used by Promise and AMD/ATI RAID	BIOSes.	 Supports mul-
	    tiple volumes per array.  Each disk	can be split to	be used	by up
	    to two arbitrary volumes.  Supports	configurations:	RAID0 (2+
	    disks), RAID1 (2 disks), RAID5 (3+ disks), RAID10 (4 disks), SIN-
	    GLE	(1 disk), CONCAT (2+ disks).  Configurations not supported by
	    RAID BIOSes, but enforceable on your own risk: RAID1 (3+ disks),
	    RAID10 (6+ disks).

     SiI    The	format used by SiliconImage RAID BIOS.	Supports one volume
	    per	array.	Supports configurations: RAID0 (2+ disks), RAID1 (2
	    disks), RAID5 (3+ disks), RAID10 (4	disks),	SINGLE (1 disk), CON-
	    CAT	(2+ disks).  Configurations not	supported by SiliconImage RAID
	    BIOS, but enforceable on your own risk: RAID1 (3+ disks), RAID10
	    (6+	disks).

SUPPORTED RAID LEVELS
     The GEOM RAID class follows a modular design, allowing different RAID
     levels to be used.	 Full support for the following	RAID levels is cur-
     rently implemented: RAID0,	RAID1, RAID1E, RAID10, SINGLE, CONCAT.	The
     following RAID levels supported as	read-only for volumes in optimal state
     (without using redundancy): RAID4,	RAID5, RAID5E, RAID5EE,	RAID5R,	RAID6,
     RAIDMDF.

RAID LEVEL MIGRATION
     The GEOM RAID class has no	support	for RAID level migration, allowed by
     some metadata formats.  If	you started migration using BIOS or in some
     other way,	make sure to complete it there.	 Do not	run GEOM RAID class on
     migrating volumes under pain of possible data corruption!

2TiB BARRIERS
     NVIDIA metadata format does not support volumes above 2TiB.

SYSCTL VARIABLES
     The following sysctl(8) variable can be used to control the behavior of
     the RAID GEOM class.

     kern.geom.raid.aggressive_spare: 0
	     Use any disks without metadata connected to controllers of	the
	     vendor matching to	volume metadata	format as spare.  Use it with
	     much care to not lose data	if connecting unrelated	disk!

     kern.geom.raid.clean_time:	5
	     Mark volume as clean when idle for	the specified number of	sec-
	     onds.

     kern.geom.raid.debug: 0
	     Debug level of the	RAID GEOM class.

     kern.geom.raid.enable: 1
	     Enable on-disk metadata taste.

     kern.geom.raid.idle_threshold: 1000000
	     Time in microseconds to consider a	volume idle for	rebuild	pur-
	     poses.

     kern.geom.raid.name_format: 0
	     Providers name format: 0 -- raid/r{num}, 1	-- raid/{label}.

     kern.geom.raid.read_err_thresh: 10
	     Number of read errors equated to disk failure.  Write errors are
	     always considered as disk failures.

     kern.geom.raid.start_timeout: 30
	     Time to wait for missing array components on startup.

     kern.geom.raid.X.enable: 1
	     Enable taste for specific metadata	or transformation module.

     kern.geom.raid.legacy_aliases: 0
	     Enable geom raid emulation	of legacy /dev/ar%d devices.  This
	     should aid	the upgrade of systems from legacy to modern releases.

EXIT STATUS
     Exit status is 0 on success, and non-zero if the command fails.

SEE ALSO
     geom(4), geom(8), gvinum(8)

HISTORY
     The graid utility appeared	in FreeBSD 9.0.

AUTHORS
     Alexander Motin <mav@FreeBSD.org>
     M.	Warner Losh <imp@FreeBSD.org>

FreeBSD	10.1			 April 4, 2013			  FreeBSD 10.1

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | SUPPORTED METADATA FORMATS | SUPPORTED RAID LEVELS | RAID LEVEL MIGRATION | 2TiB BARRIERS | SYSCTL VARIABLES | EXIT STATUS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS

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