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GPART(8)		FreeBSD	System Manager's Manual		      GPART(8)

NAME
     gpart -- control utility for the disk partitioning	GEOM class

SYNOPSIS
     To	add support for	the disk partitioning GEOM class, place	one or more of
     the following lines in your kernel	configuration file:

	   options GEOM_PART_APM
	   options GEOM_PART_BSD
	   options GEOM_PART_GPT
	   options GEOM_PART_MBR
	   options GEOM_PART_PC98
	   options GEOM_PART_VTOC8

     The GEOM_PART_APM option adds support for the Apple Partition Map (APM)
     found on Apple Macintosh computers.  The GEOM_PART_BSD option adds	sup-
     port for the traditional BSD disklabel.  The GEOM_PART_GPT	option adds
     support for the GUID Partition Table (GPT)	found on Intel Itanium comput-
     ers and Intel-based Macintosh computers.  The GEOM_PART_MBR option	adds
     support for the Master Boot Record	(MBR) found on PCs and used on many
     removable media.  The GEOM_PART_PC98 option adds support for the MBR
     variant as	used on	NEC PC-98 computers.  The GEOM_PART_VTOC8 option adds
     support for Sun's SMI VTOC8 label as found	on UltraSPARC-based computers.

     Usage of the gpart(8) utility:

     gpart add -b start	-s size	-t type	[-i index] [-l label] [-f flags] geom
     gpart bootcode [-b	bootcode] [-p partcode -i index] [-f flags] geom
     gpart commit geom
     gpart create -s scheme [-n	entries] [-f flags] provider
     gpart delete -i index [-f flags] geom
     gpart destroy [-f flags] geom
     gpart modify -i index [-l label] [-t type]	[-f flags] geom
     gpart set -a attrib -i index [-f flags] geom
     gpart show	[geom ...]
     gpart undo	geom
     gpart unset -a attrib -i index [-f	flags] geom

DESCRIPTION
     The gpart utility is used to partition GEOM providers, normally disks.
     The first argument	of which is the	action to be taken:

     add      Add a new	partition to the partitioning scheme given by geom.
	      The partition begins on the logical block	address	given by the
	      -b start option.	Its size is expressed in logical block numbers
	      and given	by the -s size option.	The type of the	partition is
	      given by the -t type option.  Partition types are	discussed in
	      the section entitled "Partition Types".

	      Addition options include:

	      -i index	   The index in	the partition table at which the new
			   partition is	to be placed. The index	determines the
			   name	of the device special file used	to represent
			   the partition.

	      -l label	   The label attached to the partition.	 This option
			   is only valid when used on partitioning schemes
			   that	support	partition labels.

	      -f flags	   Additional operational flags.  See the section
			   entitled "Operational flags"	below for a discussion
			   about its use.

     bootcode
	      Embed bootstrap code into	the partitioning scheme's metadata on
	      the geom (using -b bootcode) or write bootstrap code into	a par-
	      tition (using -p partcode	and -i index).	Not all	partitioning
	      schemes have embedded bootstrap code, so the -b bootcode option
	      is scheme-specific in nature.  For the GPT scheme, embedded
	      bootstrap	code is	supported.  The	bootstrap code is embedded in
	      the protective MBR rather	than the GPT.  The -b bootcode option
	      specifies	a file that contains the bootstrap code.  The contents
	      and size of the file are determined by the partitioning scheme.
	      For the MBR scheme, it's a 512 byte file of which	the first 446
	      bytes are	installed as bootstrap code.  The -p partcode option
	      specifies	a file that contains the bootstrap code	intended to be
	      written to a partition.  The partition is	specified by the -i
	      index option.  The size of the file must be smaller than the
	      size of the partition.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.	 See the section enti-
			  tled "Operational flags" below for a discussion
			  about	its use.

     commit   Commit any pending changes for geom geom.	 All actions are being
	      committed	by default and will not	result in pending changes.
	      Actions can be modified with the -f flags	option so that they
	      are not being committed by default.  As such, they become	pend-
	      ing.  Pending changes are	reflected by the geom and the gpart
	      utility, but they	are not	actually written to disk.  The commit
	      action will write	any and	all pending changes to disk.

     create   Create a new partitioning	scheme on a provider given by
	      provider.	 The -s	scheme option determines the scheme to use.
	      The kernel needs to have support for a particular	scheme before
	      that scheme can be used to partition a disk.

	      Addition options include:

	      -n entries  The number of	entries	in the partition table.	 Every
			  partitioning scheme has a minimum and	a maximum num-
			  ber of entries and this option allows	tables to be
			  created with the number of entries that lies any-
			  where	between	the minimum and	the maximum.  Some
			  schemes have a maximum equal to the minimum and some
			  schemes have a maximum large enough to be considered
			  unlimited.  By default, partition tables are created
			  with the minimum number of entries.

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.	 See the section enti-
			  tled "Operational flags" below for a discussion
			  about	its use.

     delete   Delete a partition from geom geom	and further identified by the
	      -i index option.	The partition cannot be	actively used by the
	      kernel.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.	 See the section enti-
			  tled "Operational flags" below for a discussion
			  about	its use.

     destroy  Destroy the partitioning scheme as implemented by	geom geom.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.	 See the section enti-
			  tled "Operational flags" below for a discussion
			  about	its use.

     modify   Modify a partition from geom geom	and further identified by the
	      -i index option.	Only the the type and/or label of the parti-
	      tion can be modified.  To	change the type	of a partition,	spec-
	      ify the new type with the	-t type	option.	 To change the label
	      of a partition, specify the new label with the -l	label option.
	      Not all partitioning schemes support labels and it is invalid to
	      try to change a partition	label in such cases.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.	 See the section enti-
			  tled "Operational flags" below for a discussion
			  about	its use.

     set      Set the named attribute on the partition entry.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.	 See the section enti-
			  tled "Operational flags" below for a discussion
			  about	its use.

     show     Show the current partition information of	the specified geoms or
	      all geoms	if none	are specified.

     undo     Revert any pending changes.  This	action is the opposite of the
	      commit action and	can be used to undo any	changes	that have not
	      been committed.

     unset    Clear the	named attribute	on the partition entry.

	      Addition options include:

	      -f flags	  Additional operational flags.	 See the section enti-
			  tled "Operational flags" below for a discussion
			  about	its use.

PARTITION TYPES
     The gpart utility uses symbolic names for common partition	types to avoid
     that the user needs to know what the partitioning scheme in question is
     and what the actual number	or identification needs	to be used for a par-
     ticular type.  the	gpart utility also allows the user to specify scheme-
     specific partition	types for partition types that don't have symbol
     names.  The symbolic names	currently understood are:

     efi	    The	system partition for computers that use	the Extensible
		    Firmware Interface (EFI).  In such cases, the GPT parti-
		    tioning scheme is being used and the actual	partition type
		    for	the system partition can also be specified as
		    "!c12a7328-f81f-11d2-ba4b-00a0c93ec93ab".

     freebsd	    A FreeBSD partition	that uses the BSD disklabel to sub-
		    divide the partition into file systems.  This is a legacy
		    partition type and should not be used for the APM or GPT
		    schemes.  The scheme-specific types	are "!165" for MBR,
		    "!FreeBSD" for APM,	and
		    "!516e7cb4-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for	GPT.

     freebsd-boot   A FreeBSD partition	dedicated to bootstrap code.  The
		    scheme-specific type is "!83bd6b9d-7f41-11dc-
		    be0b-001560b84f0f" for GPT.

     freebsd-swap   A FreeBSD partition	dedicated to swap space.  The scheme-
		    specific types are "!FreeBSD-swap" for APM,	and
		    "!516e7cb5-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for	GPT.

     freebsd-ufs    A FreeBSD partition	that contains a	UFS or UFS2 file sys-
		    tem.  the scheme-specific types are	"!FreeBSD-UFS" for
		    APM, and "!516e7cb6-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for GPT.

     freebsd-vinum  A FreeBSD partition	that contains a	Vinum volume.  The
		    scheme-specific types are "!FreeBSD-Vinum" for APM,	and
		    "!516e7cb8-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for	GPT.

     freebsd-zfs    A FreeBSD partition	that contains a	ZFS volume.  The
		    scheme-specific types are "!FreeBSD-ZFS" for APM, and
		    "!516e7cba-6ecf-11d6-8ff8-00022d09712b" for	GPT.

     mbr	    A partition	that is	sub-partitioned	by a master boot
		    record (MBR).  This	type is	known as
		    "!024dee41-33e7-11d3-9d69-0008c781f39f" by GPT.

OPERATIONAL FLAGS
     Actions other than	the commit and undo actions take an optional -f	flags
     option.  This option is used to specify action-specific operational
     flags.  By	default, the gpart utility defines the 'C' flag	so that	the
     action is immediately committed.  The user	can specify -f x to have the
     action result in a	pending	change that can	later, with other pending
     changes, be committed as a	single compound	change with the	commit action
     or	reverted with the undo action.

EXIT STATUS
     Exit status is 0 on success, and 1	if the command fails.

EXAMPLES
     Create GPT	scheme on ad0.

	   /sbin/gpart create -s GPT ad0

     Embed GPT bootstrap code into protective MBR.

	   /sbin/gpart bootcode	-b /boot/pmbr ad0

     Create a dedicated	freebsd-boot partition that can	boot FreeBSD from a
     freebsd-ufs partition, and	install	bootstrap code into it.	 This parti-
     tion must be larger than /boot/gptboot, or	the GPT	boot you are planning
     to	write.	A size of 15 blocks (7680 bytes) would be sufficient for boot-
     ing from UFS but lets use 128 blocks (64 KB) here in this example,	in
     order to reserve some space for potential future need (e.g. from a	ZFS
     partition).

	   /sbin/gpart add -b 34 -s 128	-t freebsd-boot	ad0
	   /sbin/gpart bootcode	-p /boot/gptboot -i 1 ad0

     Create a 512MB-sized freebsd-ufs partition	that would contain UFS where
     the system	boot from.

	   /sbin/gpart add -b 162 -s 1048576 -t	freebsd-ufs ad0

SEE ALSO
     geom(4), geom(8),

HISTORY
     The gpart utility appeared	in FreeBSD 7.0.

AUTHORS
     Marcel Moolenaar <marcel@FreeBSD.org>

FreeBSD	10.1			 Nov 18, 2008			  FreeBSD 10.1

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | PARTITION TYPES | OPERATIONAL FLAGS | EXIT STATUS | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS

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