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FTP(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual			FTP(1)

NAME
     ftp, pftp,	gate-ftp -- ARPANET file transfer program

SYNOPSIS
     ftp [-46adeginptUvV] [-P port] [-s	src_addr] [host	[port]]
     ftp ftp://[user:password@]host[:port]/file[/]
     ftp http://host[:port]/file
     ftp host:[/path/]file[/]

DESCRIPTION
     ftp is the	user interface to the ARPANET standard File Transfer Protocol.
     The program allows	a user to transfer files to and	from a remote network
     site.  The	version	supports IPv6 (Internet	protocol version 6), as	well
     as	IPv4.

     The latter	three usage formats will fetch a file using either the HTTP or
     FTP protocols into	the current directory.	This is	ideal for scripts.
     Refer to AUTO-FETCHING FILES below	for more information.

     Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command inter-
     preter.

     -4		 Forces	ftp to use IPv4	addresses only.

     -6		 Forces	ftp to use IPv6	addresses only.

     -a		 Causes	ftp to bypass normal login procedure, and use an
		 anonymous login instead.

     -d		 Enables debugging.

     -e		 Disables command line editing.

     -g		 Disables file name globbing.

     -i		 Turns off interactive prompting during	multiple file trans-
		 fers.

     -n		 Restrains ftp from attempting ``auto-login'' upon initial
		 connection.  If auto-login is enabled,	ftp will check the
		 .netrc	(see below) file in the	user's home directory for an
		 entry describing an account on	the remote machine.  If	no
		 entry exists, ftp will	prompt for the remote machine login
		 name (default is the user identity on the local machine),
		 and, if necessary, prompt for a password and an account with
		 which to login.

     -p		 Enables passive mode operation	for use	behind connection fil-
		 tering	firewalls.  Using the pftp command has the same
		 effect.

     -P	port	 Sets the port number to port.

     -s	src_addr
		 Sets the local	IP address for all connections to src_addr,
		 which can be an IP address or a host name.

     -t		 Enables packet	tracing.

     -U		 Disable data port range restrictions.

     -v		 Enable	verbose	mode.  This is the default if input is from a
		 terminal.  Forces ftp to show all responses from the remote
		 server, as well as report on data transfer statistics.

     -V		 Disable verbose mode, overriding the default of enabled when
		 input is from a terminal.

     The client	host with which	ftp is to communicate may be specified on the
     command line.  If this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to establish
     a connection to an	FTP server on that host; otherwise, ftp	will enter its
     command interpreter and await instructions	from the user.	When ftp is
     awaiting commands from the	user the prompt	`ftp>' is provided to the
     user.  The	following commands are recognized by ftp:

     ! [command	[args]]
		 Invoke	an interactive shell on	the local machine.  If there
		 are arguments,	the first is taken to be a command to execute
		 directly, with	the rest of the	arguments as its arguments.

     $ macro-name [args]
		 Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the	macdef
		 command.  Arguments are passed	to the macro unglobbed.

     account [passwd]
		 Supply	a supplemental password	required by a remote system
		 for access to resources once a	login has been successfully
		 completed.  If	no argument is included, the user will be
		 prompted for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.

     append local-file [remote-file]
		 Append	a local	file to	a file on the remote machine.  If
		 remote-file is	left unspecified, the local file name is used
		 in naming the remote file after being altered by any ntrans
		 or nmap setting.  File	transfer uses the current settings for
		 type, format, mode and	structure.

     ascii	 Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.  This is the
		 default type.

     bell	 Arrange that a	bell be	sounded	after each file	transfer com-
		 mand is completed.

     binary	 Set the file transfer type to support binary image transfer.

     bye	 Terminate the FTP session with	the remote server and exit
		 ftp.  An end of file will also	terminate the session and
		 exit.

     case	 Toggle	remote computer	file name case mapping during mget
		 commands.  When case is on (default is	off), remote computer
		 file names with all letters in	upper case are written in the
		 local directory with the letters mapped to lower case.

     cd	remote-directory
		 Change	the working directory on the remote machine to
		 remote-directory.

     cdup	 Change	the remote machine working directory to	the parent of
		 the current remote machine working directory.

     chmod mode	file-name
		 Change	the permission modes of	the file file-name on the
		 remote	system to mode.

     close	 Terminate the FTP session with	the remote server, and return
		 to the	command	interpreter.  Any defined macros are erased.

     cr		 Toggle	carriage return	stripping during ascii type file
		 retrieval.  Records are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed
		 sequence during ascii type file transfer.  When cr is on (the
		 default), carriage returns are	stripped from this sequence to
		 conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.
		 Records on non-UNIX remote systems may	contain	single line-
		 feeds;	when an	ascii type transfer is made, these linefeeds
		 may be	distinguished from a record delimiter only when	cr is
		 off.

     delete remote-file
		 Delete	the file remote-file on	the remote machine.

     debug [debug-value]
		 Toggle	debugging mode.	 If an optional	debug-value is speci-
		 fied, it is used to set the debugging level.  When debugging
		 is on,	ftp prints each	command	sent to	the remote machine,
		 preceded by the string	`-->'

     dir [remote-directory [local-file]]
		 Print a listing of the	contents of a directory	on the remote
		 machine.  The listing includes	any system-dependent informa-
		 tion that the server chooses to include; for example, most
		 UNIX systems will produce output from the command `ls -l'.
		 (See also ls.)	 If remote-directory is	left unspecified, the
		 current working directory is used.  If	interactive prompting
		 is on,	ftp will prompt	the user to verify that	the last argu-
		 ment is indeed	the target local file for receiving dir	out-
		 put.  If no local file	is specified, or if local-file is `-',
		 the output is sent to the terminal.

		 As this command provides extra	information which is system-
		 dependent, you	should use the nlist command instead if	you
		 only want a plain list	of files.

     disconnect	 A synonym for close.

     edit	 Toggle	command	line editing, and context sensitive command
		 and file completion.  This is automatically enabled if	input
		 is from a terminal, and disabled otherwise.

     epsv4	 Toggle	use of EPSV/EPRT commands on IPv4 FTP sessions.	 Turn-
		 ing this option off may remedy	problems with some firewalls,
		 e.g., IPFilter.

     exit	 A synonym for bye.

     ftp host [port]
		 A synonym for open.

     form format
		 Set the file transfer form to format.	The default format is
		 ``file''.

     get remote-file [local-file]
		 Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.
		 If the	local file name	is not specified, it is	given the same
		 name it has on	the remote machine, subject to alteration by
		 the current case, ntrans and nmap settings.  The current set-
		 tings for type, form, mode and	structure are used while
		 transferring the file.

     gate [host	[port]]
		 Toggle	gate-ftp mode.	This will not be permitted if the
		 gate-ftp server hasn't	been set (either explicitly by the
		 user, or from the FTPSERVER environment variable).  If	host
		 is given, then	gate-ftp mode will be enabled, and the gate-
		 ftp server will be set	to host.  If port is also given, that
		 will be used as the port to connect to	on the gate-ftp
		 server.

     glob	 Toggle	filename expansion for mdelete,	mget and mput.	If
		 globbing is turned off	with glob, the file name arguments are
		 taken literally and not expanded.  Globbing for mput is done
		 as in csh(1).	For mdelete and	mget, each remote file name is
		 expanded separately on	the remote machine and the lists are
		 not merged.  Expansion	of a directory name is likely to be
		 different from	expansion of the name of an ordinary file: the
		 exact result depends on the foreign operating system and ftp
		 server, and can be previewed by doing `mls remote-files -'
		 Note: mget and	mput are not meant to transfer entire direc-
		 tory subtrees of files.  That can be done by transferring a
		 tar(1)	archive	of the subtree (in binary mode).

     hash [size]
		 Toggle	hash-sign (``#'') printing for each data block trans-
		 ferred.  The size of a	data block defaults to 1024 bytes.
		 This can be changed by	specifying size	in bytes.

     help [command]
		 Print an informative message about the	meaning	of command.
		 If no argument	is given, ftp prints a list of the known com-
		 mands.

     idle [seconds]
		 Set the inactivity timer on the remote	server to seconds sec-
		 onds.	If seconds is omitted, the current inactivity timer is
		 printed.

     lcd [directory]
		 Change	the working directory on the local machine.  If	no
		 directory is specified, the user's home directory is used.

     less file	 A synonym for page.

     lpwd	 Print the working directory on	the local machine.

     ls	[remote-directory [local-file]]
		 A synonym for dir.

     macdef macro-name
		 Define	a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro
		 macro-name; a null line (consecutive newline characters in a
		 file or carriage returns from the terminal) terminates	macro
		 input mode.  There is a limit of 16 macros and	4096 total
		 characters in all defined macros.  Macros remain defined
		 until a close command is executed.  The macro processor
		 interprets `$'	and `\'	as special characters.	A `$' followed
		 by a number (or numbers) is replaced by the corresponding
		 argument on the macro invocation command line.	 A `$' fol-
		 lowed by an `i' signals that macro processor that the execut-
		 ing macro is to be looped.  On	the first pass `$i' is
		 replaced by the first argument	on the macro invocation	com-
		 mand line, on the second pass it is replaced by the second
		 argument, and so on.  A `\' followed by any character is
		 replaced by that character.  Use the `\' to prevent special
		 treatment of the `$'.

     mdelete [remote-files]
		 Delete	the remote-files on the	remote machine.

     mdir remote-files local-file
		 Like dir, except multiple remote files	may be specified.  If
		 interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to ver-
		 ify that the last argument is indeed the target local file
		 for receiving mdir output.

     mget remote-files
		 Expand	the remote-files on the	remote machine and do a	get
		 for each file name thus produced.  See	glob for details on
		 the filename expansion.  Resulting file names will then be
		 processed according to	case, ntrans and nmap settings.	 Files
		 are transferred into the local	working	directory, which can
		 be changed with `lcd directory'; new local directories	can be
		 created with `! mkdir directory'.

     mkdir directory-name
		 Make a	directory on the remote	machine.

     mls remote-files local-file
		 Like ls, except multiple remote files may be specified, and
		 the local-file	must be	specified.  If interactive prompting
		 is on,	ftp will prompt	the user to verify that	the last argu-
		 ment is indeed	the target local file for receiving mls	out-
		 put.

     mode [mode-name]
		 Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The default mode is
		 ``stream'' mode.

     modtime file-name
		 Show the last modification time of the	file on	the remote
		 machine.

     more file	 A synonym for page.

     mput local-files
		 Expand	wild cards in the list of local	files given as argu-
		 ments and do a	put for	each file in the resulting list.  See
		 glob for details of filename expansion.  Resulting file names
		 will then be processed	according to ntrans and	nmap settings.

     msend local-files
		 A synonym for mput.

     newer file-name
		 Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file
		 is more recent	that the file on the current system.  If the
		 file does not exist on	the current system, the	remote file is
		 considered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to
		 get.

     nlist [remote-directory [local-file]]
		 Print a list of the files in a	directory on the remote
		 machine.  If remote-directory is left unspecified, the	cur-
		 rent working directory	is used.  If interactive prompting is
		 on, ftp will prompt the user to verify	that the last argument
		 is indeed the target local file for receiving ls output.  If
		 no local file is specified, or	if local-file is -, the	output
		 is sent to the	terminal.

		 Note that this	command	only returns the filenames in the
		 remote	directory.  If you wish	to see more information	about
		 the files (often size,	modification time, and so on), you
		 should	use the	dir command instead.

     nmap [inpattern outpattern]
		 Set or	unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments
		 are specified,	the filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If
		 arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during
		 mput commands and put commands	issued without a specified
		 remote	target filename.  If arguments are specified, local
		 filenames are mapped during mget commands and get commands
		 issued	without	a specified local target filename.  This com-
		 mand is useful	when connecting	to a non-UNIX remote computer
		 with different	file naming conventions	or practices.  The
		 mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.
		 [Inpattern] is	a template for incoming	filenames (which may
		 have already been processed according to the ntrans and case
		 settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by including
		 the sequences `$1', `$2', ...,	`$9' in	inpattern.  Use	`\' to
		 prevent this special treatment	of the `$' character.  All
		 other characters are treated literally, and are used to
		 determine the nmap [inpattern]	variable values.  For example,
		 given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name	"mydata.data",
		 $1 would have the value "mydata", and $2 would	have the value
		 "data".  The outpattern determines the	resulting mapped file-
		 name.	The sequences `$1', `$2', ....,	`$9' are replaced by
		 any value resulting from the inpattern	template.  The
		 sequence `$0' is replace by the original filename.  Addition-
		 ally, the sequence `[seq1, seq2]' is replaced by [seq1] if
		 seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it is replaced by	seq2.
		 For example, the command

		       nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]

		 would yield the output	filename "myfile.data" for input file-
		 names "myfile.data" and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for
		 the input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the
		 input filename	".myfile".  Spaces may be included in
		 outpattern, as	in the example:	`nmap $1 sed "s/  *$//"	> $1'
		 .  Use	the `\'	character to prevent special treatment of the
		 `$','[',']' and `,' characters.

     ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
		 Set or	unset the filename character translation mechanism.
		 If no arguments are specified,	the filename character trans-
		 lation	mechanism is unset.  If	arguments are specified, char-
		 acters	in remote filenames are	translated during mput com-
		 mands and put commands	issued without a specified remote tar-
		 get filename.	If arguments are specified, characters in
		 local filenames are translated	during mget commands and get
		 commands issued without a specified local target filename.
		 This command is useful	when connecting	to a non-UNIX remote
		 computer with different file naming conventions or practices.
		 Characters in a filename matching a character in inchars are
		 replaced with the corresponding character in outchars.	 If
		 the character's position in inchars is	longer than the	length
		 of outchars, the character is deleted from the	file name.

     open host [port]
		 Establish a connection	to the specified host FTP server.  An
		 optional port number may be supplied, in which	case, ftp will
		 attempt to contact an FTP server at that port.	 If the
		 auto-login option is on (default), ftp	will also attempt to
		 automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).

     page file	 Retrieve file and display with	the program defined in PAGER
		 (which	defaults to more(1)).

     passive	 Toggle	passive	mode.  If passive mode is turned on (default
		 is off), the ftp client will send a PASV command for all data
		 connections instead of	the usual PORT command.	 The PASV com-
		 mand requests that the	remote server open a port for the data
		 connection and	return the address of that port.  The remote
		 server	listens	on that	port and the client connects to	it.
		 When using the	more traditional PORT command, the client lis-
		 tens on a port	and sends that address to the remote server,
		 who connects back to it.  Passive mode	is useful when using
		 ftp through a gateway router or host that controls the	direc-
		 tionality of traffic.	(Note that though ftp servers are
		 required to support the PASV command by RFC 1123, some	do
		 not.  Please note that	if you are connecting to IPv6 ftp
		 server, the program will use EPSV/EPRT	pair and LPSV/LPRT
		 pair, instead of PASV and PORT.  The meaning is the same.)

     preserve	 Toggle	preservation of	modification times on retrieved	files.

     progress	 Toggle	display	of transfer progress bar.  The progress	bar
		 will be disabled for a	transfer that has local-file as	`-' or
		 a command that	starts with `|'.  Refer	to FILE	NAMING
		 CONVENTIONS for more information.

     prompt	 Toggle	interactive prompting.	Interactive prompting occurs
		 during	multiple file transfers	to allow the user to selec-
		 tively	retrieve or store files.  If prompting is turned off
		 (default is on), any mget or mput will	transfer all files,
		 and any mdelete will delete all files.

		 When prompting	is on, the following commands are available at
		 a prompt:

		       n   Do not transfer the file.

		       a   Answer `yes'	to the current file, and automatically
			   answer `yes'	to any remaining files for the current
			   command.

		       p   Answer `yes'	to the current file, and turn off
			   prompt mode (as if ``prompt off'' had been given).

		 Any other reponse will	answer `yes' to	the current file.

     proxy ftp-command
		 Execute an ftp	command	on a secondary control connection.
		 This command allows simultaneous connection to	two remote ftp
		 servers for transferring files	between	the two	servers.  The
		 first proxy command should be an open,	to establish the sec-
		 ondary	control	connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to
		 see other ftp commands	executable on the secondary connec-
		 tion.	The following commands behave differently when pref-
		 aced by proxy:	open will not define new macros	during the
		 auto-login process, close will	not erase existing macro defi-
		 nitions, get and mget transfer	files from the host on the
		 primary control connection to the host	on the secondary con-
		 trol connection, and put, mput	and append transfer files from
		 the host on the secondary control connection to the host on
		 the primary control connection.  Third	party file transfers
		 depend	upon support of	the ftp	protocol PASV command by the
		 server	on the secondary control connection.

     put local-file [remote-file]
		 Store a local file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is
		 left unspecified, the local file name is used after process-
		 ing according to any ntrans or	nmap settings in naming	the
		 remote	file.  File transfer uses the current settings for
		 type, format, mode and	structure.

     pwd	 Print the name	of the current working directory on the	remote
		 machine.

     quit	 A synonym for bye.

     quote arg1	arg2 ...
		 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to	the remote FTP
		 server.

     recv remote-file [local-file]
		 A synonym for get.

     reget remote-file [local-file]
		 Reget acts like get, except that if local-file	exists and is
		 smaller than remote-file, local-file is presumed to be	a par-
		 tially	transferred copy of remote-file	and the	transfer is
		 continued from	the apparent point of failure.	This command
		 is useful when	transferring very large	files over networks
		 that are prone	to dropping connections.

     remotehelp	[command-name]
		 Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a	command-name
		 is specified it is supplied to	the server as well.

     rstatus [file-name]
		 With no arguments, show status	of remote machine.  If
		 file-name is specified, show status of	file-name on remote
		 machine.

     rename [from [to]]
		 Rename	the file from on the remote machine, to	the file to.

     reset	 Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes com-
		 mand/reply sequencing with the	remote ftp server.  Resynchro-
		 nization may be necessary following a violation of the	ftp
		 protocol by the remote	server.

     restart marker
		 Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated
		 marker.  On UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset
		 into the file.

     restrict	 Toggle	data port range	restrictions.  When not	operating in
		 passive mode,	the ftp	client program requests	that the
		 remote	server open a connection back to the client host on a
		 separate data port.  In previous versions, that remote	port
		 fell in the range 1024..4999.	However, most firewall setups
		 filter	that range of TCP ports	because	other services reside
		 there.	 The default behavior now is for the client to request
		 that the server connect back to the client using the port
		 range 49152..65535.  Firewall administrators can chose	to
		 allow TCP connections in that range, if they deem it to not
		 be a security risk.

     rmdir directory-name
		 Delete	a directory on the remote machine.

     runique	 Toggle	storing	of files on the	local system with unique file-
		 names.	 If a file already exists with a name equal to the
		 target	local filename for a get or mget command, a ".1" is
		 appended to the name.	If the resulting name matches another
		 existing file,	a ".2" is appended to the original name.  If
		 this process continues	up to ".99", an	error message is
		 printed, and the transfer does	not take place.	 The generated
		 unique	filename will be reported.  Note that runique will not
		 affect	local files generated from a shell command (see
		 below).  The default value is off.

     send local-file [remote-file]
		 A synonym for put.

     sendport	 Toggle	the use	of PORT	commands.  By default, ftp will
		 attempt to use	a PORT command when establishing a connection
		 for each data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent
		 delays	when performing	multiple file transfers.  If the PORT
		 command fails,	ftp will use the default data port.  When the
		 use of	PORT commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to
		 use PORT commands for each data transfer.  This is useful for
		 certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT commands
		 but, incorrectly, indicate they've been accepted.

     site arg1 arg2 ...
		 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to	the remote FTP
		 server	as a SITE command.

     size file-name
		 Return	size of	file-name on remote machine.

     status	 Show the current status of ftp.

     struct [struct-name]
		 Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.  By default
		 ``stream'' structure is used.

     sunique	 Toggle	storing	of files on remote machine under unique	file
		 names.	 Remote	ftp server must	support	ftp protocol STOU com-
		 mand for successful completion.  The remote server will
		 report	unique name.  Default value is off.

     system	 Show the type of operating system running on the remote
		 machine.

     tenex	 Set the file transfer type to that needed to talk to TENEX
		 machines.

     trace	 Toggle	packet tracing.

     type [type-name]
		 Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type is spec-
		 ified,	the current type is printed.  The default type is net-
		 work ASCII.

     umask [newmask]
		 Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.	 If
		 newmask is omitted, the current umask is printed.

     user user-name [password [account]]
		 Identify yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password
		 is not	specified and the server requires it, ftp will prompt
		 the user for it (after	disabling local	echo).	If an account
		 field is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the
		 user will be prompted for it.	If an account field is speci-
		 fied, an account command will be relayed to the remote	server
		 after the login sequence is completed if the remote server
		 did not require it for	logging	in.  Unless ftp	is invoked
		 with ``auto-login'' disabled, this process is done automati-
		 cally on initial connection to	the FTP	server.

     verbose	 Toggle	verbose	mode.  In verbose mode,	all responses from the
		 FTP server are	displayed to the user.	In addition, if	ver-
		 bose is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics
		 regarding the efficiency of the transfer are reported.	 By
		 default, verbose is on.

     ? [command]
		 A synonym for help.

     Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted	with quote `"'
     marks.

     Commands which toggle settings can	take an	explicit on or off argument to
     force the setting appropriately.

     If	ftp receives a SIGINFO (see the	``status'' argument of stty(1))	signal
     whilst a transfer is in progress, the current transfer rate statistics
     will be written to	the standard error output, in the same format as the
     standard completion message.

AUTO-FETCHING FILES
     In	addition to standard commands, this version of ftp supports an auto-
     fetch feature.  To	enable auto-fetch, simply pass the list	of host-
     names/files on the	command	line.

     The following formats are valid syntax for	an auto-fetch element:

     host:/file	 ``Classic'' ftp format

     ftp://[user:password@]host[:port]/file
		 An ftp	URL, retrieved using the ftp protocol if ftp_proxy
		 isn't defined.	 Otherwise, transfer using http	via the	proxy
		 defined in ftp_proxy.	If user:password@ is given and
		 ftp_proxy isn't defined, login	as user	with a password	of
		 password.

     http://host[:port]/file
		 An HTTP URL, retrieved	using the http protocol.  If
		 http_proxy is defined,	it is used as a	URL to an HTTP proxy
		 server.

     If	a classic format or a ftp URL format has a trailing `/', then ftp will
     connect to	the site and cd	to the directory given as the path, and	leave
     the user in interactive mode ready	for further input.

     If	successive auto-fetch ftp elements refer to the	same host, then	the
     connection	is maintained between transfers, reducing overhead on connec-
     tion creation and deletion.

     If	file contains a	glob character and globbing is enabled,	(see glob),
     then the equivalent of mget file is performed.

     If	the directory component	of file	contains no globbing characters, it is
     stored in the current directory as	the basename(1)	of file.  Otherwise,
     the remote	name is	used as	the local name.

ABORTING A FILE	TRANSFER
     To	abort a	file transfer, use the terminal	interrupt key (usually Ctrl-
     C).  Sending transfers will be immediately	halted.	 Receiving transfers
     will be halted by sending a ftp protocol ABOR command to the remote
     server, and discarding any	further	data received.	The speed at which
     this is accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR
     processing.  If the remote	server does not	support	the ABOR command, an
     `ftp>' prompt will	not appear until the remote server has completed send-
     ing the requested file.

     The terminal interrupt key	sequence will be ignored when ftp has com-
     pleted any	local processing and is	awaiting a reply from the remote
     server.  A	long delay in this mode	may result from	the ABOR processing
     described above, or from unexpected behavior by the remote	server,
     including violations of the ftp protocol.	If the delay results from
     unexpected	remote server behavior,	the local ftp program must be killed
     by	hand.

FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
     Files specified as	arguments to ftp commands are processed	according to
     the following rules.

     1.	  If the file name `-' is specified, the stdin (for reading) or	stdout
	  (for writing)	is used.

     2.	  If the first character of the	file name is `|', the remainder	of the
	  argument is interpreted as a shell command.  ftp then	forks a	shell,
	  using	popen(3) with the argument supplied, and reads (writes)	from
	  the stdin (stdout).  If the shell command includes spaces, the argu-
	  ment must be quoted; e.g. ``"	ls -lt"''.  A particularly useful
	  example of this mechanism is:	``dir |more''.

     3.	  Failing the above checks, if ``globbing'' is enabled,	local file
	  names	are expanded according to the rules used in the	csh(1);	c.f.
	  the glob command.  If	the ftp	command	expects	a single local file
	  (e.g.	put), only the first filename generated	by the "globbing"
	  operation is used.

     4.	  For mget commands and	get commands with unspecified local file
	  names, the local filename is the remote filename, which may be
	  altered by a case, ntrans, or	nmap setting.  The resulting filename
	  may then be altered if runique is on.

     5.	  For mput commands and	put commands with unspecified remote file
	  names, the remote filename is	the local filename, which may be
	  altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.	The resulting filename may
	  then be altered by the remote	server if sunique is on.

FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS
     The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a	file
     transfer.	The type may be	one of ``ascii'', ``image'' (binary),
     ``ebcdic''	and ``local byte size''	(for PDP-10's and PDP-20's mostly).
     ftp supports the ascii and	image types of file transfer, plus local byte
     size 8 for	tenex mode transfers.

     ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer
     parameters: mode, form and	struct.

THE .netrc FILE
     The .netrc	file contains login and	initialization information used	by the
     auto-login	process.  It resides in	the user's home	directory.  The	fol-
     lowing tokens are recognized; they	may be separated by spaces, tabs, or
     new-lines:

     machine name
	       Identify	a remote machine name.	The auto-login process
	       searches	the .netrc file	for a machine token that matches the
	       remote machine specified	on the ftp command line	or as an open
	       command argument.  Once a match is made,	the subsequent .netrc
	       tokens are processed, stopping when the end of file is reached
	       or another machine or a default token is	encountered.

     default   This is the same	as machine name	except that default matches
	       any name.  There	can be only one	default	token, and it must be
	       after all machine tokens.  This is normally used	as:

		     default login anonymous password user@site

	       thereby giving the user automatic anonymous ftp login to
	       machines	not specified in .netrc.  This can be overridden by
	       using the -n flag to disable auto-login.

     login name
	       Identify	a user on the remote machine.  If this token is
	       present,	the auto-login process will initiate a login using the
	       specified name.

     password string
	       Supply a	password.  If this token is present, the auto-login
	       process will supply the specified string	if the remote server
	       requires	a password as part of the login	process.  Note that if
	       this token is present in	the .netrc file	for any	user other
	       than anonymous, ftp will	abort the auto-login process if	the
	       .netrc is readable by anyone besides the	user.

     account string
	       Supply an additional account password.  If this token is
	       present,	the auto-login process will supply the specified
	       string if the remote server requires an additional account
	       password, or the	auto-login process will	initiate an ACCT com-
	       mand if it does not.

     macdef name
	       Define a	macro.	This token functions like the ftp macdef com-
	       mand functions.	A macro	is defined with	the specified name;
	       its contents begin with the next	.netrc line and	continue until
	       a null line (consecutive	new-line characters) is	encountered.
	       If a macro named	init is	defined, it is automatically executed
	       as the last step	in the auto-login process.

COMMAND	LINE EDITING
     ftp supports interactive command line editing, via	the editline(3)
     library.  It is enabled with the edit command, and	is enabled by default
     if	input is from a	tty.  Previous lines can be recalled and edited	with
     the arrow keys, and other GNU Emacs-style editing keys may	be used	as
     well.

     The editline(3) library is	configured with	a .editrc file - refer to
     editrc(5) for more	information.

     An	extra key binding is available to ftp to provide context sensitive
     command and filename completion (including	remote file completion).  To
     use this, bind a key to the editline(3) command ftp-complete.  By
     default, this is bound to the TAB key.

ENVIRONMENT
     ftp utilizes the following	environment variables.

     FTP_PASSIVE_MODE  If this variable	is set to something else than `NO',
		       ftp will	use passive mode by default.

     FTPSERVER	       Host to use as gate-ftp server when gate	is enabled.

     FTPSERVERPORT     Port to use when	connecting to gate-ftp server when
		       gate is enabled.	 Default is port returned by a
		       getservbyname() lookup of ``ftpgate/tcp''.

     HOME	       For default location of a .netrc	file, if one exists.

     PAGER	       Used by page to display files.

     SHELL	       For default shell.

     ftp_proxy	       URL of FTP proxy	to use when making FTP URL requests
		       (if not defined,	use the	standard ftp protocol).

     http_proxy	       URL of HTTP proxy to use	when making HTTP URL requests.

SEE ALSO
     getservbyname(3), editrc(5), services(5), ftpd(8)

NOTES
     The pftp(1) and gate-ftp(1) commands are links to ftp.

HISTORY
     The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.

     Various features such as command line editing, context sensitive command
     and file completion, dynamic progress bar,	automatic fetching of files,
     ftp and http URLs,	and modification time preservation were	implemented in
     NetBSD 1.3	by Luke	Mewburn, with assistance from Jason Thorpe.

     IPv6 support was added by WIDE/KAME Project.

BUGS
     Correct execution of many commands	depends	upon proper behavior by	the
     remote server.

     An	error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode
     transfer code has been corrected.	This correction	may result in incor-
     rect transfers of binary files to and from	4.2BSD servers using the ascii
     type.  Avoid this problem by using	the binary image type.

     Proxying functionalities, such as ftp_proxy, may not work for IPv6	con-
     nection.

FreeBSD	10.1		       January 27, 2000			  FreeBSD 10.1

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | AUTO-FETCHING FILES | ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER | FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS | FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS | THE .netrc FILE | COMMAND LINE EDITING | ENVIRONMENT | SEE ALSO | NOTES | HISTORY | BUGS

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