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FIND(1L)							      FIND(1L)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  find searches the
       directory tree rooted at	each given file	name by	evaluating  the	 given
       expression  from	 left  to  right, according to the rules of precedence
       (see section OPERATORS),	until the outcome is known (the	left hand side
       is false	for and	operations, true for or), at which point find moves on
       to the next file	name.

       The first argument that begins with `-',	`(', `)', `,', or `!' is taken
       to  be  the  beginning  of  the expression; any arguments before	it are
       paths to	search,	and any	arguments after	it are the rest	of the expres-
       sion.   If  no  paths  are given, the current directory is used.	 If no
       expression is given, the	expression `-print' is used.

       find exits with status 0	 if  all  files	 are  processed	 successfully,
       greater than 0 if errors	occur.

EXPRESSIONS
       The  expression	is  made up of options (which affect overall operation
       rather than the processing of a specific	file, and always return	true),
       tests  (which  return  a	 true or false value), and actions (which have
       side effects and	return a true or false value), all separated by	opera-
       tors.   -and  is	assumed	where the operator is omitted.	If the expres-
       sion contains no	actions	other than -prune, -print is performed on  all
       files for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All  options  always return true.  They always take effect, rather than
       being processed only when their place in	 the  expression  is  reached.
       Therefore,  for	clarity,  it is	best to	place them at the beginning of
       the expression.

       -daystart
	      Measure times (for -amin,	 -atime,  -cmin,  -ctime,  -mmin,  and
	      -mtime)  from  the  beginning of today rather than from 24 hours
	      ago.

       -depth Process each directory's contents	before the directory itself.

       -follow
	      Dereference symbolic links.  Implies -noleaf.

       -help, --help
	      Print a summary of the command-line usage	of find	and exit.

       -maxdepth levels
	      Descend at most levels (a	non-negative integer) levels of	direc-
	      tories  below  the  command line arguments.  `-maxdepth 0' means
	      only apply the tests and actions to the command line  arguments.

       -mindepth levels
	      Do  not apply any	tests or actions at levels less	than levels (a
	      non-negative integer).  `-mindepth 1' means  process  all	 files
	      except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't  descend  directories  on other filesystems.  An alternate
	      name for -xdev, for compatibility	with some  other  versions  of
	      find.

       -noleaf
	      Do  not  optimize	 by  assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
	      subdirectories than their	 hard  link  count.   This  option  is
	      needed  when  searching  filesystems that	do not follow the Unix
	      directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM	or MS-DOS  filesystems
	      or  AFS  volume  mount  points.  Each directory on a normal Unix
	      filesystem has at	least 2	hard  links:  its  name	 and  its  `.'
	      entry.   Additionally,  its  subdirectories (if any) each	have a
	      `..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining  a
	      directory,  after	it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the
	      directory's link count, it knows that the	rest of	the entries in
	      the directory are	non-directories	(`leaf'	files in the directory
	      tree).  If only the files' names need to be examined,  there  is
	      no  need	to  stat  them;	 this  gives a significant increase in
	      search speed.

       -version, --version
	      Print the	find version number and	exit.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories	on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Numeric arguments can be	specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
	      File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
	      File was last accessed more recently  than  file	was  modified.
	      -anewer  is  affected  by	 -follow  only if -follow comes	before
	      -anewer on the command line.

       -atime n
	      File was last accessed n*24 hours	ago.

       -cmin n
	      File's status was	last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
	      File's status was	last changed more recently than	file was modi-
	      fied.   -cnewer  is  affected  by	 -follow only if -follow comes
	      before -cnewer on	the command line.

       -ctime n
	      File's status was	last changed n*24 hours	ago.

       -empty File is empty and	is either a regular file or a directory.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
	      File is on a filesystem of  type	type.	The  valid  filesystem
	      types  vary among	different versions of Unix; an incomplete list
	      of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
	      another  is:  ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs,	tmp, mfs, S51K,	S52K.  You can
	      use -printf with the %F directive	 to  see  the  types  of  your
	      filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
	      File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
	      Like -lname, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iname pattern
	      Like -name, but the match	is case	insensitive.  For example, the
	      patterns `fo*' and `F??' match  the  file	 names	`Foo',	`FOO',
	      `foo', `fOo', etc.

       -inum n
	      File has inode number n.

       -ipath pattern
	      Like -path, but the match	is case	insensitive.

       -iregex pattern
	      Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -links n
	      File has n links.

       -lname pattern
	      File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pat-
	      tern.  The metacharacters	do not treat `/' or `.'	specially.

       -mmin n
	      File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
	      File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.

       -name pattern
	      Base of  file  name  (the	 path  with  the  leading  directories
	      removed)	matches	 shell	pattern	 pattern.   The	metacharacters
	      (`*', `?', and `[]') do not match	a `.' at the start of the base
	      name.  To	ignore a directory and the files under it, use -prune;
	      see an example in	the description	of -path.

       -newer file
	      File was modified	more recently than file.  -newer  is  affected
	      by  -follow  only	 if -follow comes before -newer	on the command
	      line.

       -nouser
	      No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -nogroup
	      No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -path pattern
	      File name	matches	shell pattern pattern.	The metacharacters  do
	      not treat	`/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
			find . -path './sr*sc'
	      will  print an entry for a directory called './src/misc' (if one
	      exists).	To ignore a whole directory tree,  use	-prune	rather
	      than  checking every file	in the tree.  For example, to skip the
	      directory	`src/emacs' and	all files and  directories  under  it,
	      and  print the names of the other	files found, do	something like
	      this:
			find . -path './src/emacs' -prune -o -print

       -perm mode
	      File's permission	bits are exactly  mode	(octal	or  symbolic).
	      Symbolic modes use mode 0	as a point of departure.

       -perm -mode
	      All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.

       -perm +mode
	      Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.

       -regex pattern
	      File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
	      on the whole path, not a search.	For example, to	match  a  file
	      named `./fubar3',	you can	use the	regular	expression `.*bar.' or
	      `.*b.*3',	but not	`b.*r3'.

       -size n[bckw]
	      File uses	n units	of space.  The units are  512-byte  blocks  by
	      default  or  if `b' follows n, bytes if `c' follows n, kilobytes
	      if `k' follows n,	or 2-byte words	if `w' follows	n.   The  size
	      does  not	 count	indirect  blocks,  but it does count blocks in
	      sparse files that	are not	actually allocated.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
	      File is of type c:

	      b	     block (buffered) special

	      c	     character (unbuffered) special

	      d	     directory

	      p	     named pipe	(FIFO)

	      f	     regular file

	      l	     symbolic link

	      s	     socket

	      D	     door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is	n.

       -used n
	      File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
	      File is owned by user uname (numeric user	ID allowed).

       -xtype c
	      The  same	as -type unless	the file is a symbolic link.  For sym-
	      bolic links: if -follow has not been given, true if the file  is
	      a	link to	a file of type c; if -follow has been given, true if c
	      is `l'.  In other	words, for symbolic links, -xtype  checks  the
	      type of the file that -type does not check.

   ACTIONS
       -exec command ;
	      Execute  command;	 true  if 0 status is returned.	 All following
	      arguments	to find	are taken to be	arguments to the command until
	      an  argument  consisting of `;' is encountered.  The string `{}'
	      is replaced by the current file name being processed  everywhere
	      it occurs	in the arguments to the	command, not just in arguments
	      where it is alone, as in some versions of	find.  Both  of	 these
	      constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
	      protect them from	expansion by the shell.	 The command  is  exe-
	      cuted in the starting directory.

       -fls file
	      True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.

       -fprint file
	      True; print the full file	name into file file.  If file does not
	      exist when find is run, it is created; if	it does	exist,	it  is
	      truncated.   The	file names ``/dev/stdout'' and ``/dev/stderr''
	      are handled specially; they refer	to  the	 standard  output  and
	      standard error output, respectively.

       -fprint0	file
	      True; like -print0 but write to file like	-fprint.

       -fprintf	file format
	      True; like -printf but write to file like	-fprint.

       -ok command ;
	      Like  -exec  but	ask the	user first (on the standard input); if
	      the response does	not start with `y' or `Y', do not run the com-
	      mand, and	return false.

       -print True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed
	      by a newline.

       -print0
	      True; print the full file	name on	the standard output,  followed
	      by  a  null character.  This allows file names that contain new-
	      lines to be correctly interpreted	by programs that  process  the
	      find output.

       -printf format
	      True;  print  format  on	the  standard output, interpreting `\'
	      escapes and `%' directives.  Field widths	and precisions can  be
	      specified	 as  with  the	`printf'  C  function.	Unlike -print,
	      -printf does not add a newline at	the end	of  the	 string.   The
	      escapes and directives are:

	      \a     Alarm bell.

	      \b     Backspace.

	      \c     Stop  printing from this format immediately and flush the
		     output.

	      \f     Form feed.

	      \n     Newline.

	      \r     Carriage return.

	      \t     Horizontal	tab.

	      \v     Vertical tab.

	      \\     A literal backslash (`\').

	      \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

	      A	`\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
	      ordinary character, so they both are printed.

	      %%     A literal percent sign.

	      %a     File's  last  access time in the format returned by the C
		     `ctime' function.

	      %Ak    File's last access	time in	the  format  specified	by  k,
		     which  is	either `@' or a	directive for the C `strftime'
		     function.	The possible values for	k  are	listed	below;
		     some  of  them might not be available on all systems, due
		     to	differences in `strftime' between systems.

		     @	    seconds since Jan. 1, 1970,	00:00 GMT.

		     Time fields:

		     H	    hour (00..23)

		     I	    hour (01..12)

		     k	    hour ( 0..23)

		     l	    hour ( 1..12)

		     M	    minute (00..59)

		     p	    locale's AM	or PM

		     r	    time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

		     S	    second (00..61)

		     T	    time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

		     X	    locale's time representation (H:M:S)

		     Z	    time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time  zone
			    is determinable

		     Date fields:

		     a	    locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

		     A	    locale's  full weekday name, variable length (Sun-
			    day..Saturday)

		     b	    locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

		     B	    locale's full month	name,  variable	 length	 (Jan-
			    uary..December)

		     c	    locale's  date  and	 time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST
			    1989)

		     d	    day	of month (01..31)

		     D	    date (mm/dd/yy)

		     h	    same as b

		     j	    day	of year	(001..366)

		     m	    month (01..12)

		     U	    week number	of year	with Sunday as	first  day  of
			    week (00..53)

		     w	    day	of week	(0..6)

		     W	    week  number  of  year with	Monday as first	day of
			    week (00..53)

		     x	    locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

		     y	    last two digits of year (00..99)

		     Y	    year (1970...)

	      %b     File's size in 512-byte blocks (rounded up).

	      %c     File's last status	change time in the format returned  by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Ck    File's last status	change time in the format specified by
		     k,	which is the same as for %A.

	      %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
		     command line argument.

	      %f     File's  name  with	 any leading directories removed (only
		     the last element).

	      %F     Type of the filesystem the	file is	on; this value can  be
		     used for -fstype.

	      %g     File's  group  name, or numeric group ID if the group has
		     no	name.

	      %G     File's numeric group ID.

	      %h     Leading directories of file's name	(all but the last ele-
		     ment).

	      %H     Command line argument under which file was	found.

	      %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

	      %k     File's size in 1K blocks (rounded up).

	      %l     Object  of	 symbolic  link	(empty string if file is not a
		     symbolic link).

	      %m     File's permission bits (in	octal).

	      %n     Number of hard links to file.

	      %p     File's name.

	      %P     File's name with the name of the  command	line  argument
		     under which it was	found removed.

	      %s     File's size in bytes.

	      %t     File's  last  modification	time in	the format returned by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified  by
		     k,	which is the same as for %A.

	      %u     File's  user  name, or numeric user ID if the user	has no
		     name.

	      %U     File's numeric user ID.

	      A	`%' character followed by any  other  character	 is  discarded
	      (but the other character is printed).

       -prune If  -depth is not	given, true; do	not descend the	current	direc-
	      tory.
	      If -depth	is given, false; no effect.

       -ls    True; list current file in `ls -dils' format on standard output.
	      The  block counts	are of 1K blocks, unless the environment vari-
	      able POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in which case 512-byte  blocks  are
	      used.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
	      Force precedence.

       ! expr True if expr is false.

       -not expr
	      Same as !	expr.

       expr1 expr2
	      And (implied); expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is	false.

       expr1 -a	expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -o	expr2
	      Or; expr2	is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
	      Same as expr1 -o expr2.

       expr1 , expr2
	      List;  both  expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of
	      expr1 is discarded; the value of the list	is the value of	expr2.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1L),  locatedb(5L),  updatedb(1L),  xargs(1L) Finding Files (on-
       line in Info, or	printed)

								      FIND(1L)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | EXPRESSIONS | SEE ALSO

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