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FIND(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual		       FIND(1)

NAME
     find -- walk a file hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
     find [-H |	-L | -P] [-EXdsx] [-f pathname]	[pathname ...] expression

DESCRIPTION
     The find utility recursively descends the directory tree for each
     pathname listed, evaluating an expression (composed of the	``primaries''
     and ``operands'' listed below) in terms of	each file in the tree.

     The options are as	follows:

     -E	     Interpret regular expressions followed by -regex and -iregex
	     options as	extended (modern) regular expressions rather than
	     basic regular expressions (BRE's).	 The re_format(7) manual page
	     fully describes both formats.

     -H	     Cause the file information	and file type (see stat(2)) returned
	     for each symbolic link specified on the command line to be	those
	     of	the file referenced by the link, not the link itself.  If the
	     referenced	file does not exist, the file information and type
	     will be for the link itself.  File	information of all symbolic
	     links not on the command line is that of the link itself.

     -L	     Cause the file information	and file type (see stat(2)) returned
	     for each symbolic link to be those	of the file referenced by the
	     link, not the link	itself.	 If the	referenced file	does not
	     exist, the	file information and type will be for the link itself.

     -P	     Cause the file information	and file type (see stat(2)) returned
	     for each symbolic link to be those	of the link itself.  This is
	     the default.

     -X	     Permit find to be safely used in conjunction with xargs(1).  If a
	     file name contains	any of the delimiting characters used by
	     xargs(1), a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error,
	     and the file is skipped.  The delimiting characters include sin-
	     gle (`` ' '') and double (`` " '')	quotes,	backslash (``\''),
	     space, tab	and newline characters.

	     However, you may wish to consider the -print0 primary in conjunc-
	     tion with ``xargs -0'' as an effective alternative.

     -d	     Cause find	to perform a depth-first traversal, i.e., directories
	     are visited in post-order and all entries in a directory will be
	     acted on before the directory itself.  By default,	find visits
	     directories in pre-order, i.e., before their contents.  Note, the
	     default is	not a breadth-first traversal.

     -f	     Specify a file hierarchy for find to traverse.  File hierarchies
	     may also be specified as the operands immediately following the
	     options.

     -s	     Cause find	to traverse the	file hierarchies in lexicographical
	     order, i.e., alphabetical order within each directory.  Note:
	     `find -s' and `find | sort' may give different results.

     -x	     Prevent find from descending into directories that	have a device
	     number different than that	of the file from which the descent
	     began.

PRIMARIES
     -amin n
	     True if the difference between the	file last access time and the
	     time find was started, rounded up to the next full	minute,	is n
	     minutes.

     -anewer file
	     Same as -neweram.

     -atime n[smhdw]
	     If	no units are specified,	this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference	between	the file last access time and the time find
	     was started, rounded up to	the next full 24-hour period, is n
	     24-hour periods.

	     If	units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference	between	the file last access time and the time find
	     was started is exactly n units.  Possible time units are as fol-
	     lows:

	     s	     second
	     m	     minute (60	seconds)
	     h	     hour (60 minutes)
	     d	     day (24 hours)
	     w	     week (7 days)

	     Any number	of units may be	combined in one	-atime argument, for
	     example, ``-atime -1h30m''.  Units	are probably only useful when
	     used in conjunction with the + or - modifier.

     -cmin n
	     True if the difference between the	time of	last change of file
	     status information	and the	time find was started, rounded up to
	     the next full minute, is n	minutes.

     -cnewer file
	     Same as -newercm.

     -ctime n[smhdw]
	     If	no units are specified,	this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference	between	the time of last change	of file	status infor-
	     mation and	the time find was started, rounded up to the next full
	     24-hour period, is	n 24-hour periods.

	     If	units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference	between	the time of last change	of file	status infor-
	     mation and	the time find was started is exactly n units.  Please
	     refer to the -atime primary description for information on	sup-
	     ported time units.

     -delete
	     Delete found files	and/or directories.  Always returns true.
	     This executes from	the current working directory as find recurses
	     down the tree.  It	will not attempt to delete a filename with a
	     ``/'' character in	its pathname relative to ``.'' for security
	     reasons.  Depth-first traversal processing	is implied by this
	     option.

     -depth  Always true; same as the -d option.  -depth can be	useful when
	     find is used with cpio(1) to process files	that are contained in
	     directories with unusual permissions.  It ensures that you	have
	     write permission while you	are placing files in a directory, then
	     sets the directory's permissions as the last thing.

     -empty  True if the current file or directory is empty.

     -exec utility [argument ...] ;
	     True if the program named utility returns a zero value as its
	     exit status.  Optional arguments may be passed to the utility.
	     The expression must be terminated by a semicolon (``;'').	If you
	     invoke find from a	shell you may need to quote the	semicolon if
	     the shell would otherwise treat it	as a control operator.	If the
	     string ``{}'' appears anywhere in the utility name	or the argu-
	     ments it is replaced by the pathname of the current file.
	     Utility will be executed from the directory from which find was
	     executed.	Utility	and arguments are not subject to the further
	     expansion of shell	patterns and constructs.

     -exec utility [argument ...] {} +
	     Same as -exec, except that	``{}'' is replaced with	as many	path-
	     names as possible for each	invocation of utility.	This behaviour
	     is	similar	to that	of xargs(1).

     -execdir utility [argument	...] ;
	     The -execdir primary is identical to the -exec primary with the
	     exception that utility will be executed from the directory	that
	     holds the current file.  The filename substituted for the string
	     ``{}'' is not qualified.

     -flags [-|+]flags,notflags
	     The flags are specified using symbolic names (see chflags(1)).
	     Those with	the "no" prefix	(except	"nodump") are said to be
	     notflags.	Flags in flags are checked to be set, and flags	in
	     notflags are checked to be	not set.  Note that this is different
	     from -perm, which only allows the user to specify mode bits that
	     are set.

	     If	flags are preceded by a	dash (``-''), this primary evaluates
	     to	true if	at least all of	the bits in flags and none of the bits
	     in	notflags are set in the	file's flags bits.  If flags are pre-
	     ceded by a	plus (``+''), this primary evaluates to	true if	any of
	     the bits in flags is set in the file's flags bits,	or any of the
	     bits in notflags is not set in the	file's flags bits.  Otherwise,
	     this primary evaluates to true if the bits	in flags exactly match
	     the file's	flags bits, and	none of	the flags bits match those of
	     notflags.

     -fstype type
	     True if the file is contained in a	file system of type type.  The
	     sysctl(8) command can be used to find out the types of file sys-
	     tems that are available on	the system:

		   sysctl vfs

	     In	addition, there	are two	pseudo-types, ``local''	and
	     ``rdonly''.  The former matches any file system physically
	     mounted on	the system where the find is being executed and	the
	     latter matches any	file system which is mounted read-only.

     -group gname
	     True if the file belongs to the group gname.  If gname is numeric
	     and there is no such group	name, then gname is treated as a group
	     ID.

     -iname pattern
	     Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.

     -inum n
	     True if the file has inode	number n.

     -ipath pattern
	     Like -path, but the match is case insensitive.

     -iregex pattern
	     Like -regex, but the match	is case	insensitive.

     -links n
	     True if the file has n links.

     -ls     This primary always evaluates to true.  The following information
	     for the current file is written to	standard output: its inode
	     number, size in 512-byte blocks, file permissions,	number of hard
	     links, owner, group, size in bytes, last modification time, and
	     pathname.	If the file is a block or character special file, the
	     major and minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in
	     bytes.  If	the file is a symbolic link, the pathname of the
	     linked-to file will be displayed preceded by ``->''.  The format
	     is	identical to that produced by ls -dgils.

     -maxdepth n
	     True if the depth of the current file into	the tree is less than
	     or	equal to n.

     -mindepth n
	     True if the depth of the current file into	the tree is greater
	     than or equal to n.

     -mmin n
	     True if the difference between the	file last modification time
	     and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full
	     minute, is	n minutes.

     -mnewer file
	     Same as -newer.

     -mtime n[smhdw]
	     If	no units are specified,	this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference	between	the file last modification time	and the	time
	     find was started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour period, is
	     n 24-hour periods.

	     If	units are specified, this primary evaluates to true if the
	     difference	between	the file last modification time	and the	time
	     find was started is exactly n units.  Please refer	to the -atime
	     primary description for information on supported time units.

     -name pattern
	     True if the last component	of the pathname	being examined matches
	     pattern.  Special shell pattern matching characters (``['',
	     ``]'', ``*'', and ``?'') may be used as part of pattern.  These
	     characters	may be matched explicitly by escaping them with	a
	     backslash (``\'').

     -newer file
	     True if the current file has a more recent	last modification time
	     than file.

     -newerXY file
	     True if the current file has a more recent	last access time
	     (X=a), change time	(X=c), or modification time (X=m) than the
	     last access time (Y=a), change time (Y=c),	or modification	time
	     (Y=m) of file.  In	addition, if Y=t, then file is instead inter-
	     preted as a direct	date specification of the form understood by
	     cvs(1).  Note that	-newermm is equivalent to -newer.

     -nogroup
	     True if the file belongs to an unknown group.

     -nouser
	     True if the file belongs to an unknown user.

     -ok utility [argument ...]	;
	     The -ok primary is	identical to the -exec primary with the	excep-
	     tion that find requests user affirmation for the execution	of the
	     utility by	printing a message to the terminal and reading a
	     response.	If the response	is other than ``y'' the	command	is not
	     executed and the value of the -ok expression is false.

     -okdir utility [argument ...] ;
	     The -okdir	primary	is identical to	the -execdir primary with the
	     same exception as described for the -ok primary.

     -path pattern
	     True if the pathname being	examined matches pattern.  Special
	     shell pattern matching characters (``['', ``]'', ``*'', and
	     ``?'') may	be used	as part	of pattern.  These characters may be
	     matched explicitly	by escaping them with a	backslash (``\'').
	     Slashes (``/'') are treated as normal characters and do not have
	     to	be matched explicitly.

     -perm [-|+]mode
	     The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal	num-
	     ber.  If the mode is symbolic, a starting value of	zero is
	     assumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to
	     the process' file mode creation mask.  If the mode	is octal, only
	     bits 07777	(S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG |
	     S_IRWXO) of the file's mode bits participate in the comparison.
	     If	the mode is preceded by	a dash (``-''),	this primary evaluates
	     to	true if	at least all of	the bits in the	mode are set in	the
	     file's mode bits.	If the mode is preceded	by a plus (``+''),
	     this primary evaluates to true if any of the bits in the mode are
	     set in the	file's mode bits.  Otherwise, this primary evaluates
	     to	true if	the bits in the	mode exactly match the file's mode
	     bits.  Note, the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a
	     dash (``-'').

     -print  This primary always evaluates to true.  It	prints the pathname of
	     the current file to standard output.  If none of -exec, -ls,
	     -print0, or -ok is	specified, the given expression	shall be
	     effectively replaced by ( given expression	) -print.

     -print0
	     This primary always evaluates to true.  It	prints the pathname of
	     the current file to standard output, followed by an ASCII NUL
	     character (character code 0).

     -prune  This primary always evaluates to true.  It	causes find to not
	     descend into the current file.  Note, the -prune primary has no
	     effect if the -d option was specified.

     -regex pattern
	     True if the whole path of the file	matches	pattern	using regular
	     expression.  To match a file named	``./foo/xyzzy'', you can use
	     the regular expression ``.*/[xyz]*'' or ``.*/foo/.*'', but	not
	     ``xyzzy'' or ``/foo/''.

     -size n[c]
	     True if the file's	size, rounded up, in 512-byte blocks is	n.  If
	     n is followed by a	c, then	the primary is true if the file's size
	     is	n bytes	(characters).

     -type t
	     True if the file is of the	specified type.	 Possible file types
	     are as follows:

	     b	     block special
	     c	     character special
	     d	     directory
	     f	     regular file
	     l	     symbolic link
	     p	     FIFO
	     s	     socket

     -user uname
	     True if the file belongs to the user uname.  If uname is numeric
	     and there is no such user name, then uname	is treated as a	user
	     ID.

     All primaries which take a	numeric	argument allow the number to be	pre-
     ceded by a	plus sign (``+'') or a minus sign (``-'').  A preceding	plus
     sign means	``more than n'', a preceding minus sign	means ``less than n''
     and neither means ``exactly n''.

OPERATORS
     The primaries may be combined using the following operators.  The opera-
     tors are listed in	order of decreasing precedence.

     ( expression )  This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression
		     evaluates to true.

     ! expression
     -false expression
     -not expression
		     This is the unary NOT operator.  It evaluates to true if
		     the expression is false.

     expression	-and expression
     expression	expression
		     The -and operator is the logical AND operator.  As	it is
		     implied by	the juxtaposition of two expressions it	does
		     not have to be specified.	The expression evaluates to
		     true if both expressions are true.	 The second expression
		     is	not evaluated if the first expression is false.

     expression	-or expression
		     The -or operator is the logical OR	operator.  The expres-
		     sion evaluates to true if either the first	or the second
		     expression	is true.  The second expression	is not evalu-
		     ated if the first expression is true.

     All operands and primaries	must be	separate arguments to find.  Primaries
     which themselves take arguments expect each argument to be	a separate
     argument to find.

EXAMPLES
     The following examples are	shown as given to the shell:

     find / \! -name "*.c" -print
	     Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in .c.

     find / -newer ttt -user wnj -print
	     Print out a list of all the files owned by	user ``wnj'' that are
	     newer than	the file ttt.

     find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \) -print
	     Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer	than
	     ttt and owned by ``wnj''.

     find / \( -newer ttt -or -user wnj	\) -print
	     Print out a list of all the files that are	either owned by
	     ``wnj'' or	that are newer than ttt.

     find . -newerct '1	minute ago' -print
	     Print out a list of all the files whose inode change time is more
	     recent than the current time minus	one minute.

SEE ALSO
     chflags(1), chmod(1), cvs(1), locate(1), whereis(1), which(1), xargs(1),
     stat(2), fts(3), getgrent(3), getpwent(3),	strmode(3), re_format(7),
     symlink(7)

STANDARDS
     The find utility syntax is	a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE
     Std 1003.2	(``POSIX.2'') standard.

     All the single character options as well as the -iname, -inum, -iregex,
     -print0, -delete, -ls, and	-regex primaries are extensions	to IEEE	Std
     1003.2 (``POSIX.2'').

     Historically, the -d, -h and -x options were implemented using the	pri-
     maries -depth, -follow, and -xdev.	 These primaries always	evaluated to
     true.  As they were really	global variables that took effect before the
     traversal began, some legal expressions could have	unexpected results.
     An	example	is the expression -print -o -depth.  As	-print always evalu-
     ates to true, the standard	order of evaluation implies that -depth	would
     never be evaluated.  This is not the case.

     The operator -or was implemented as -o, and the operator -and was imple-
     mented as -a.

     Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace
     the string	``{}'' in the utility name or the utility arguments if it had
     preceding or following non-whitespace characters.	This version replaces
     it	no matter where	in the utility name or arguments it appears.

     The -E option was implemented on the analogy of grep(1) and sed(1).

BUGS
     The special characters used by find are also special characters to	many
     shell programs.  In particular, the characters ``*'', ``['', ``]'',
     ``?'', ``('', ``)'', ``!'', ``\'' and ``;'' may have to be	escaped	from
     the shell.

     As	there is no delimiter separating options and file names	or file	names
     and the expression, it is difficult to specify files named	-xdev or !.
     These problems are	handled	by the -f option and the getopt(3) ``--'' con-
     struct.

     The -delete primary does not interact well	with other options that	cause
     the file system tree traversal options to be changed.

HISTORY
     A find command appeared in	Version	1 AT&T UNIX.

FreeBSD	10.1			  May 3, 2001			  FreeBSD 10.1

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | PRIMARIES | OPERATORS | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS | BUGS | HISTORY

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