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FIND(1)								       FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
       the directory tree rooted at each given file  name  by  evaluating  the
       given  expression  from left to right, according	to the rules of	prece-
       dence (see section OPERATORS), until the	outcome	 is  known  (the  left
       hand  side  is  false  for and operations, true for or),	at which point
       find moves on to	the next file name.

       If you are using	find in	an environment	where  security	 is  important
       (for  example  if  you  are  using  it  to  search directories that are
       writable	by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations"
       chapter	of  the	findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files
       and comes with findutils.   That	document  also	includes  a  lot  more
       detail  and discussion than this	manual page, so	you may	find it	a more
       useful source of	information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control  the  treatment  of  symbolic	links.
       Command-line  arguments	following these	are taken to be	names of files
       or directories to be examined, up to the	 first	argument  that	begins
       with  `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any following
       arguments are taken to be the  expression  describing  what  is	to  be
       searched	 for.	If  no paths are given,	the current directory is used.
       If no expression	is given, the  expression  -print  is  used  (but  you
       should probably consider	using -print0 instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about	 `options' within the expression list.
       These options control the behaviour of find but are  specified  immedi-
       ately after the last path name.	The five `real'	options	-H, -L,	-P, -D
       and -O must appear before the first path	name, if  at  all.   A	double
       dash -- can also	be used	to signal that any remaining arguments are not
       options (though ensuring	that all start points begin with  either  `./'
       or  `/'	is  generally  safer if	you use	wildcards in the list of start
       points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
	      When find	examines or prints information a file, and the file is
	      a	symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
	      properties of the	symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find	examines or prints information
	      about files, the information used	shall be taken from the	 prop-
	      erties  of  the file to which the	link points, not from the link
	      itself (unless it	is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
	      examine  the file	to which the link points).  Use	of this	option
	      implies -noleaf.	If you later use the -P	option,	 -noleaf  will
	      still  be	 in  effect.   If -L is	in effect and find discovers a
	      symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirec-
	      tory pointed to by the symbolic link will	be searched.

	      When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will	always
	      match against the	type of	the file that a	symbolic  link	points
	      to rather	than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is bro-
	      ken).  Using -L causes the -lname	and -ilname predicates	always
	      to return	false.

       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the com-
	      mand line	arguments.  When find examines or  prints  information
	      about  files, the	information used shall be taken	from the prop-
	      erties of	the symbolic link itself.   The	only exception to this
	      behaviour	is when	a file specified on the	command	line is	a sym-
	      bolic link, and the link can be resolved.	 For  that  situation,
	      the  information	used is	taken from whatever the	link points to
	      (that is,	the link is followed).	The information	about the link
	      itself  is used as a fallback if the file	pointed	to by the sym-
	      bolic link cannot	be examined.  If -H is in effect  and  one  of
	      the  paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a
	      directory, the contents  of  that	 directory  will  be  examined
	      (though of course	-maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one	of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the oth-
       ers; the	last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it
       is  the	default,  the  -P  option should be considered to be in	effect
       unless either -H	or -L is specified.

       GNU find	frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also	affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the	command	line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command	line  will  have been examined and some	of its properties will
       have been saved.	 If the	named file is in fact a	symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if	neither	-H nor -L were specified), the
       information used	for the	comparison will	be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic	link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from	the properties
       of the file the link points to.	If find	cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example	because	it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties	of the link itself will	be used.

       When the	-H or -L options are in	effect,	any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of	-newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to which the	symbolic link points.  The  same  con-
       sideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has	a similar effect to -L,	though it takes	effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is	not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic	links appearing	after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced,	and those before it will not).

       -D debugoptions
	      Print diagnostic information; this can be	 helpful  to  diagnose
	      problems	with why find is not doing what	you want.  The list of
	      debug options should be comma separated.	Compatibility  of  the
	      debug  options  is not guaranteed	between	releases of findutils.
	      For a complete list of valid debug options, see  the  output  of
	      find -D help.  Valid debug options include

	      help   Explain the debugging options

	      tree   Show  the	expression  tree in its	original and optimised
		     form.

	      stat   Print messages as files are examined with	the  stat  and
		     lstat  system  calls.  The	find program tries to minimise
		     such calls.

	      opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to	the  optimisa-
		     tion of the expression tree; see the -O option.

	      rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each	predicate suc-
		     ceeded or failed.

       -Olevel
	      Enables query optimisation.   The	find program reorders tests to
	      speed up execution while preserving the overall effect; that is,
	      predicates with side effects are not reordered relative to  each
	      other.   The  optimisations performed at each optimisation level
	      are as follows.

	      0	     Equivalent	to optimisation	level 1.

	      1	     This is the default optimisation level and	corresponds to
		     the  traditional behaviour.  Expressions are reordered so
		     that tests	based only on the names	of files (for  example
		     -name and -regex) are performed first.

	      2	     Any  -type	 or -xtype tests are performed after any tests
		     based only	on the names of	files, but  before  any	 tests
		     that  require information from the	inode.	On many	modern
		     versions of Unix, file types are  returned	 by  readdir()
		     and so these predicates are faster	to evaluate than pred-
		     icates which need to stat the file	first.

	      3	     At	this optimisation level,  the  full  cost-based	 query
		     optimiser	is enabled.  The order of tests	is modified so
		     that cheap	(i.e. fast) tests are performed	first and more
		     expensive ones are	performed later, if necessary.	Within
		     each cost band, predicates	are evaluated earlier or later
		     according	to  whether they are likely to succeed or not.
		     For -o, predicates	which are likely to succeed are	evalu-
		     ated  earlier, and	for -a,	predicates which are likely to
		     fail are evaluated	earlier.

	      The cost-based optimiser has a fixed  idea  of  how  likely  any
	      given  test  is to succeed.  In some cases the probability takes
	      account of the specific nature of	the test (for example, -type f
	      is  assumed  to  be  more	 likely	to succeed than	-type c).  The
	      cost-based optimiser is currently	being evaluated.   If it  does
	      not actually improve the performance of find, it will be removed
	      again.  Conversely, optimisations	that  prove  to	 be  reliable,
	      robust and effective may be enabled at lower optimisation	levels
	      over time.  However, the default	behaviour  (i.e.  optimisation
	      level  1)	 will not be changed in	the 4.3.x release series.  The
	      findutils	test suite runs	all the	tests on find at each  optimi-
	      sation level and ensures that the	result is the same.

EXPRESSIONS
       The  expression	is  made up of options (which affect overall operation
       rather than the processing of a specific	file, and always return	true),
       tests  (which  return  a	 true or false value), and actions (which have
       side effects and	return a true or false value), all separated by	opera-
       tors.  -and is assumed where the	operator is omitted.

       If the expression contains no actions other than	-prune,	-print is per-
       formed on all files for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.	 Except	 for  -daystart,  -follow  and
       -regextype,  the	 options  affect  all tests, including tests specified
       before the option.  This	is because the options are processed when  the
       command	line  is parsed, while the tests don't do anything until files
       are examined.  The -daystart, -follow and -regextype options  are  dif-
       ferent  in  this	respect, and have an effect only on tests which	appear
       later in	the command line.  Therefore, for clarity, it is best to place
       them  at	 the  beginning	of the expression.  A warning is issued	if you
       don't do	this.

       -d     A	synonym	for -depth, for	compatibility  with  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,
	      MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -daystart
	      Measure  times  (for  -amin,  -atime,  -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and
	      -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than  from  24	 hours
	      ago.   This  option only affects tests which appear later	on the
	      command line.

       -depth Process each directory's contents	before the  directory  itself.
	      The -delete action also implies -depth.

       -follow
	      Deprecated;  use	the  -L	 option	instead.  Dereference symbolic
	      links.  Implies -noleaf.	The -follow option affects only	 those
	      tests  which appear after	it on the command line.	 Unless	the -H
	      or -L option has been specified, the  position  of  the  -follow
	      option  changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files
	      listed as	the argument of	-newer will be	dereferenced  if  they
	      are symbolic links.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY,
	      -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will	always
	      match  against  the type of the file that	a symbolic link	points
	      to rather	than the link itself.  Using -follow causes the	-lname
	      and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -help, --help
	      Print a summary of the command-line usage	of find	and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
	      Normally,	 find will emit	an error message when it fails to stat
	      a	file.  If you give this	option and a file is  deleted  between
	      the  time	find reads the name of the file	from the directory and
	      the time it tries	to stat	the file, no  error  message  will  be
	      issued.	 This also applies to files or directories whose names
	      are given	on the command line.  This option takes	effect at  the
	      time  the	 command  line	is  read,  which means that you	cannot
	      search one part of the filesystem	with this option on  and  part
	      of  it  with  this  option off (if you need to do	that, you will
	      need to issue two	find commands instead, one with	the option and
	      one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
	      Descend at most levels (a	non-negative integer) levels of	direc-
	      tories below the command line arguments.	-maxdepth 0
	       means only apply	the tests and  actions	to  the	 command  line
	      arguments.

       -mindepth levels
	      Do  not apply any	tests or actions at levels less	than levels (a
	      non-negative integer).  -mindepth	 1  means  process  all	 files
	      except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't  descend  directories  on other filesystems.  An alternate
	      name for -xdev, for compatibility	with some  other  versions  of
	      find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
	      Turns off	the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
	      Do  not  optimize	 by  assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
	      subdirectories than their	 hard  link  count.   This  option  is
	      needed  when  searching  filesystems that	do not follow the Unix
	      directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM	or MS-DOS  filesystems
	      or  AFS  volume  mount  points.  Each directory on a normal Unix
	      filesystem has at	least 2	hard  links:  its  name	 and  its  `.'
	      entry.   Additionally,  its  subdirectories (if any) each	have a
	      `..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining  a
	      directory,  after	it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the
	      directory's link count, it knows that the	rest of	the entries in
	      the directory are	non-directories	(`leaf'	files in the directory
	      tree).  If only the files' names need to be examined,  there  is
	      no  need	to  stat  them;	 this  gives a significant increase in
	      search speed.

       -regextype type
	      Changes the regular expression syntax understood by  -regex  and
	      -iregex tests which occur	later on the command line.  Currently-
	      implemented types	are emacs (this	is  the	 default),  posix-awk,
	      posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.

       -version, --version
	      Print the	find version number and	exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
	      Turn  warning  messages on or off.  These	warnings apply only to
	      the command line usage, not to any conditions  that  find	 might
	      encounter	 when  it searches directories.	 The default behaviour
	      corresponds to -warn if standard input is	a tty, and to  -nowarn
	      otherwise.

       -xautofs
	      Don't descend directories	on autofs filesystems.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories	on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some  tests,  for  example  -newerXY  and  -samefile,  allow comparison
       between the file	currently being	examined and some reference file spec-
       ified  on the command line.  When these tests are used, the interpreta-
       tion of the reference file is determined	by the options -H, -L  and  -P
       and any previous	-follow, but the reference file	is only	examined once,
       at the time the command line is parsed.	If the reference  file	cannot
       be  examined  (for  example,  the stat(2) system	call fails for it), an
       error message is	issued,	and find exits with a nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be	specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
	      File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
	      File was last accessed more recently than	file was modified.  If
	      file is a	symbolic link and the -H option	or the -L option is in
	      effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
	      File  was	 last  accessed	n*24 hours ago.	 When find figures out
	      how many 24-hour periods ago the file  was  last	accessed,  any
	      fractional part is ignored, so to	match -atime +1, a file	has to
	      have been	accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
	      File's status was	last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
	      File's status was	last changed more recently than	file was modi-
	      fied.   If  file	is a symbolic link and the -H option or	the -L
	      option is	in effect, the	status-change  time  of	 the  file  it
	      points to	is always used.

       -ctime n
	      File's status was	last changed n*24 hours	ago.  See the comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the	interpretation
	      of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and	is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
	      Matches  files  which  are  executable and directories which are
	      searchable (in a file name resolution sense).  This  takes  into
	      account  access  control	lists  and other permissions artefacts
	      which the	-perm test  ignores.   This  test  makes  use  of  the
	      access(2)	system call, and so can	be fooled by NFS servers which
	      do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since	many systems implement
	      access(2)	 in  the client's kernel and so	cannot make use	of the
	      UID mapping information held on the server.  Because  this  test
	      is  based	only on	the result of the access(2) system call, there
	      is no guarantee that a file for which  this  test	 succeeds  can
	      actually be executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
	      File  is	on  a  filesystem  of type type.  The valid filesystem
	      types vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete  list
	      of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
	      another is: ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs,	S51K, S52K.   You  can
	      use  -printf  with  the  %F  directive  to see the types of your
	      filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
	      File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
	      Like -lname, but the match  is  case  insensitive.   If  the  -L
	      option  or  the  -follow	option is in effect, this test returns
	      false unless the symbolic	link is	broken.

       -iname pattern
	      Like -name, but the match	is case	insensitive.  For example, the
	      patterns	`fo*'  and  `F??'  match  the file names `Foo',	`FOO',
	      `foo', `fOo', etc.   In these patterns, unlike  filename	expan-
	      sion  by	the shell, an initial '.' can be matched by `*'.  That
	      is, find -name *bar will match the file `.foobar'.   Please note
	      that  you	should quote patterns as a matter of course, otherwise
	      the shell	will expand any	wildcard characters in them.

       -inum n
	      File has inode number n.	It  is	normally  easier  to  use  the
	      -samefile	test instead.

       -ipath pattern
	      Behaves  in  the same way	as -iwholename.	 This option is	depre-
	      cated, so	please do not use it.

       -iregex pattern
	      Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
	      Like -wholename, but the match is	case insensitive.

       -links n
	      File has n links.

       -lname pattern
	      File is a	symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern  pat-
	      tern.  The metacharacters	do not treat `/' or `.'	specially.  If
	      the -L option or the -follow option  is  in  effect,  this  test
	      returns false unless the symbolic	link is	broken.

       -mmin n
	      File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
	      File's  data was last modified n*24 hours	ago.  See the comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the	interpretation
	      of file modification times.

       -name pattern
	      Base  of	file  name  (the  path	with  the  leading directories
	      removed) matches	shell  pattern	pattern.   The	metacharacters
	      (`*',  `?',  and `[]') match a `.' at the	start of the base name
	      (this is a change	in findutils-4.2.2; see	section	STANDARDS CON-
	      FORMANCE	below).	 To ignore a directory and the files under it,
	      use -prune; see an example in the	description of -path.	Braces
	      are  not recognised as being special, despite the	fact that some
	      shells including Bash imbue braces with  a  special  meaning  in
	      shell patterns.  The filename matching is	performed with the use
	      of the fnmatch(3)	library	function.   Don't  forget  to  enclose
	      the  pattern  in quotes in order to protect it from expansion by
	      the shell.

       -newer file
	      File was modified	more recently than file.  If file  is  a  sym-
	      bolic  link and the -H option or the -L option is	in effect, the
	      modification time	of the file it points to is always used.

       -newerXY	reference
	      Compares the timestamp of	the current file with reference.   The
	      reference	 argument  is  normally	the name of a file (and	one of
	      its timestamps is	used for the comparison) but it	may also be  a
	      string  describing  an  absolute time.  X	and Y are placeholders
	      for other	letters, and these letters select which	time belonging
	      to how reference is used for the comparison.

	      a	  The access time of the file reference
	      B	  The birth time of the	file reference
	      c	  The inode status change time of reference
	      m	  The modification time	of the file reference
	      t	  reference is interpreted directly as a time

	      Some  combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for X
	      to be t.	Some combinations are not implemented on all  systems;
	      for example B is not supported on	all systems.  If an invalid or
	      unsupported combination  of  XY  is  specified,  a  fatal	 error
	      results.	 Time  specifications are interpreted as for the argu-
	      ment to the -d option of GNU date.  If you try to	use the	 birth
	      time  of	a  reference file, and the birth time cannot be	deter-
	      mined, a fatal error message results.  If	 you  specify  a  test
	      which  refers  to	 the  birth time of files being	examined, this
	      test will	fail for any files where the birth time	is unknown.

       -nogroup
	      No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
	      No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
	      File name	matches	shell pattern pattern.	The metacharacters  do
	      not treat	`/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
			find . -path "./sr*sc"
	      will  print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if one
	      exists).	To ignore a whole directory tree,  use	-prune	rather
	      than  checking every file	in the tree.  For example, to skip the
	      directory	`src/emacs' and	all files and  directories  under  it,
	      and  print the names of the other	files found, do	something like
	      this:
			find . -path ./src/emacs -prune	-o -print
	      Note that	the pattern match test applies to the whole file name,
	      starting from one	of the start points named on the command line.
	      It would only make sense to use an absolute path	name  here  if
	      the  relevant  start point is also an absolute path.  This means
	      that this	command	will never match anything:
			find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
	      The predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX find and will  be
	      in a forthcoming version of the POSIX standard.

       -perm mode
	      File's  permission  bits	are  exactly mode (octal or symbolic).
	      Since an exact match is required,	if you want to use  this  form
	      for  symbolic  modes,  you  may have to specify a	rather complex
	      mode string.  For	example	-perm g=w will only match files	 which
	      have  mode  0020 (that is, ones for which	group write permission
	      is the only permission set).  It is more likely  that  you  will
	      want  to use the `/' or `-' forms, for example -perm -g=w, which
	      matches any file with group write	permission.  See the  EXAMPLES
	      section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
	      All  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
	      modes are	accepted in this form, and this	is usually the way  in
	      which  would want	to use them.  You must specify `u', `g'	or `o'
	      if you use a symbolic mode.   See	the EXAMPLES section for  some
	      illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
	      Any  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic
	      modes are	accepted in this form.	You must specify `u',  `g'  or
	      `o'  if  you  use	a symbolic mode.  See the EXAMPLES section for
	      some illustrative	examples.  If no permission bits in  mode  are
	      set,  this test matches any file (the idea here is to be consis-
	      tent with	the behaviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
	      Deprecated, old way of searching for files with any of the  per-
	      mission  bits  in	mode set.  You should use -perm	/mode instead.
	      Trying to	use the	`+' syntax with	symbolic modes will yield sur-
	      prising  results.	  For example, `+u+x' is a valid symbolic mode
	      (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will	therefore not be eval-
	      uated  as	 -perm	+mode  but instead as the exact	mode specifier
	      -perm mode and so	it matches files with exact  permissions  0111
	      instead  of  files  with any execute bit set.  If	you found this
	      paragraph	confusing, you're not alone - just  use	 -perm	/mode.
	      This  form  of  the  -perm  test is deprecated because the POSIX
	      specification requires the interpretation	of a  leading  `+'  as
	      being  part  of a	symbolic mode, and so we switched to using `/'
	      instead.

       -readable
	      Matches files which  are	readable.   This  takes	 into  account
	      access  control  lists and other permissions artefacts which the
	      -perm test ignores.  This	test makes use of the access(2)	system
	      call,  and  so can be fooled by NFS servers which	do UID mapping
	      (or root-squashing), since many systems implement	 access(2)  in
	      the  client's  kernel  and so cannot make	use of the UID mapping
	      information held on the server.

       -regex pattern
	      File name	matches	regular	expression pattern.  This is  a	 match
	      on  the  whole path, not a search.  For example, to match	a file
	      named `./fubar3',	you can	use the	regular	expression `.*bar.' or
	      `.*b.*3',	 but  not `f.*r3'.  The	regular	expressions understood
	      by find are by default Emacs Regular Expressions,	but  this  can
	      be changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
	      File  refers  to the same	inode as name.	 When -L is in effect,
	      this can include symbolic	links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
	      File uses	n units	of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

	      `b'    for  512-byte blocks (this	is the default if no suffix is
		     used)

	      `c'    for bytes

	      `w'    for two-byte words

	      `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

	      `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

	      `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824	bytes)

	      The size does not	count  indirect	 blocks,  but  it  does	 count
	      blocks in	sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
	      mind that	the `%k' and `%b' format specifiers of -printf	handle
	      sparse   files  differently.   The  `b'  suffix  always  denotes
	      512-byte blocks and never	1 Kilobyte blocks, which is  different
	      to the behaviour of -ls.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
	      File is of type c:

	      b	     block (buffered) special

	      c	     character (unbuffered) special

	      d	     directory

	      p	     named pipe	(FIFO)

	      f	     regular file

	      l	     symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option	or the
		     -follow option is in effect, unless the symbolic link  is
		     broken.  If you want to search for	symbolic links when -L
		     is	in effect, use -xtype.

	      s	     socket

	      D	     door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is	n.

       -used n
	      File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
	      File is owned by user uname (numeric user	ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
	      See -path.    This alternative is	less portable than -path.

       -writable
	      Matches  files  which  are  writable.   This  takes into account
	      access control lists and other permissions artefacts  which  the
	      -perm test ignores.  This	test makes use of the access(2)	system
	      call, and	so can be fooled by NFS	servers	which do  UID  mapping
	      (or  root-squashing),  since many	systems	implement access(2) in
	      the client's kernel and so cannot	make use of  the  UID  mapping
	      information held on the server.

       -xtype c
	      The  same	as -type unless	the file is a symbolic link.  For sym-
	      bolic links: if the -H or	-P option was specified, true  if  the
	      file  is	a  link	to a file of type c; if	the -L option has been
	      given, true if c is `l'.	In other words,	 for  symbolic	links,
	      -xtype checks the	type of	the file that -type does not check.

       -context	pattern
	      (SELinux	only)  Security	 context of the	file matches glob pat-
	      tern.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
	      Delete files; true if removal succeeded.	If the removal failed,
	      an  error	message	is issued.  If -delete fails, find's exit sta-
	      tus will be nonzero (when	it eventually exits).  Use of  -delete
	      automatically turns on the -depth	option.

	      Warnings:	 Don't	forget that the	find command line is evaluated
	      as an expression,	so putting -delete first will make find	try to
	      delete everything	below the starting points you specified.  When
	      testing a	find command line that you later intend	 to  use  with
	      -delete,	you should explicitly specify -depth in	order to avoid
	      later surprises.	Because	-delete	 implies  -depth,  you	cannot
	      usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -exec command ;
	      Execute  command;	 true  if 0 status is returned.	 All following
	      arguments	to find	are taken to be	arguments to the command until
	      an  argument  consisting of `;' is encountered.  The string `{}'
	      is replaced by the current file name being processed  everywhere
	      it occurs	in the arguments to the	command, not just in arguments
	      where it is alone, as in some versions of	find.  Both  of	 these
	      constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
	      protect them from	expansion by the shell.	 See the EXAMPLES sec-
	      tion for examples	of the use of the -exec	option.	 The specified
	      command is run once for each matched file.  The command is  exe-
	      cuted  in	 the starting directory.   There are unavoidable secu-
	      rity problems surrounding	use of the -exec  action;  you	should
	      use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {}	+
	      This  variant  of	the -exec action runs the specified command on
	      the selected files, but the command line is built	 by  appending
	      each  selected file name at the end; the total number of invoca-
	      tions of the command will	 be  much  less	 than  the  number  of
	      matched  files.	The command line is built in much the same way
	      that xargs builds	its command lines.  Only one instance of  `{}'
	      is  allowed  within the command.	The command is executed	in the
	      starting directory.

       -execdir	command	;

       -execdir	command	{} +
	      Like -exec, but the specified command is run from	the  subdirec-
	      tory  containing	the  matched  file,  which is not normally the
	      directory	in which you started find.  This a  much  more	secure
	      method  for invoking commands, as	it avoids race conditions dur-
	      ing resolution of	the paths to the matched files.	 As  with  the
	      -exec action, the	`+' form of -execdir will build	a command line
	      to process more than one matched file, but any given  invocation
	      of command will only list	files that exist in the	same subdirec-
	      tory.  If	you use	this option, you must ensure that  your	 $PATH
	      environment  variable  does  not	reference  `.';	 otherwise, an
	      attacker can run any commands they like by leaving an  appropri-
	      ately-named  file	in a directory in which	you will run -execdir.
	      The same applies to having entries in $PATH which	are  empty  or
	      which are	not absolute directory names.

       -fls file
	      True;  like -ls but write	to file	like -fprint.  The output file
	      is always	created, even if the predicate is never	matched.   See
	      the  UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual
	      characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
	      True; print the full file	name into file file.  If file does not
	      exist  when  find	is run,	it is created; if it does exist, it is
	      truncated.  The file names ``/dev/stdout''  and  ``/dev/stderr''
	      are  handled  specially;	they  refer to the standard output and
	      standard error output, respectively.  The	output file is	always
	      created,	even  if  the  predicate  is  never  matched.  See the
	      UNUSUAL FILENAMES	section	 for  information  about  how  unusual
	      characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0	file
	      True;  like  -print0 but write to	file like -fprint.  The	output
	      file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
	      See  the	UNUSUAL	 FILENAMES  section  for information about how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf	file format
	      True; like -printf but write to file like	-fprint.   The	output
	      file  is always created, even if the predicate is	never matched.
	      See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES	 section  for  information  about  how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ls    True;  list  current file	in ls -dils format on standard output.
	      The block	counts are of 1K blocks, unless	the environment	 vari-
	      able  POSIXLY_CORRECT  is	set, in	which case 512-byte blocks are
	      used.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for  information	 about
	      how unusual characters in	filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
	      Like  -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the
	      command.	Otherwise just return false.  If the command  is  run,
	      its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

	      The  response to the prompt is matched against a pair of regular
	      expressions to determine if it is	 an  affirmative  or  negative
	      response.	  This	regular	expression is obtained from the	system
	      if the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, or	other-
	      wise  from  find's  message  translations.  If the system	has no
	      suitable definition, find's own definition will  be  used.    In
	      either case, the interpretation of the regular expression	itself
	      will be affected by the environment variables 'LC_CTYPE'	(char-
	      acter  classes)  and  'LC_COLLATE' (character ranges and equiva-
	      lence classes).

       -okdir command ;
	      Like -execdir but	ask the	user first in the same way as for -ok.
	      If  the  user does not agree, just return	false.	If the command
	      is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print True; print the full file	name on	the standard output,  followed
	      by  a  newline.	 If  you  are  piping  the output of find into
	      another program and there	is the faintest	possibility  that  the
	      files  which you are searching for might contain a newline, then
	      you should seriously consider using the -print0  option  instead
	      of  -print.   See	 the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information
	      about how	unusual	characters in filenames	are handled.

       -print0
	      True; print the full file	name on	the standard output,  followed
	      by  a  null  character  (instead	of  the	newline	character that
	      -print uses).  This allows file names that contain  newlines  or
	      other  types  of white space to be correctly interpreted by pro-
	      grams that process the find output.  This	option corresponds  to
	      the -0 option of xargs.

       -printf format
	      True;  print  format  on	the  standard output, interpreting `\'
	      escapes and `%' directives.  Field widths	and precisions can  be
	      specified	 as  with  the	`printf' C function.  Please note that
	      many of the fields are printed as	%s rather than	%d,  and  this
	      may  mean	 that flags don't work as you might expect.  This also
	      means that the `-' flag does work	(it forces fields to be	 left-
	      aligned).	  Unlike -print, -printf does not add a	newline	at the
	      end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

	      \a     Alarm bell.

	      \b     Backspace.

	      \c     Stop printing from	this format immediately	and flush  the
		     output.

	      \f     Form feed.

	      \n     Newline.

	      \r     Carriage return.

	      \t     Horizontal	tab.

	      \v     Vertical tab.

	      \0     ASCII NUL.

	      \\     A literal backslash (`\').

	      \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

	      A	`\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
	      ordinary character, so they both are printed.

	      %%     A literal percent sign.

	      %a     File's last access	time in	the format returned by	the  C
		     `ctime' function.

	      %Ak    File's  last  access  time	 in the	format specified by k,
		     which is either `@' or a directive	for the	 C  `strftime'
		     function.	 The  possible	values for k are listed	below;
		     some of them might	not be available on all	 systems,  due
		     to	differences in `strftime' between systems.

		     @	    seconds  since Jan.	1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with frac-
			    tional part.

		     Time fields:

		     H	    hour (00..23)

		     I	    hour (01..12)

		     k	    hour ( 0..23)

		     l	    hour ( 1..12)

		     M	    minute (00..59)

		     p	    locale's AM	or PM

		     r	    time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

		     S	    Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There  is	 a  fractional
			    part.

		     T	    time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

		     +	    Date  and  time,  separated	 by  `+',  for example
			    `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.  This is a	GNU extension.
			    The	 time  is given	in the current timezone	(which
			    may	be affected  by	 setting  the  TZ  environment
			    variable).	 The  seconds  field  includes a frac-
			    tional part.

		     X	    locale's time representation (H:M:S)

		     Z	    time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time  zone
			    is determinable

		     Date fields:

		     a	    locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

		     A	    locale's  full weekday name, variable length (Sun-
			    day..Saturday)

		     b	    locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

		     B	    locale's full month	name,  variable	 length	 (Jan-
			    uary..December)

		     c	    locale's  date  and	 time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST
			    1989).  The	format is the same as for ctime(3) and
			    so	to  preserve  compatibility  with that format,
			    there is no	fractional part	in the seconds	field.

		     d	    day	of month (01..31)

		     D	    date (mm/dd/yy)

		     h	    same as b

		     j	    day	of year	(001..366)

		     m	    month (01..12)

		     U	    week  number  of  year with	Sunday as first	day of
			    week (00..53)

		     w	    day	of week	(0..6)

		     W	    week number	of year	with Monday as	first  day  of
			    week (00..53)

		     x	    locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

		     y	    last two digits of year (00..99)

		     Y	    year (1970...)

	      %b     The  amount  of disk space	used for this file in 512-byte
		     blocks. Since disk	space is allocated in multiples	of the
		     filesystem	 block	size  this  is	usually	 greater  than
		     %s/512, but it can	also be	 smaller  if  the  file	 is  a
		     sparse file.

	      %c     File's  last status change	time in	the format returned by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Ck    File's last status	change time in the format specified by
		     k,	which is the same as for %A.

	      %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
		     command line argument.

	      %D     The device	number on which	the file  exists  (the	st_dev
		     field of struct stat), in decimal.

	      %f     File's  name  with	 any leading directories removed (only
		     the last element).

	      %F     Type of the filesystem the	file is	on; this value can  be
		     used for -fstype.

	      %g     File's  group  name, or numeric group ID if the group has
		     no	name.

	      %G     File's numeric group ID.

	      %h     Leading directories of file's name	(all but the last ele-
		     ment).  If	the file name contains no slashes (since it is
		     in	the current directory) the  %h	specifier  expands  to
		     ".".

	      %H     Command line argument under which file was	found.

	      %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

	      %k     The amount	of disk	space used for this file in 1K blocks.
		     Since  disk  space	 is  allocated	in  multiples  of  the
		     filesystem	 block	size  this  is	usually	 greater  than
		     %s/1024, but it can also be smaller  if  the  file	 is  a
		     sparse file.

	      %l     Object  of	 symbolic  link	(empty string if file is not a
		     symbolic link).

	      %m     File's permission bits (in	octal).	 This option uses  the
		     `traditional'  numbers  which  most  Unix implementations
		     use,  but	if  your  particular  implementation  uses  an
		     unusual  ordering of octal	permissions bits, you will see
		     a difference between the actual value of the file's  mode
		     and  the output of	%m.   Normally you will	want to	have a
		     leading zero on this number, and to do this,  you	should
		     use the # flag (as	in, for	example, `%#m').

	      %M     File's  permissions  (in symbolic form, as	for ls).  This
		     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

	      %n     Number of hard links to file.

	      %p     File's name.

	      %P     File's name with the name of the  command	line  argument
		     under which it was	found removed.

	      %s     File's size in bytes.

	      %S     File's   sparseness.    This  is  calculated  as  (BLOCK-
		     SIZE*st_blocks / st_size).	 The exact value you will  get
		     for an ordinary file of a certain length is system-depen-
		     dent.  However, normally sparse files  will  have	values
		     less  than	 1.0,  and files which use indirect blocks may
		     have a value which	is greater than	1.0.   The value  used
		     for  BLOCKSIZE  is	 system-dependent,  but	is usually 512
		     bytes.   If the file size is zero,	the value  printed  is
		     undefined.	  On systems which lack	support	for st_blocks,
		     a file's sparseness is assumed to be 1.0.

	      %t     File's last modification time in the format  returned  by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Tk    File's  last modification time in the format specified by
		     k,	which is the same as for %A.

	      %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user  has  no
		     name.

	      %U     File's numeric user ID.

	      %y     File's  type  (like  in ls	-l), U=unknown type (shouldn't
		     happen)

	      %Y     File's type (like	%y),  plus  follow  symlinks:  L=loop,
		     N=nonexistent

	      %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

	      A	 `%'  character	 followed by any other character is discarded,
	      but the other character is printed (don't	rely on	this, as  fur-
	      ther  format characters may be introduced).  A `%' at the	end of
	      the format argument causes undefined behaviour since there is no
	      following	 character.   In  some	locales, it may	hide your door
	      keys, while in others it may remove  the	final  page  from  the
	      novel you	are reading.

	      The  %m and %d directives	support	the # ,	0 and +	flags, but the
	      other directives do not, even if they  print  numbers.   Numeric
	      directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
	      and n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes the	align-
	      ment  of	a field	from right-justified (which is the default) to
	      left-justified.

	      See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES	 section  for  information  about  how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -prune True;  if	 the  file  is a directory, do not descend into	it. If
	      -depth is	given, false;  no  effect.   Because  -delete  implies
	      -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -quit  Exit  immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but
	      no more paths specified on the command line will	be  processed.
	      For example, find	/tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
	      /tmp/foo.	 Any command lines  which  have	 been  built  up  with
	      -execdir	... {} + will be invoked before	find exits.   The exit
	      status may or may	not be zero, depending on whether an error has
	      already occurred.

   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many  of	 the  actions  of find result in the printing of data which is
       under the control of other users.  This	includes  file	names,	sizes,
       modification  times  and	 so forth.  File names are a potential problem
       since they can contain any character  except  `\0'  and	`/'.   Unusual
       characters in file names	can do unexpected and often undesirable	things
       to your terminal	(for example, changing the settings of	your  function
       keys on some terminals).	 Unusual characters are	handled	differently by
       various actions,	as described below.

       -print0,	-fprint0
	      Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if  the	output
	      is going to a terminal.

       -ls, -fls
	      Unusual  characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash,
	      and double quote characters are printed using  C-style  escaping
	      (for  example `\f', `\"').  Other	unusual	characters are printed
	      using an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls  and
	      -fls  these  are	the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are
	      printed as-is.

       -printf,	-fprintf
	      If the output is not going to a terminal,	it is  printed	as-is.
	      Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
	      directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y	expand to values which
	      are  not	under control of files'	owners,	and so are printed as-
	      is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s,  %t,
	      %u and %U	have values which are under the	control	of files' own-
	      ers but which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the  ter-
	      minal,  and  so these are	printed	as-is.	The directives %f, %h,
	      %l, %p and %P are	quoted.	 This quoting is performed in the same
	      way  as  for  GNU	ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as
	      the one used for -ls and -fls.  If you are able to  decide  what
	      format  to use for the output of find then it is normally	better
	      to use `\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as  file	 names
	      can  contain white space and newline characters.	The setting of
	      the `LC_CTYPE' environment variable is used to  determine	 which
	      characters need to be quoted.

       -print, -fprint
	      Quoting  is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.
	      If you are using find in a script	or in a	 situation  where  the
	      matched  files  might  have arbitrary names, you should consider
	      using -print0 instead of -print.

       The -ok and -okdir actions print	the current filename as-is.  This  may
       change in a future release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
	      Force  precedence.   Since parentheses are special to the	shell,
	      you will normally	need to	quote them.  Many of the  examples  in
	      this  manual  page  use  backslashes for this purpose: `\(...\)'
	      instead of `(...)'.

       ! expr True if expr is false.  This character will  also	 usually  need
	      protection from interpretation by	the shell.

       -not expr
	      Same as !	expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
	      Two  expressions in a row	are taken to be	joined with an implied
	      "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is	false.

       expr1 -a	expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o	expr2
	      Or; expr2	is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
	      Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
	      List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.	The  value  of
	      expr1 is discarded; the value of the list	is the value of	expr2.
	      The comma	operator can be	useful for searching for several  dif-
	      ferent  types  of	thing, but traversing the filesystem hierarchy
	      only once.  The -fprintf action can be used to list the  various
	      matched items into several different output files.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For  closest  compliance	 to  the  POSIX	 standard,  you	should set the
       POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable.  The following options are	speci-
       fied in the POSIX standard (IEEE	Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This  option  is supported, but POSIX conformance	depends	on the
	      POSIX conformance	of the system's	fnmatch(3)  library  function.
	      As  of  findutils-4.2.2,	shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]'
	      for example) will	match a	leading	`.', because IEEE PASC	inter-
	      pretation	 126  requires	this.	This is	a change from previous
	      versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies `b',	`c', `d', `l',	`p',  `f'  and
	      `s'.  GNU	find also supports `D',	representing a Door, where the
	      OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.  Interpretation of the	response is according  to  the
	      "yes"  and  "no"	patterns selected by setting the `LC_MESSAGES'
	      environment variable.  When  the	`POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment
	      variable is set, these patterns are taken	system's definition of
	      a	positive (yes) or negative (no)	 response.  See	 the  system's
	      documentation  for  nl_langinfo(3),  in  particular  YESEXPR and
	      NOEXPR.	 When `POSIXLY_CORRECT'	is not set, the	 patterns  are
	      instead taken from find's	own message catalogue.

       -newer Supported.   If  the  file  specified  is	a symbolic link, it is
	      always dereferenced.  This is a change from previous  behaviour,
	      which used to take the relevant time from	the symbolic link; see
	      the HISTORY section below.

       -perm  Supported.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable  is  not
	      set,  some mode arguments	(for example +a+x) which are not valid
	      in POSIX are supported for backward-compatibility.

       Other predicates
	      The predicates -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group,  -links,  -mtime,
	      -nogroup,	 -nouser,  -print,  -prune, -size, -user and -xdev are
	      all supported.

       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses	`(', `)', negation `!' and the
       `and' and `or' operators	( -a, -o).

       All  other options, predicates, expressions and so forth	are extensions
       beyond the POSIX	standard.  Many	of these extensions are	not unique  to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that	find detects loops:

	      The  find	utility	shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering
	      a	previously visited directory that is an	ancestor of  the  last
	      file  encountered.  When it detects an infinite loop, find shall
	      write a diagnostic message to standard error  and	 shall	either
	      recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU  find complies with these requirements.  The	link count of directo-
       ries which contain entries which	are hard links	to  an	ancestor  will
       often  be  lower	than they otherwise should be.	This can mean that GNU
       find will sometimes optimise away the visiting of a subdirectory	 which
       is  actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not	actually enter
       such a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic  mes-
       sage.   Although	 this  behaviour  may  be  somewhat  confusing,	 it is
       unlikely	that anybody actually depends on this behaviour.  If the  leaf
       optimisation has	been turned off	with -noleaf, the directory entry will
       always be examined and the diagnostic message will be issued  where  it
       is  appropriate.	  Symbolic  links  cannot be used to create filesystem
       cycles as such, but if the -L option or the -follow option is in	use, a
       diagnostic  message  is	issued when find encounters a loop of symbolic
       links.  As with loops containing	hard links, the	leaf optimisation will
       often  mean  that  find	knows  that  it	doesn't	need to	call stat() or
       chdir() on the symbolic link, so	this diagnostic	is frequently not nec-
       essary.

       The  -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable	does not affect	the  behaviour
       of  the -regex or -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in
       the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization  variables
	      that are unset or	null.

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values	of all
	      the other	internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
	      The POSIX	standard specifies that	this variable affects the pat-
	      tern  matching  to be used for the -name option.	 GNU find uses
	      the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for `LC_COLLATE'
	      depends on the system library.	This variable also affects the
	      interpretation of	the response to	-ok; while  the	 `LC_MESSAGES'
	      variable	selects	 the  actual  pattern  used  to	 interpret the
	      response to -ok, the interpretation of any  bracket  expressions
	      in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
	      This variable affects the	treatment of character classes used in
	      regular expressions and also with	the -name test,	 if  the  sys-
	      tem's  fnmatch(3)	library	function supports this.	 This variable
	      also affects the interpretation of any character classes in  the
	      regular expressions used to interpret the	response to the	prompt
	      issued by	-ok.  The `LC_CTYPE' environment  variable  will  also
	      affect  which  characters	 are considered	to be unprintable when
	      filenames	are printed; see the section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.
	      If  the `POSIXLY_CORRECT'	environment variable is	set, this also
	      determines the interpretation of the response to the prompt made
	      by the -ok action.

       NLSPATH
	      Determines the location of the internationalisation message cat-
	      alogues.

       PATH   Affects the directories which are	searched to find the  executa-
	      bles invoked by -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	      Determines the block size	used by	-ls and	-fls.  If POSIXLY_COR-
	      RECT is set, blocks are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they  are
	      units of 1024 bytes.

	      Setting  this variable also turns	off warning messages (that is,
	      implies -nowarn) by default, because POSIX requires  that	 apart
	      from  the	 output	 for  -ok,  all	messages printed on stderr are
	      diagnostics and must result in a non-zero	exit status.

	      When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like
	      -perm  /zzz  if  +zzz  is	 not  a	 valid	symbolic  mode.	  When
	      POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are treated as an	error.

	      When  POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the	response to the	prompt made by
	      the -ok action is	interpreted according to the system's  message
	      catalogue,  as opposed to	according to find's own	message	trans-
	      lations.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the  time-related	format
	      directives of -printf and	-fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
       Note that this will work	incorrectly if there are  any  filenames  con-
       taining newlines, single	or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
       processing filenames in such a way that file or	directory  names  con-
       taining	single or double quotes, spaces	or newlines are	correctly han-
       dled.  The -name	test comes before the -type test  in  order  to	 avoid
       having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs  `file'  on	 every file in or below	the current directory.	Notice
       that the	braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
       interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The	semicolon is similarly
       protected by the	use of a backslash, though single  quotes  could  have
       been used in that case also.

       find / \
       \( -perm	-4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt %#m %u %p\n \) , \
       \( -size	+100M -fprintf /root/big.txt %-10s %p\n	\)

       Traverse	the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into	/root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files	in your	home directory which have been modified	in the
       last  twenty-four  hours.  This command works this way because the time
       since each file was last	modified  is  divided  by  24  hours  and  any
       remainder is discarded.	That means that	to match -mtime	0, a file will
       have to have a modification in the past which is	 less  than  24	 hours
       ago.

       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable	\! -readable -print

       Search for files	which are executable but not readable.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for files which have read and write permission for their	owner,
       and group, but which other users	can read  but  not  write  to.	 Files
       which  meet  these  criteria  but  have other permissions bits set (for
       example if someone can execute the file)	will not be matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files	which have read	and write permission for  their	 owner
       and  group, and which other users can read, without regard to the pres-
       ence of any extra permission bits (for  example	the  executable	 bit).
       This will match a file which has	mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search  for files which are writable by somebody	(their owner, or their
       group, or anybody else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first  one  uses
       the  octal  representation  of the file mode, and the other two use the
       symbolic	form.  These commands all search for files which are  writable
       by  either  their  owner	 or  their  group.  The	files don't have to be
       writable	by both	the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same	thing;	search	for  files  which  are
       writable	by both	their owner and	their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands both search	for files that are readable for	every-
       body ( -perm -444 or -perm -a+r), have at least one  write  bit	set  (
       -perm  /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody ( ! -perm
       /111 and	! -perm	/a+x respectively).

       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o	\( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents	of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits
       files  and directories named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It also
       omits files or directories whose	name ends in ~,	 but  not  their  con-
       tents.  The construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is quite common.  The
       idea here is that the expression	before -prune matches things which are
       to  be  pruned.	However, the -prune action itself returns true,	so the
       following -o ensures that the right hand	side  is  evaluated  only  for
       those  directories  which didn't	get pruned (the	contents of the	pruned
       directories are not even	visited, so their  contents  are  irrelevant).
       The  expression on the right hand side of the -o	is in parentheses only
       for clarity.  It	emphasises that	the -print0 action  takes  place  only
       for  things  that  didn't  have	-prune	applied	 to them.  Because the
       default `and' condition between tests binds more	tightly	than -o,  this
       is  the	default	anyway,	but the	parentheses help to show what is going
       on.

       find repo/ -exec	test -d	{}/.svn	-o -d {}/.git -o -d {}/CVS ; \
       -print -prune

       Given the following directory of	 projects  and	their  associated  SCM
       administrative	directories,  perform  an  efficient  search  for  the
       projects' roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In this example,	-prune prevents	unnecessary descent  into  directories
       that  have  already  been  discovered  (for  example  we	 do not	search
       project3/src because we already found project3/.svn), but ensures  sib-
       ling directories	(project2 and project3)	are found.

EXIT STATUS
       find  exits  with  status  0  if	 all files are processed successfully,
       greater than 0 if errors	occur.	 This is  deliberately	a  very	 broad
       description,  but  if the return	value is non-zero, you should not rely
       on the correctness of the results of find.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1), locatedb(5), updatedb(1),  xargs(1),	chmod(1),  fnmatch(3),
       regex(7),  stat(2),  lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3),	strftime(3), ctime(3),
       Finding Files (on-line in Info, or printed).

HISTORY
       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or	`[]' for exam-
       ple)  used  in filename patterns	will match a leading `.', because IEEE
       POSIX interpretation 126	requires this.

       The syntax -perm	+MODE was deprecated in	findutils-4.2.21, in favour of
       -perm  /MODE.   As of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches all files
       instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps	were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a
       nonzero	value when it fails.  However, find will not exit immediately.
       Previously, find's  exit	 status	 was  unaffected  by  the  failure  of
       -delete.

       Feature		      Added in	 Also occurs in
       -newerXY		      4.3.3	 BSD
       -D		      4.3.1
       -O		      4.3.1
       -readable	      4.3.0
       -writable	      4.3.0
       -executable	      4.3.0
       -regextype	      4.2.24
       -exec ... +	      4.2.12	 POSIX
       -execdir		      4.2.12	 BSD
       -okdir		      4.2.12
       -samefile	      4.2.11
       -H		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -L		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -P		      4.2.5	 BSD
       -delete		      4.2.3
       -quit		      4.2.3
       -d		      4.2.3	 BSD
       -wholename	      4.2.0
       -iwholename	      4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls		      4.0
       -ilname		      3.8
       -iname		      3.8
       -ipath		      3.8
       -iregex		      3.8

NON-BUGS
       $ find .	-name *.c -print
       find: paths must	precede	expression
       Usage: find [-H]	[-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D	help|tree|search|stat|rates|opt|exec] [path...]	[expression]

       This  happens  because  *.c has been expanded by	the shell resulting in
       find actually receiving a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of	 doing	things
       this  way, you should enclose the pattern in quotes or escape the wild-
       card:
       $ find .	-name \*.c -print

BUGS
       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour  that  the	 POSIX
       standard	 specifies  for	 find,	which  therefore cannot	be fixed.  For
       example,	the -exec action is inherently insecure, and  -execdir	should
       be used instead.	 Please	see Finding Files for more information.

       The environment variable	LC_COLLATE has no effect on the	-ok action.

       The  best  way  to  report  a  bug  is to use the form at http://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.  The reason for  this	 is  that  you
       will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem.   Other com-
       ments about find(1) and about the findutils package in general  can  be
       sent  to	 the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the list, send email
       to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

								       FIND(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | EXPRESSIONS | STANDARDS CONFORMANCE | ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES | EXAMPLES | EXIT STATUS | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | NON-BUGS | BUGS

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