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EXPORTS(5)		  FreeBSD File Formats Manual		    EXPORTS(5)

NAME
     exports --	define remote mount points for NFS mount requests

SYNOPSIS
     exports

DESCRIPTION
     The exports file specifies	remote mount points for	the NFS	mount protocol
     per the NFS server	specification; see Network File	System Protocol
     Specification, RFC1094, Appendix A	and NFS: Network File System Version 3
     Specification, Appendix I.

     Each line in the file (other than comment lines that begin	with a #)
     specifies the mount point(s) and export flags within one local server
     file system for one or more hosts.	 A long	line may be split over several
     lines by ending all but the last line with	a backslash (`\').  A host may
     be	specified only once for	each local file	system on the server and there
     may be only one default entry for each server file	system that applies to
     all other hosts.  The latter exports the file system to the ``world'' and
     should be used only when the file system contains public information.

     In	a mount	entry, the first field(s) specify the directory	path(s)	within
     a server file system that can be mounted on by the	corresponding
     client(s).	 There are two forms of	this specification.  The first is to
     list all mount points as absolute directory paths separated by white-
     space.  The second	is to specify the pathname of the root of the file
     system followed by	the -alldirs flag; this	form allows the	host(s)	to
     mount at any point	within the file	system,	including regular files	if the
     -r	option is used on mountd(8).  The pathnames must not have any symbolic
     links in them and should not have any "." or ".." components.  Mount
     points for	a file system may appear on multiple lines each	with different
     sets of hosts and export options.

     The second	component of a line specifies how the file system is to	be
     exported to the host set.	The option flags specify whether the file sys-
     tem is exported read-only or read-write and how the client	uid is mapped
     to	user credentials on the	server.

     Export options are	specified as follows:

     -maproot=user The credential of the specified user	is used	for remote
     access by root.  The credential includes all the groups to	which the user
     is	a member on the	local machine (see id(1)).  The	user may be specified
     by	name or	number.

     -maproot=user:group1:group2:... The colon separated list is used to spec-
     ify the precise credential	to be used for remote access by	root.  The
     elements of the list may be either	names or numbers.  Note	that user:
     should be used to distinguish a credential	containing no groups from a
     complete credential for that user.

     -mapall=user or -mapall=user:group1:group2:... specifies a	mapping	for
     all client	uids (including	root) using the	same semantics as -maproot.

     The option	-r is a	synonym	for -maproot in	an effort to be	backward com-
     patible with older	export file formats.

     In	the absence of -maproot	and -mapall options, remote accesses by	root
     will result in using a credential of -2:-2.  All other users will be
     mapped to their remote credential.	 If a -maproot option is given,	remote
     access by root will be mapped to that credential instead of -2:-2.	 If a
     -mapall option is given, all users	(including root) will be mapped	to
     that credential in	place of their own.

     The -ro option specifies that the file system should be exported read-
     only (default read/write).	 The option -o is a synonym for	-ro in an
     effort to be backward compatible with older export	file formats.

     WebNFS exports strictly according to the spec (RFC	2054 and RFC 2055) can
     be	done with the -public flag.  However, this flag	in itself allows r/w
     access to all files in the	file system, not requiring reserved ports and
     not remapping uids.  It is	only provided to conform to the	spec, and
     should normally not be used.  For a WebNFS	export,	use the	-webnfs	flag,
     which implies -public, -mapall=nobody and -ro.  Note that only one	file
     system can	be WebNFS exported on a	server.

     A -index=file option can be used to specify a file	whose handle will be
     returned if a directory is	looked up using	the public filehandle
     (WebNFS).	This is	to mimic the behavior of URLs.	If no -index option is
     specified,	a directory filehandle will be returned	as usual.  The -index
     option only makes sense in	combination with the -public or	-webnfs	flags.

     Specifying	the -quiet option will inhibit some of the syslog diagnostics
     for bad lines in /etc/exports.  This can be useful	to avoid annoying
     error messages for	known possible problems	(see EXAMPLES below).

     The third component of a line specifies the host set to which the line
     applies.  The set may be specified	in three ways.	The first way is to
     list the host name(s) separated by	white space.  (Standard	Internet
     ``dot'' addresses may be used in place of names.)	The second way is to
     specify a ``netgroup'' as defined in the netgroup file (see netgroup(5)).
     The third way is to specify an Internet subnetwork	using a	network	and
     network mask that is defined as the set of	all hosts with addresses
     within the	subnetwork.  This latter approach requires less	overhead
     within the	kernel and is recommended for cases where the export line
     refers to a large number of clients within	an administrative subnet.

     The first two cases are specified by simply listing the name(s) separated
     by	whitespace.  All names are checked to see if they are ``netgroup''
     names first and are assumed to be hostnames otherwise.  Using the full
     domain specification for a	hostname can normally circumvent the problem
     of	a host that has	the same name as a netgroup.  The third	case is	speci-
     fied by the flag -network=netname and optionally -mask=netmask.  If the
     mask is not specified, it will default to the mask	for that network class
     (A, B or C; see inet(4)).	See the	EXAMPLES section below.

     The mountd(8) utility can be made to re-read the exports file by sending
     it	a hangup signal	as follows:

	   kill	-s HUP `cat /var/run/mountd.pid`

     After sending the SIGHUP, check the syslogd(8) output to see whether
     mountd(8) logged any parsing errors in the	exports	file.

FILES
     /etc/exports  the default remote mount-point file

EXAMPLES
	   /usr	/usr/local -maproot=0:10 friends
	   /usr	-maproot=daemon	grumpy.cis.uoguelph.ca 131.104.48.16
	   /usr	-ro -mapall=nobody
	   /u -maproot=bin: -network 131.104.48	-mask 255.255.255.0
	   /u2 -maproot=root friends
	   /u2 -alldirs	-network cis-net -mask cis-mask
	   /cdrom -alldirs,quiet,ro -network 192.168.33.0 -mask	255.255.255.0

     Given that	/usr, /u and /u2 are local file	system mount points, the above
     example specifies the following:

     /usr is exported to hosts friends where friends is	specified in the net-
     group file	with users mapped to their remote credentials and root mapped
     to	uid 0 and group	10.  It	is exported read-write and the hosts in
     ``friends'' can mount either /usr or /usr/local.  It is exported to
     131.104.48.16 and grumpy.cis.uoguelph.ca with users mapped	to their
     remote credentials	and root mapped	to the user and	groups associated with
     ``daemon''; it is exported	to the rest of the world as read-only with all
     users mapped to the user and groups associated with ``nobody''.

     /u	is exported to all hosts on the	subnetwork 131.104.48 with root	mapped
     to	the uid	for ``bin'' and	with no	group access.

     /u2 is exported to	the hosts in ``friends'' with root mapped to uid and
     groups associated with ``root''; it is exported to	all hosts on network
     ``cis-net'' allowing mounts at any	directory within /u2.

     The file system rooted at /cdrom will exported read-only to the entire
     network 192.168.33.0/24, including	all its	subdirectories.	 Since /cdrom
     is	the conventional mountpoint for	a CD-ROM device, this export will fail
     if	no CD-ROM medium is currently mounted there since that line would then
     attempt to	export a subdirectory of the root file system with the
     -alldirs option which is not allowed.  The	-quiet option will then	sup-
     press the error message for this condition	that would normally be sys-
     logged.  As soon as an actual CD-ROM is going to be mounted, mount(8)
     will notify mountd(8) about this situation, and the /cdrom	file system
     will be exported as intended.  Note that without using the	-alldirs
     option, the export	would always succeed.  While there is no CD-ROM	medium
     mounted under /cdrom, it would export the (normally empty)	directory
     /cdrom of the root	file system instead.

SEE ALSO
     netgroup(5), mountd(8), nfsd(8), showmount(8)

BUGS
     The export	options	are tied to the	local mount points in the kernel and
     must be non-contradictory for any exported	subdirectory of	the local
     server mount point.  It is	recommended that all exported directories
     within the	same server file system	be specified on	adjacent lines going
     down the tree.  You cannot	specify	a hostname that	is also	the name of a
     netgroup.	Specifying the full domain specification for a hostname	can
     normally circumvent the problem.

FreeBSD	6.0			March 29, 1995			   FreeBSD 6.0

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FILES | EXAMPLES | SEE ALSO | BUGS

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