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VI(1)			FreeBSD	General	Commands Manual			 VI(1)

NAME
     ex, vi, view -- text editors

SYNOPSIS
     ex	[-FRrSsv] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w	size] [file ...]
     vi	 [-eFRrS] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w	size] [file ...]
     view [-eFrS] [-c cmd] [-t tag] [-w	size] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
     vi	is a screen-oriented text editor.  ex is a line-oriented text editor.
     ex	and vi are different interfaces	to the same program, and it is possi-
     ble to switch back	and forth during an edit session.  view	is the equiva-
     lent of using the -R (read-only) option of	vi.

     This manual page is the one provided with the nex/nvi versions of the
     ex/vi text	editors.  nex/nvi are intended as bug-for-bug compatible
     replacements for the original Fourth Berkeley Software Distribution
     (4BSD) ex and vi programs.	 For the rest of this manual page, nex/nvi is
     used only when it's necessary to distinguish it from the historic imple-
     mentations	of ex/vi.

     This manual page is intended for users already familiar with ex/vi.  Any-
     one else should almost certainly read a good tutorial on the editor
     before this manual	page.  If you're in an unfamiliar environment, and you
     absolutely	have to	get work done immediately, read	the section after the
     options description, entitled FAST	STARTUP.  It's probably	enough to get
     you going.

     The following options are available:

     -c	cmd    Execute cmd on the first	file loaded.  Particularly useful for
	       initial positioning in the file,	although cmd is	not limited to
	       positioning commands.  This is the POSIX	1003.2 interface for
	       the historic ``+cmd'' syntax.  nex/nvi supports both the	old
	       and new syntax.

     -e	       Start editing in	ex mode, as if the command name	were ex.

     -F	       Don't copy the entire file when first starting to edit.	(The
	       default is to make a copy in case someone else modifies the
	       file during your	edit session.)

     -R	       Start editing in	read-only mode,	as if the command name was
	       view, or	the readonly option was	set.

     -r	       Recover the specified files, or,	if no files are	specified,
	       list the	files that could be recovered.	If no recoverable
	       files by	the specified name exist, the file is edited as	if the
	       -r option had not been specified.

     -S	       Run with	the secure edit	option set, disallowing	all access to
	       external	programs.

     -s	       Enter batch mode; applicable only to ex edit sessions.  Batch
	       mode is useful when running ex scripts.	Prompts, informative
	       messages	and other user oriented	messages are turned off, and
	       no startup files	or environment variables are read.  This is
	       the POSIX 1003.2	interface for the historic ``-'' argument.
	       nex/nvi supports	both the old and new syntax.

     -t	tag    Start editing at	the specified tag (see ctags(1)).

     -v	       Start editing in	vi mode, as if the command name	was vi.

     -w	size   Set the initial window size to the specified number of lines.

     Command input for ex/vi is	read from the standard input.  In the vi
     interface,	it is an error if standard input is not	a terminal.  In	the ex
     interface,	if standard input is not a terminal, ex	will read commands
     from it regardless; however, the session will be a	batch mode session,
     exactly as	if the -s option had been specified.

FAST STARTUP
     This section will tell you	the minimum amount that	you need to do simple
     editing tasks using vi.  If you've	never used any screen editor before,
     you're likely to have problems even with this simple introduction.	 In
     that case you should find someone that already knows vi and have them
     walk you through this section.

     vi	is a screen editor.  This means	that it	takes up almost	the entire
     screen, displaying	part of	the file on each screen	line, except for the
     last line of the screen.  The last	line of	the screen is used for you to
     give commands to vi, and for vi to	give information to you.

     The other fact that you need to understand	is that	vi is a	modeful	edi-
     tor, i.e.,	you are	either entering	text or	you are	executing commands,
     and you have to be	in the right mode to do	one or the other.  You will be
     in	command	mode when you first start editing a file.  There are commands
     that switch you into input	mode.  There is	only one key that takes	you
     out of input mode,	and that is the	<escape> key.

     Key names are written using less-than and greater-than signs, e.g.,
     <escape> means the	``escape'' key,	usually	labeled	``Esc''	on your	termi-
     nal's keyboard.  If you're	ever confused as to which mode you're in, keep
     entering the <escape> key until vi	beeps at you.  Generally, vi will beep
     at	you if you try and do something	that's not allowed.  It	will also dis-
     play error	messages.

     To	start editing a	file, enter the	following command:

	   $ vi	file

     The command you should enter as soon as you start editing is:

	   :set	verbose	showmode

     This will make the	editor give you	verbose	error messages and display the
     current mode at the bottom	of the screen.

     The commands to move around the file are:

     h	     Move the cursor left one character.

     j	     Move the cursor down one line.

     k	     Move the cursor up	one line.

     l	     Move the cursor right one character.

     <cursor-arrows>
	     The cursor	arrow keys should work,	too.

     /text   Search for	the string ``text'' in the file, and move the cursor
	     to	its first character.

     The commands to enter new text are:

     a	       Append new text,	after the cursor.

     i	       Insert new text,	before the cursor.

     o	       Open a new line below the line the cursor is on,	and start
	       entering	text.

     O	       Open a new line above the line the cursor is on,	and start
	       entering	text.

     <escape>  Once you've entered input mode using one	of the a, i, o or O
	       commands, use <escape> to quit entering text and	return to com-
	       mand mode.

     The commands to copy text are:

     yy	     Copy the line the cursor is on.

     p	     Append the	copied line after the line the cursor is on.

     The commands to delete text are:

     dd	     Delete the	line the cursor	is on.

     x	     Delete the	character the cursor is	on.

     The commands to write the file are:

     :w	     Write the file back to the	file with the name that	you originally
	     used as an	argument on the	vi command line.

     :w	file_name
	     Write the file back to the	file with the name file_name.

     The commands to quit editing and exit the editor are:

     :q	     Quit editing and leave vi (if you've modified the file, but not
	     saved your	changes, vi will refuse	to quit).

     :q!     Quit, discarding any modifications	that you may have made.

     One final caution:	Unusual	characters can take up more than one column on
     the screen, and long lines	can take up more than a	single screen line.
     The above commands	work on	``physical'' characters	and lines, i.e., they
     affect the	entire line no matter how many screen lines it takes up	and
     the entire	character no matter how	many screen columns it takes up.

REGULAR	EXPRESSIONS
     ex/vi supports regular expressions	(REs), as documented in	re_format(7),
     for line addresses, as the	first part of the ex substitute, global	and v
     commands, and in search patterns.	Basic regular expressions (BREs) are
     enabled by	default; extended regular expressions (EREs) are used if the
     extended option is	enabled.  The use of regular expressions can be
     largely disabled using the	magic option.

     The following strings have	special	meanings in the	ex/vi version of regu-
     lar expressions:

     +o	 An empty regular expression is	equivalent to the last regular expres-
	 sion used.

     +o	 `\<' matches the beginning of the word.

     +o	 `\>' matches the end of the word.

     +o	 `~' matches the replacement part of the last substitute command.

BUFFERS
     A buffer is an area where commands	can save changed or deleted text for
     later use.	 vi buffers are	named with a single character preceded by a
     double quote, for example "<c>; ex	buffers	are the	same, but without the
     double quote.  nex/nvi permits the	use of any character without another
     meaning in	the position where a buffer name is expected.

     All buffers are either in line mode or character mode.  Inserting a
     buffer in line mode into the text creates new lines for each of the lines
     it	contains, while	a buffer in character mode creates new lines for any
     lines other than the first	and last lines it contains.  The first and
     last lines	are inserted at	the current cursor position, becoming part of
     the current line.	If there is more than one line in the buffer, the cur-
     rent line itself will be split.  All ex commands which store text into
     buffers do	so in line mode.  The behaviour	of vi commands depend on their
     associated	motion command:

     +o	 <control-A>, h, l, ,, 0, B, E,	F, T, W, ^, b, e, f and	t make the
	 destination buffer character-oriented.

     +o	 j, <control-M>, k, ', -, G, H,	L, M, _	and | make the destination
	 buffer	line-oriented.

     +o	 $, %, `, (, ),	/, ?, [[, ]], {	and } make the destination buffer
	 character-oriented, unless the	starting and end positions are the
	 first and last	characters on a	line.  In that case, the buffer	is
	 line-oriented.

     The ex command display buffers displays the current mode for each buffer.

     Buffers named `a' through `z' may be referred to using their uppercase
     equivalent, in which case new content will	be appended to the buffer,
     instead of	replacing it.

     Buffers named `1' through `9' are special.	 A region of text modified
     using the c (change) or d (delete)	commands is placed into	the numeric
     buffer `1'	if no other buffer is specified	and if it meets	one of the
     following conditions:

     +o	 It includes characters	from more than one line.

     +o	 It is specified using a line-oriented motion.

     +o	 It is specified using one of the following motion commands:
	 <control-A>, `<character>, n, N, %, /,	{, }, (, ), and	?.

     Before this copy is done, the previous contents of	buffer `1' are moved
     into buffer `2', `2' into buffer `3', and so on.  The contents of buffer
     `9' are discarded.	 Note that this	rotation occurs	regardless of the user
     specifying	another	buffer.	 In vi,	text may be explicitly stored into the
     numeric buffers.  In this case, the buffer	rotation occurs	before the
     replacement of the	buffer's contents.  The	numeric	buffers	are only
     available in vi mode.

VI COMMANDS
     The following section describes the commands available in the command
     mode of the vi editor.  The following words have a	special	meaning	in the
     commands description:

     bigword  A	set of non-whitespace characters.
     buffer   Temporary	area where commands may	place text.  If	not specified,
	      the default buffer is used.  See also BUFFERS, above.
     count    A	positive number	used to	specify	the desired number of itera-
	      tions of a command.  It defaults to 1 if not specified.
     motion   A	cursor movement	command	which indicates	the other end of the
	      affected region of text, the first being the current cursor
	      position.	 Repeating the command character makes it affect the
	      whole current line.
     word     A	sequence of letters, digits or underscores.

     buffer and	count, if both present,	may be specified in any	order.	motion
     and count,	if both	present, are effectively multiplied together and con-
     sidered part of the motion.

     <control-A>
	     Search forward for	the word starting at the cursor	position.

     [count] <control-B>
	     Page backwards count screens.  Two	lines of overlap are main-
	     tained, if	possible.

     [count] <control-D>
	     Scroll forward count lines.  If count is not given, scroll	for-
	     ward the number of	lines specified	by the last <control-D>	or
	     <control-U> command.  If this is the first	<control-D> command,
	     scroll half the number of lines in	the current screen.

     [count] <control-E>
	     Scroll forward count lines, leaving the current line and column
	     as	is, if possible.

     [count] <control-F>
	     Page forward count	screens.  Two lines of overlap are maintained,
	     if	possible.

     <control-G>
	     Display the following file	information: the file name (as given
	     to	vi); whether the file has been modified	since it was last
	     written; if the file is read-only;	the current line number; the
	     total number of lines in the file;	and the	current	line number as
	     a percentage of the total lines in	the file.

     [count] <control-H>
     [count] h
	     Move the cursor back count	characters in the current line.

     [count] <control-J>
     [count] <control-N>
     [count] j
	     Move the cursor down count	lines without changing the current
	     column.

     <control-L>
     <control-R>
	     Repaint the screen.

     [count] <control-M>
     [count] +
	     Move the cursor down count	lines to the first non-blank character
	     of	that line.

     [count] <control-P>
     [count] k
	     Move the cursor up	count lines, without changing the current col-
	     umn.

     <control-T>
	     Return to the most	recent tag context.

     [count] <control-U>
	     Scroll backwards count lines.  If count is	not given, scroll
	     backwards the number of lines specified by	the last <control-D>
	     or	<control-U> command.  If this is the first <control-U> com-
	     mand, scroll half the number of lines in the current screen.

     <control-W>
	     Switch to the next	lower screen in	the window, or to the first
	     screen if there are no lower screens in the window.

     [count] <control-Y>
	     Scroll backwards count lines, leaving the current line and	column
	     as	is, if possible.

     <control-Z>
	     Suspend the current editor	session.

     <escape>
	     Execute the ex command being entered, or cancel it	if it is only
	     partial.

     <control-]>
	     Push a tag	reference onto the tag stack.

     <control-^>
	     Switch to the most	recently edited	file.

     [count] <space>
     [count] l
	     Move the cursor forward count characters without changing the
	     current line.

     [count] ! motion shell-argument(s)	<carriage-return>
	     Replace the lines spanned by count	and motion with	the output
	     (standard output and standard error) of the program named by the
	     shell option, called with a -c flag followed by the
	     shell-argument(s) (bundled	into a single argument).  Within
	     shell-argument(s),	the `%', `#' and `!' characters	are expanded
	     to	the current file name, the previous current file name, and the
	     command text of the previous ! or :! commands, respectively.  The
	     special meaning of	`%', `#' and `!' can be	overridden by escaping
	     them with a backslash.

     [count] # #|+|-
	     Increment (trailing `#' or	`+') or	decrement (trailing `-') the
	     number under the cursor by	count, starting	at the cursor position
	     or	at the first non-blank character following it.	Numbers	with a
	     leading `0x' or `0X' are interpreted as hexadecimal numbers.
	     Numbers with a leading `0'	are interpreted	as octal numbers
	     unless they contain a non-octal digit.  Other numbers may be pre-
	     fixed with	a `+' or `-' sign.

     [count] $
	     Move the cursor to	the end	of a line.  If count is	specified,
	     additionally move the cursor down count - 1 lines.

     %	     Move to the matchchars character matching the one found at	the
	     cursor position or	the closest to the right of it.

     &	     Repeat the	previous substitution command on the current line.

     '<character>
     `<character>
	     Return to the cursor position marked by the character character,
	     or, if character is `'' or	``', to	the position of	the cursor
	     before the	last of	the following commands:	<control-A>,
	     <control-T>, <control-]>, %, ', `,	(, ), /, ?, G, H, L, [[, ]],
	     {,	}.  The	first form returns to the first	non-blank character of
	     the line marked by	character.  The	second form returns to the
	     line and column marked by character.

     [count] (
     [count] )
	     Move count	sentences backward or forward, respectively.  A	sen-
	     tence is an area of text that begins with the first nonblank
	     character following the previous sentence,	paragraph, or section
	     boundary and continues until the next period, exclamation point,
	     or	question mark character, followed by any number	of closing
	     parentheses, brackets, double or single quote characters, fol-
	     lowed by either an	end-of-line or two whitespace characters.
	     Groups of empty lines (or lines containing	only whitespace
	     characters) are treated as	a single sentence.

     [count] ,
	     Reverse find character (i.e., the last F, f, T or t command)
	     count times.

     [count] -
	     Move to the first non-blank character of the previous line, count
	     times.

     [count] .
	     Repeat the	last vi	command	that modified text.  count replaces
	     both the count argument of	the repeated command and that of the
	     associated	motion.	 If the	. command repeats the u	command, the
	     change log	is rolled forward or backward, depending on the	action
	     of	the u command.

     /RE <carriage-return>
     /RE/ [offset] [z] <carriage-return>
     ?RE <carriage-return>
     ?RE? [offset] [z] <carriage-return>
     N
     n	     Search forward (`/') or backward (`?') for	a regular expression.
	     n and N repeat the	last search in the same	or opposite direc-
	     tions, respectively.  If RE is empty, the last search regular
	     expression	is used.  If offset is specified, the cursor is	placed
	     offset lines before or after the matched regular expression.  If
	     either n or N commands are	used as	motion components for the !
	     command, there will be no prompt for the text of the command and
	     the previous ! will be executed.  Multiple	search patterns	may be
	     grouped together by delimiting them with semicolons and zero or
	     more whitespace characters.  These	patterns are evaluated from
	     left to right with	the final cursor position determined by	the
	     last search pattern.  A z command may be appended to the closed
	     search expressions	to reposition the result line.

     0	     Move to the first character in the	current	line.

     :	     Execute an	ex command.

     [count] ;
	     Repeat the	last character find (i.e., the last .Cm	F, f, T	or t
	     command) count times.

     [count] < motion
     [count] > motion
	     Shift count lines left or right, respectively, by an amount of
	     shiftwidth.

     @ buffer
	     Execute a named buffer as vi commands.  The buffer	may include ex
	     commands too, but they must be expressed as a : command.  If
	     buffer is `@' or `*', then	the last buffer	executed shall be
	     used.

     [count] A
	     Enter input mode, appending the text after	the end	of the line.
	     If	a count	argument is given, the characters input	are repeated
	     count - 1 times after input mode is exited.

     [count] B
	     Move backwards count bigwords.

     [buffer] C
	     Change text from the current position to the end-of-line.	If
	     buffer is specified, ``yank'' the deleted text into buffer.

     [buffer] D
	     Delete text from the current position to the end-of-line.	If
	     buffer is specified, ``yank'' the deleted text into buffer.

     [count] E
	     Move forward count	end-of-bigwords.

     [count] F <character>
	     Search count times	backward through the current line for
	     <character>.

     [count] G
	     Move to line count, or the	last line of the file if count is not
	     specified.

     [count] H
	     Move to the screen	line count - 1 lines below the top of the
	     screen.

     [count] I
	     Enter input mode, inserting the text at the beginning of the
	     line.  If a count argument	is given, the characters input are
	     repeated count - 1	more times.

     [count] J
	     Join count	lines with the current line.  The spacing between two
	     joined lines is set to two	whitespace characters if the former
	     ends with a question mark,	a period or an exclamation point.  It
	     is	set to one whitespace character	otherwise.

     [count] L
	     Move to the screen	line count - 1 lines above the bottom of the
	     screen.

     M	     Move to the screen	line in	the middle of the screen.

     [count] O
	     Enter input mode, appending text in a new line above the current
	     line.  If a count argument	is given, the characters input are
	     repeated count - 1	more times.

     [buffer] P
	     Insert text from buffer before the	current	column if buffer is
	     character-oriented	or before the current line if it is line-ori-
	     ented.

     Q	     Exit vi (or visual) mode and switch to ex mode.

     [count] R
	     Enter input mode, replacing the characters	in the current line.
	     If	a count	argument is given, the characters input	are repeated
	     count - 1 more times upon exit from insert	mode.

     [buffer] [count] S
	     Substitute	count lines.  If buffer	is specified, ``yank'' the
	     deleted text into buffer.

     [count] T <character>
	     Search backwards, count times, through the	current	line for the
	     character after the specified <character>.

     U	     Restore the current line to its state before the cursor last
	     moved to it.

     [count] W
	     Move forward count	bigwords.

     [buffer] [count] X
	     Delete count characters before the	cursor,	on the current line.
	     If	buffer is specified, ``yank'' the deleted text into buffer.

     [buffer] [count] Y
	     Copy (or ``yank'')	count lines into buffer.

     ZZ	     Write the file and	exit vi	if there are no	more files to edit.
	     Entering two ``quit'' commands in a row ignores any remaining
	     file to edit.

     [count] [[
	     Back up count section boundaries.

     [count] ]]
	     Move forward count	section	boundaries.

     ^	     Move to the first non-blank character on the current line.

     [count] _
	     Move down count - 1 lines,	to the first non-blank character.

     [count] a
	     Enter input mode, appending the text after	the cursor.  If	a
	     count argument is given, the characters input are repeated	count
	     number of times.

     [count] b
	     Move backwards count words.

     [buffer] [count] c	motion
	     Change the	region of text described by count and motion.  If
	     buffer is specified, ``yank'' the changed text into buffer.

     [buffer] [count] d	motion
	     Delete the	region of text described by count and motion.  If
	     buffer is specified, ``yank'' the deleted text into buffer.

     [count] e
	     Move forward count	end-of-words.

     [count] f <character>
	     Search forward, count times, through the rest of the current line
	     for <character>.

     [count] i
	     Enter input mode, inserting the text before the cursor.  If a
	     count argument is given, the characters input are repeated	count
	     number of times.

     m <character>
	     Save the current context (line and	column)	as <character>.

     [count] o
	     Enter input mode, appending text in a new line under the current
	     line.  If a count argument	is given, the characters input are
	     repeated count - 1	more times.

     [buffer] p
	     Append text from buffer.  Text is appended	after the current col-
	     umn if buffer is character	oriented, or after the current line
	     otherwise.

     [count] r <character>
	     Replace count characters with character.

     [buffer] [count] s
	     Substitute	count characters in the	current	line starting with the
	     current character.	 If buffer is specified, ``yank'' the substi-
	     tuted text	into buffer.

     [count] t <character>
	     Search forward, count times, through the current line for the
	     character immediately before <character>.

     u	     Undo the last change made to the file.  If	repeated, the u	com-
	     mand alternates between these two states.	The . command, when
	     used immediately after u, causes the change log to	be rolled for-
	     ward or backward, depending on the	action of the u	command.

     [count] w
	     Move forward count	words.

     [buffer] [count] x
	     Delete count characters at	the current cursor position, but no
	     more than there are till the end of the line.

     [buffer] [count] y	motion
	     Copy (or ``yank'')	a text region specified	by count and motion
	     into a buffer.

     [count1] z	[count2] type
	     Redraw, optionally	repositioning and resizing the screen.	If
	     count2 is specified, limit	the screen size	to count2 lines.  The
	     following type characters may be used:

	     +	     If	count1 is specified, place the line count1 at the top
		     of	the screen.  Otherwise,	display	the screen after the
		     current screen.

	     <carriage-return>
		     Place the line count1 at the top of the screen.

	     .	     Place the line count1 in the center of the	screen.

	     -	     Place the line count1 at the bottom of the	screen.

	     ^	     If	count1 is given, display the screen before the screen
		     before count1 (i.e., 2 screens before).  Otherwise, dis-
		     play the screen before the	current	screen.

     [count] {
	     Move backward count paragraphs.

     [column] |
	     Move to a specific	column position	on the current line.  If
	     column is omitted,	move to	the start of the current line.

     [count] }
	     Move forward count	paragraphs.

     [count] ~ motion
	     If	the tildeop option is not set, reverse the case	of the next
	     count character(s)	and no motion can be specified.	 Otherwise
	     motion is mandatory and ~ reverses	the case of the	characters in
	     a text region specified by	the count and motion.

     <interrupt>
	     Interrupt the current operation.  The <interrupt> character is
	     usually <control-C>.

VI TEXT	INPUT COMMANDS
     The following section describes the commands available in the text	input
     mode of the vi editor.

     <nul>   Replay the	previous input.

     <control-D>
	     Erase to the previous shiftwidth column boundary.

     ^<control-D>
	     Erase all of the autoindent characters, and reset the autoindent
	     level.

     0<control-D>
	     Erase all of the autoindent characters.

     <control-T>
	     Insert sufficient <tab> and <space> characters to move forward to
	     the next shiftwidth column	boundary.

     <erase>
     <control-H>
	     Erase the last character.

     <literal next>
	     Escape the	next character from any	special	meaning.  The
	     <literal next> character is usually <control-V>.

     <escape>
	     Resolve all text input into the file, and return to command mode.

     <line erase>
	     Erase the current line.

     <control-W>
     <word erase>
	     Erase the last word.  The definition of word is dependent on the
	     altwerase and ttywerase options.

     <control-X>[0-9A-Fa-f]+
	     Insert a character	with the specified hexadecimal value into the
	     text.

     <interrupt>
	     Interrupt text input mode,	returning to command mode.  The
	     <interrupt> character is usually <control-C>.

EX COMMANDS
     The following section describes the commands available in the ex editor.
     In	each entry below, the tag line is a usage synopsis for the command.

     <end-of-file>
	     Scroll the	screen.

     ! argument(s)
     [range] ! argument(s)
	     Execute a shell command, or filter	lines through a	shell command.

     "	     A comment.

     [range] nu[mber] [count] [flags]
     [range] # [count] [flags]
	     Display the selected lines, each preceded with its	line number.

     @ buffer
     * buffer
	     Execute a buffer.

     [range] <[< ...] [count] [flags]
	     Shift lines left.

     [line] = [flags]
	     Display the line number of	line.  If line is not specified, dis-
	     play the line number of the last line in the file.

     [range] >[> ...] [count] [flags]
	     Shift lines right.

     ab[breviate] lhs rhs
	     vi	only.  Add lhs as an abbreviation for rhs to the abbreviation
	     list.

     [line] a[ppend][!]
	     The input text is appended	after the specified line.

     ar[gs]  Display the argument list.

     bg	     vi	only.  Background the current screen.

     [range] c[hange][!] [count]
	     The input text replaces the specified range.

     chd[ir][!]	[directory]
     cd[!] [directory]
	     Change the	current	working	directory.

     [range] co[py] line [flags]
     [range] t line [flags]
	     Copy the specified	lines after the	destination line.

     cs[cope] add | find | help	| kill | reset
	     Execute a Cscope command.

     [range] d[elete] [buffer] [count] [flags]
	     Delete the	lines from the file.

     di[splay] b[uffers] | c[onnections] | s[creens] | t[ags]
	     Display buffers, Cscope connections, screens or tags.

     [Ee][dit][!] [+cmd] [file]
     [Ee]x[!] [+cmd] [file]
	     Edit a different file.

     exu[sage] [command]
	     Display usage for an ex command.

     f[ile] [file]
	     Display and optionally change the file name.

     [Ff]g [name]
	     vi	mode only.  Foreground the specified screen.

     [range] g[lobal] /pattern/	[commands]
     [range] v /pattern/ [commands]
	     Apply commands to lines matching (`global') or not	matching (`v')
	     a pattern.

     he[lp]  Display a help message.

     [line] i[nsert][!]
	     The input text is inserted	before the specified line.

     [range] j[oin][!] [count] [flags]
	     Join lines	of text	together.

     [range] l[ist] [count] [flags]
	     Display the lines unambiguously.

     map[!] [lhs rhs]
	     Define or display maps (for vi only).

     [line] ma[rk] <character>
     [line] k <character>
	     Mark the line with	the mark <character>.

     [range] m[ove] line
	     Move the specified	lines after the	target line.

     mk[exrc][!] file
	     Write the abbreviations, editor options and maps to the specified
	     file.

     [Nn][ext][!] [file	...]
	     Edit the next file	from the argument list.

     pre[serve]
	     Save the file in a	form that can later be recovered using the ex
	     -r	option.

     [Pp]rev[ious][!]
	     Edit the previous file from the argument list.

     [range] p[rint] [count] [flags]
	     Display the specified lines.

     [line] pu[t] [buffer]
	     Append buffer contents to the current line.

     q[uit][!]
	     End the editing session.

     [line] r[ead][!] [file]
	     Read a file.

     rec[over] file
	     Recover file if it	was previously saved.

     res[ize] [+|-]size
	     vi	mode only.  Grow or shrink the current screen.

     rew[ind][!]
	     Rewind the	argument list.

     se[t] [option[=[value]] ...]  [nooption ...] [option? ...]	[all]
	     Display or	set editor options.

     sh[ell]
	     Run a shell program.

     so[urce] file
	     Read and execute ex commands from a file.

     [range] s[ubstitute] [/pattern/replace/]  [options] [count] [flags]
     [range] & [options] [count] [flags]
     [range] ~ [options] [count] [flags]
	     Make substitutions.  The replace field may	contain	any of the
	     following sequences:

	     `&'     The text matched by pattern.

	     `~'     The replacement part of the previous substitute command.

	     `%'     If	this is	the entire replace pattern, the	replacement
		     part of the previous substitute command.

	     `\#'    Where `#' is an integer from 1 to 9, the text matched by
		     the #'th subexpression in pattern.

	     `\L'    Causes the	characters up to the end of the	line of	the
		     next occurrence of	`\E' or	`\e' to	be converted to	lower-
		     case.

	     `\l'    Causes the	next character to be converted to lowercase.

	     `\U'    Causes the	characters up to the end of the	line of	the
		     next occurrence of	`\E' or	`\e' to	be converted to	upper-
		     case.

	     `\u'    Causes the	next character to be converted to uppercase.

     su[spend][!]
     st[op][!]
     <suspend>
	     Suspend the edit session.	The <suspend> character	is usually
	     <control-Z>.

     [Tt]a[g][!] tagstring
	     Edit the file containing the specified tag.

     tagn[ext][!]
	     Edit the file containing the next context for the current tag.

     tagp[op][!] [file | number]
	     Pop to the	specified tag in the tags stack.

     tagpr[ev][!]
	     Edit the file containing the previous context for the current
	     tag.

     tagt[op][!]
	     Pop to the	least recent tag on the	tags stack, clearing the
	     stack.

     una[bbreviate] lhs
	     vi	only.  Delete an abbreviation.

     u[ndo]  Undo the last change made to the file.

     unm[ap][!]	lhs
	     Unmap a mapped string.

     ve[rsion]
	     Display the version of the	ex/vi editor.

     [line] vi[sual] [type] [count] [flags]
	     ex	mode only.  Enter vi.

     [Vi]i[sual][!] [+cmd] [file]
	     vi	mode only.  Edit a new file.

     viu[sage] [command]
	     Display usage for a vi command.

     [range] w[rite][!]	[>>] [file]
     [range] w[rite] [!] [file]
     [range] wn[!] [>>]	[file]
     [range] wq[!] [>>]	[file]
	     Write the file.

     [range] x[it][!] [file]
	     Exit the editor, writing the file if it has been modified.

     [range] ya[nk] [buffer] [count]
	     Copy the specified	lines to a buffer.

     [line] z [type] [count] [flags]
	     Adjust the	window.

SET OPTIONS
     There are a large number of options that may be set (or unset) to change
     the editor's behavior.  This section describes the	options, their abbre-
     viations and their	default	values.

     In	each entry below, the first part of the	tag line is the	full name of
     the option, followed by any equivalent abbreviations.  The	part in	square
     brackets is the default value of the option.  Most	of the options are
     boolean, i.e., they are either on or off, and do not have an associated
     value.

     Options apply to both ex and vi modes, unless otherwise specified.

     altwerase [off]
	     vi	only.  Select an alternate word	erase algorithm.

     autoindent, ai [off]
	     Automatically indent new lines.

     autoprint,	ap [on]
	     ex	only.  Display the current line	automatically.

     autowrite,	aw [off]
	     Write modified files automatically	when changing files or sus-
	     pending the editor	session.

     backup [""]
	     Back up files before they are overwritten.

     beautify, bf [off]
	     Discard control characters.

     cdpath [environment variable CDPATH, or current directory]
	     The directory paths used as path prefixes for the cd command.

     cedit [no default]
	     Set the character to edit the colon command-line history.

     columns, co [80]
	     Set the number of columns in the screen.

     comment [off]
	     vi	only.  Skip leading comments in	shell, C and C++ language
	     files.

     directory,	dir [environment variable TMPDIR, or /tmp]
	     The directory where temporary files are created.

     edcompatible, ed [off]
	     Remember the values of the	`c' and	`g' suffixes to	the substitute
	     commands, instead of initializing them as unset for each new com-
	     mand.

     errorbells, eb [off]
	     ex	only.  Announce	error messages with a bell.

     escapetime	[1]
	     The tenths	of a second ex/vi waits	for a subsequent key to	com-
	     plete an <escape> key mapping.

     exrc, ex [off]
	     Read the startup files in the local directory.

     extended [off]
	     Use extended regular expressions (EREs) rather than basic regular
	     expressions (BREs).  See re_format(7) for more information	on
	     regular expressions.

     filec [<tab>]
	     Set the character to perform file path completion on the colon
	     command line.

     fileencoding, fe [auto detect]
	     Set the encoding of the current file.

     flash [on]
	     Flash the screen instead of beeping the keyboard on error.

     hardtabs, ht [0]
	     Set the spacing between hardware tab settings.  This option cur-
	     rently has	no effect.

     iclower [off]
	     Makes all regular expressions case-insensitive, as	long as	an
	     upper-case	letter does not	appear in the search string.

     ignorecase, ic [off]
	     Ignore case differences in	regular	expressions.

     inputencoding, ie [locale]
	     Set the encoding of your input characters.

     keytime [6]
	     The tenths	of a second ex/vi waits	for a subsequent key to	com-
	     plete a key mapping.

     leftright [off]
	     vi	only.  Do left-right scrolling.

     lines, li [24]
	     vi	only.  Set the number of lines in the screen.

     lisp [off]
	     vi	only.  Modify various search commands and options to work with
	     Lisp.  This option	is not yet implemented.

     list [off]
	     Display lines in an unambiguous fashion.

     lock [on]
	     Attempt to	get an exclusive lock on any file being	edited,	read
	     or	written.

     magic [on]
	     When turned off, all regular expression characters	except for `^'
	     and `$' are treated as ordinary characters.  Preceding individual
	     characters	by `\' re-enables them.

     matchchars	[[]{}()]
	     Character pairs looked for	by the % command.

     matchtime [7]
	     vi	only.  The tenths of a second ex/vi pauses on the matching
	     character when the	showmatch option is set.

     mesg [on]
	     Permit messages from other	users.

     msgcat [/usr/share/vi/catalog/]
	     Selects a message catalog to be used to display error and infor-
	     mational messages in a specified language.

     modelines,	modeline [off]
	     Read the first and	last few lines of each file for	ex commands.
	     This option will never be implemented.

     noprint [""]
	     Characters	that are never handled as printable characters.

     number, nu	[off]
	     Precede each line displayed with its current line number.

     octal [off]
	     Display unknown characters	as octal numbers, instead of the
	     default hexadecimal.

     open [on]
	     ex	only.  If this option is not set, the open and visual commands
	     are disallowed.

     optimize, opt [on]
	     vi	only.  Optimize	text throughput	to dumb	terminals.  This
	     option is not yet implemented.

     paragraphs, para [IPLPPPQPP LIpplpipbp]
	     vi	only.  Define additional paragraph boundaries for the {	and }
	     commands.

     path [""]
	     Define additional directories to search for files being edited.

     print [""]
	     Characters	that are always	handled	as printable characters.

     prompt [on]
	     ex	only.  Display a command prompt.

     readonly, ro [off]
	     Mark the file and session as read-only.

     recdir [/var/tmp/vi.recover]
	     The directory where recovery files	are stored.

     redraw, re	[off]
	     vi	only.  Simulate	an intelligent terminal	on a dumb one.	This
	     option is not yet implemented.

     remap [on]
	     Remap keys	until resolved.

     report [5]
	     Set the number of lines about which the editor reports changes or
	     yanks.

     ruler [off]
	     vi	only.  Display a row/column ruler on the colon command line.

     scroll, scr [window size /	2]
	     Set the number of lines scrolled.

     searchincr	[off]
	     Makes the / and ? commands	incremental.

     sections, sect [NHSHH HUnhsh]
	     vi	only.  Define additional section boundaries for	the [[ and ]]
	     commands.

     secure [off]
	     Turns off all access to external programs.

     shell, sh [environment variable SHELL, or /bin/sh]
	     Select the	shell used by the editor.

     shellmeta [~{[*?$`'"\]
	     Set the meta characters checked to	determine if file name expan-
	     sion is necessary.

     shiftwidth, sw [8]
	     Set the autoindent	and shift command indentation width.

     showmatch,	sm [off]
	     vi	only.  Note the	left matching characters when the right	ones
	     are inserted.

     showmode, smd [off]
	     vi	only.  Display the current editor mode and a ``modified''
	     flag.

     sidescroll	[16]
	     vi	only.  Set the amount a	left-right scroll will shift.

     slowopen, slow [off]
	     Delay display updating during text	input.	This option is not yet
	     implemented.

     sourceany [off]
	     Read startup files	not owned by the current user.	This option
	     will never	be implemented.

     tabstop, ts [8]
	     This option sets tab widths for the editor	display.

     taglength,	tl [0]
	     Set the number of significant characters in tag names.

     tags, tag [tags]
	     Set the list of tags files.

     term, ttytype, tty	[environment variable TERM]
	     Set the terminal type.

     terse [off]
	     This option has historically made editor messages less verbose.
	     It	has no effect in this implementation.

     tildeop [off]
	     Modify the	~ command to take an associated	motion.

     timeout, to [on]
	     Time out on keys which may	be mapped.

     ttywerase [off]
	     vi	only.  Select an alternate erase algorithm.

     verbose [off]
	     vi	only.  Display an error	message	for every error.

     w300 [no default]
	     vi	only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is less than 1200
	     baud.

     w1200 [no default]
	     vi	only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is equal to	1200
	     baud.

     w9600 [no default]
	     vi	only.  Set the window size if the baud rate is greater than
	     1200 baud.

     warn [on]
	     ex	only.  This option causes a warning message to be printed on
	     the terminal if the file has been modified	since it was last
	     written, before a ! command.

     window, w,	wi [environment	variable LINES - 1]
	     Set the window size for the screen.

     windowname	[off]
	     Change the	icon/window name to the	current	file name.

     wraplen, wl [0]
	     vi	only.  Break lines automatically, the specified	number of col-
	     umns from the left-hand margin.  If both the wraplen and
	     wrapmargin	edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.

     wrapmargin, wm [0]
	     vi	only.  Break lines automatically, the specified	number of col-
	     umns from the right-hand margin.  If both the wraplen and
	     wrapmargin	edit options are set, the wrapmargin value is used.

     wrapscan, ws [on]
	     Set searches to wrap around the end or beginning of the file.

     writeany, wa [off]
	     Turn off file-overwriting checks.

ENVIRONMENT
     COLUMNS  The number of columns on the screen.  This value overrides any
	      system or	terminal specific values.  If the COLUMNS environment
	      variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or the columns option is
	      explicitly reset by the user, ex/vi enters the value into	the
	      environment.

     EXINIT   A	list of	ex startup commands, read after	/etc/vi.exrc unless
	      the variable NEXINIT is also set.

     HOME     The user's home directory, used as the initial directory path
	      for the startup $HOME/.nexrc and $HOME/.exrc files.  This	value
	      is also used as the default directory for	the cd command.

     LINES    The number of rows on the	screen.	 This value overrides any sys-
	      tem or terminal specific values.	If the LINES environment vari-
	      able is not set when ex/vi runs, or the lines option is explic-
	      itly reset by the	user, ex/vi enters the value into the environ-
	      ment.

     NEXINIT  A	list of	ex startup commands, read after	/etc/vi.exrc.

     SHELL    The user's shell of choice (see also the shell option).

     TERM     The user's terminal type.	 The default is	the type ``unknown''.
	      If the TERM environment variable is not set when ex/vi runs, or
	      the term option is explicitly reset by the user, ex/vi enters
	      the value	into the environment.

     TMPDIR   The location used	to store temporary files (see also the
	      directory	edit option).

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
     SIGALRM   vi/ex uses this signal for periodic backups of file modifica-
	       tions and to display ``busy'' messages when operations are
	       likely to take a	long time.

     SIGHUP
     SIGTERM   If the current buffer has changed since it was last written in
	       its entirety, the editor	attempts to save the modified file so
	       it can be later recovered.  See the vi/ex reference manual sec-
	       tion Recovery for more information.

     SIGINT    When an interrupt occurs, the current operation is halted and
	       the editor returns to the command level.	 If interrupted	during
	       text input, the text already input is resolved into the file as
	       if the text input had been normally terminated.

     SIGWINCH  The screen is resized.  See the vi/ex reference manual section
	       Sizing the Screen for more information.

FILES
     /bin/sh		  The default user shell.

     /etc/vi.exrc	  System-wide vi startup file.	It is read for ex com-
			  mands	first in the startup sequence.	Must be	owned
			  by root or the user, and writable only by the	owner.

     /tmp		  Temporary file directory.

     /var/tmp/vi.recover  The default recovery file directory.

     $HOME/.nexrc	  First	choice for user's home directory startup file,
			  read for ex commands right after /etc/vi.exrc	unless
			  either NEXINIT or EXINIT are set.  Must be owned by
			  root or the user, and	writable only by the owner.

     $HOME/.exrc	  Second choice	for user's home	directory startup
			  file,	read for ex commands under the same conditions
			  as $HOME/.nexrc.

     .nexrc		  First	choice for local directory startup file, read
			  for ex commands at the end of	the startup sequence
			  if the exrc option was turned	on earlier.  Must be
			  owned	by the user and	writable only by the owner.

     .exrc		  Second choice	for local directory startup file, read
			  for ex commands under	the same conditions as .nexrc.

EXIT STATUS
     The ex and	vi utilities exit 0 on success,	and >0 if an error occurs.

SEE ALSO
     ctags(1), iconv(1), re_format(7)

STANDARDS
     nex/nvi is	close to IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'').  That document
     differs from historical ex/vi practice in several places; there are
     changes to	be made	on both	sides.

HISTORY
     The ex editor first appeared in 1BSD.  The	nex/nvi	replacements for the
     ex/vi editor first	appeared in 4.4BSD.

AUTHORS
     Bill Joy wrote the	original version of ex in 1977.

FreeBSD	10.1		       November	2, 2013			  FreeBSD 10.1

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | FAST STARTUP | REGULAR EXPRESSIONS | BUFFERS | VI COMMANDS | VI TEXT INPUT COMMANDS | EX COMMANDS | SET OPTIONS | ENVIRONMENT | ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS | FILES | EXIT STATUS | SEE ALSO | STANDARDS | HISTORY | AUTHORS

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