Skip site navigation (1)Skip section navigation (2)

FreeBSD Man Pages

Man Page or Keyword Search:
Man Architecture
Apropos Keyword Search (all sections) Output format
home | help
environ(5)	      Standards, Environments, and Macros	    environ(5)

NAME
       environ - user environment

DESCRIPTION
       When  a	process	 begins	execution, one of the exec family of functions
       makes available	an  array  of  strings	called	the  environment;  see
       exec(2).	By convention, these strings have the form variable=value, for
       example,	PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin. These environmental variables provide  a
       way to make information about a program's environment available to pro-
       grams.

       A name may be placed in the  environment	 by  the  export  command  and
       name=value  arguments  in sh(1),	or by one of the exec functions. It is
       unwise to conflict with certain shell variables such as MAIL, PS1, PS2,
       and IFS that are	frequently exported by .profile	files; see profile(4).

       The following environmental variables can be used by  applications  and
       are expected to be set in the target run-time environment.

       HOME  The  name of the user's login directory, set by login(1) from the
	     password file; see	passwd(4).

       LANG  The string	used to	specify	internationalization information  that
	     allows  users  to	work  with different national conventions. The
	     setlocale(3C) function checks the LANG environment	variable  when
	     it	is called with "" as the locale	argument.  LANG	is used	as the
	     default locale if the corresponding environment  variable	for  a
	     particular	category is unset or null. If, however,	 LC_ALL	is set
	     to	a valid, non-empty value, its contents are  used  to  override
	     both  the	LANG  and  the other LC_* variables. For example, when
	     invoked as	setlocale(LC_CTYPE, ""), setlocale()  will  query  the
	     LC_CTYPE  environment variable first to see if it is set and non-
	     null. If LC_CTYPE is not set or null, then	setlocale() will check
	     the  LANG	environment variable to	see if it is set and non-null.
	     If	both LANG and LC_CTYPE are unset  or  NULL,  the  default  "C"
	     locale will be used to set	the LC_CTYPE category.

	     Most  commands  will  invoke  setlocale(LC_ALL,  "") prior	to any
	     other processing. This allows the command to be used with differ-
	     ent  national  conventions	by setting the appropriate environment
	     variables.

	     The following environment variables correspond to	each  category
	     of	setlocale(3C):

	     LC_ALL
		   If  set  to	a  valid, non-empty string value, override the
		   values of LANG and all the other LC_*variables.

	     LC_COLLATE
		   This	category specifies the	character  collation  sequence
		   being used.	The information	corresponding to this category
		   is stored in	a database  created by the  localedef(1)  com-
		   mand.    This  environment variable affects strcoll(3C) and
		   strxfrm(3C).

	     LC_CTYPE
		   This	category specifies character classification, character
		   conversion,	 and  widths  of  multibyte  characters.  When
		   LC_CTYPE is set to a	valid value, the calling  utility  can
		   display  and	 handle	 text  and file	names containing valid
		   characters for that	locale;	   Extended  Unix  Code	 (EUC)
		   characters where any	individual character can be 1, 2, or 3
		   bytes wide; and EUC characters of 1,	2, or 3	column widths.
		   The default "C" locale corresponds to the 7-bit ASCII char-
		   acter set; only characters from ISO 8859-1 are  valid.  The
		   information	corresponding  to this category	is stored in a
		   database created by the localedef() command.	 This environ-
		   ment	 variable  is  used  by	ctype(3C), mblen(3C), and many
		   commands, such as cat(1), ed(1), ls(1), and vi(1).

	     LC_MESSAGES
		   This	category specifies the language	of the	message	 data-
		   base	 being	used. For example, an application may have one
		   message database with French	messages, and another database
		   with	 German	messages. Message databases are	created	by the
		   mkmsgs(1) command. This environment	variable  is  used  by
		   exstr(1),   gettxt(1),  srchtxt(1),	gettxt(3C),  and  get-
		   text(3C).

	     LC_MONETARY
		   This	category specifies the monetary	symbols	and delimiters
		   used	 for a particular locale.  The information correspond-
		   ing to this category	is stored in a database	created	by the
		   localedef(1)	 command. This environment variable is used by
		   localeconv(3C).

	     LC_NUMERIC
		   This	category specifies the decimal	and  thousands	delim-
		   iters.  The	information  corresponding to this category is
		   stored in a database	 created by the	 localedef()  command.
		   The	default	 C  locale  corresponds	 to "."	as the decimal
		   delimiter and  no  thousands	 delimiter.  This  environment
		   variable  is	 used  by localeconv(3C), printf(3C), and str-
		   tod(3C).

	     LC_TIME
		   This	category specifies date	and time formats. The informa-
		   tion	corresponding to this category is stored in a database
		   specified in	localedef(). The default C locale  corresponds
		   to U.S. date	and time formats. This environment variable is
		   used	by many	commands and functions;	 for  example:	at(1),
		   calendar(1),	date(1), strftime(3C), and getdate(3C).

       MSGVERB
	     Controls  which standard format message components	fmtmsg selects
	     when  messages  are  displayed  to	 stderr;  see	fmtmsg(1)  and
	     fmtmsg(3C).

       NETPATH
	     A	colon-separated	list of	network	identifiers. A network identi-
	     fier is a character string	used by	the Network  Selection	compo-
	     nent  of  the system to provide application-specific default net-
	     work search paths.	A network identifier must consist of  non-null
	     characters	 and  must  have  a  length  of	at least 1. No maximum
	     length is specified. Network identifiers are normally  chosen  by
	     the  system administrator.	A network identifier is	also the first
	     field in any /etc/netconfig file entry. NETPATH thus  provides  a
	     link  into	 the  /etc/netconfig  file and the information about a
	     network contained in  that	 network's  entry.  /etc/netconfig  is
	     maintained	 by  the  system  administrator.  The library routines
	     described in  getnetpath(3NSL)  access  the  NETPATH  environment
	     variable.

       NLSPATH
	     Contains  a  sequence  of	templates  which  catopen(3C) and get-
	     text(3C) use when attempting to  locate  message  catalogs.  Each
	     template consists of an optional prefix, one or more substitution
	     fields, a filename	and an optional	suffix.	For example:

	     NLSPATH="/system/nlslib/%N.cat"

	     defines that catopen() should look	for all	 message  catalogs  in
	     the  directory  /system/nlslib,  where the	catalog	name should be
	     constructed from the name parameter passed	to catopen(), %N, with
	     the suffix	.cat.

	     Substitution  fields consist of a % symbol, followed by a single-
	     letter keyword. The following keywords are	currently defined:

	     %N	   The value of	the name parameter passed to catopen().

	     %L	   The value of	LANG or	LC_MESSAGES.

	     %l	   The language	element	from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

	     %t	   The territory element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

	     %c	   The codeset element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.

	     %%	   A single % character.

       An empty	string is substituted if the specified value is	not  currently
       defined.	 The separators	"_" and	"." are	not included in	%t and %c sub-
       stitutions.

       Templates defined in NLSPATH are	separated by  colons  (:).  A  leading
       colon  or  two adjacent colons (::) is equivalent to specifying %N. For
       example:

       NLSPATH=":%N.cat:/nlslib/%L/%N.cat"

       indicates to catopen() that it should look for  the  requested  message
       catalog in name,	name.cat and /nlslib/$LANG/name.cat. For gettext(), %N
       automatically maps to "messages".

       If NLSPATH is unset or  NULL,  catopen()	 and  gettext()	 call	setlo-
       cale(3C),  which	checks LANG and	the  LC_* variables to locate the mes-
       sage catalogs.

	     NLSPATH will normally be set  up  on  a  system  wide  basis  (in
	     /etc/profile)  and	thus makes the location	and naming conventions
	     associated	with message catalogs transparent to both programs and
	     users.

       PATH  The  sequence of directory	prefixes that sh(1), time(1), nice(1),
	     nohup(1), and other utilities apply in searching for a file known
	     by	 an incomplete path name. The prefixes are separated by	colons
	     (:). login(1) sets	PATH=/usr/bin. For more	detail,	see  sh(1).

       SEV_LEVEL
	     Define severity levels and	associate and print strings with  them
	     in	  standard   format   error  messages;	see   addseverity(3C),
	     fmtmsg(1),	and  fmtmsg(3C).

       TERM  The kind of terminal for which output is  to  be  prepared.  This
	     information is used by commands, such as vi(1), which may exploit
	     special capabilities of that terminal.

       TZ    Timezone information. The contents	of this	 environment  variable
	     are used by the functions ctime(3C), localtime(3C), strftime(3C),
	     and mktime(3C) to override	the default timezone. If TZ is not  in
	     the  following form, it designates	a path to a  timezone database
	     file relative to  /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/,  ignoring  the	 first
	     character if it is	a colon	(:). Otherwise,	TZ has the form:

       stdoffset[dst[offset][,start[/time],end[/time]]]

	      std and dst
		    Three or more bytes	that are the designation for the stan-
		    dard (std) and daylight savings time (dst) timezones. Only
		    std	 is required. If dst is	missing, then daylight savings
		    time does not apply	in this	locale.	Upper- and  lower-case
		    letters  from  the	portable  character set	are explicitly
		    allowed. Any graphic characters from the portable  charac-
		    ter	 set  except  a	leading	colon (:) or digits, the comma
		    (,), the minus (-),	the plus (+), and the  null  character
		    are	permitted to appear in these fields, but their meaning
		    is unspecified.

	      offset
		    Indicates the value	one must add  to  the  local  time  to
		    arrive  at	Coordinated Universal Time. The	offset has the
		    form:

		    hh[:mm[:ss]]

		    The	minutes	(mm) and seconds (ss) are optional.  The  hour
		    (hh)  is  required	and  may be a single digit. The	offset
		    following std is required. If no offset follows dst	, day-
		    light  savings  time  is  assumed  to be one hour ahead of
		    standard time. One or more digits may be used.  The	 value
		    is	always	interpreted as a decimal number. The hour must
		    be between 0 and 24, and the  minutes  (and	 seconds),  if
		    present, must be between 0 and 59. Out of range values may
		    cause unpredictable	behavior. If preceded by  a  "-",  the
		    timezone  is  east of the Prime Meridian. Otherwise, it is
		    west of the	Prime Meridian (which may be indicated	by  an
		    optional preceding "+" sign).

	      start/time,end/time
		    Indicate  when to change to	and back from daylight savings
		    time, where	start/time  describes  when  the  change  from
		    standard   time  to	 daylight  savings  time  occurs,  and
		    end/time describes when the	 change	 back  happens.	  Each
		    time  field	 describes  when,  in  current local time, the
		    change is made.

		    The	formats	of start and end are one of the	following:

		    Jn	  The Julian day n (1 <= n <= 365). Leap days are  not
			  counted.   That is, in all years, February 28	is day
			  59 and March 1 is day	60. It is impossible to	 refer
			  to the occasional February 29.

		    n	  The zero-based Julian	day (0 <= n <= 365). Leap days
			  are counted, and it is possible to refer to February
			  29.

		    Mm.n.d
			  The d**th day, (0 <= d <= 6) of week n of month m of
			  the year (1 <= n <= 5, 1 <= m	<= 12),	where  week  5
			  means	"the last d-day	in month m" which may occur in
			  either the fourth or the fifth week).	Week 1 is  the
			  first	 week in which the  d**th day occurs. Day zero
			  is Sunday.

	      Implementation specific defaults are used	for  start and end  if
	      these optional fields are	not given.

		    The	 time  has  the	 same  format as offset	except that no
		    leading sign ("-" or "+" is	allowed. The default, if  time
		    is not given is 02:00:00.

SEE ALSO
       cat(1),	date(1),  ed(1),  fmtmsg(1),  localedef(1),  login(1),	ls(1),
       mkmsgs(1), nice(1), nohup(1), sh(1), sort(1), time(1), vi(1),  exec(2),
       addseverity(3C),	 catopen(3C),  ctime(3C),  ctype(3C), fmtmsg(3C), get-
       date(3C), getnetpath(3NSL),  gettext(3C),  gettxt(3C),  localeconv(3C),
       mblen(3C),  mktime(3C),	printf(3C),  setlocale(3C), strcoll(3C), strf-
       time(3C),   strtod(3C),	 strxfrm(3C),	 TIMEZONE(4),	 netconfig(4),
       passwd(4), profile(4)

SunOS 5.9			  25 Oct 2001			    environ(5)

NAME | DESCRIPTION | SEE ALSO

Want to link to this manual page? Use this URL:
<https://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?query=environ&sektion=5&manpath=SunOS+5.9>

home | help