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EMACS(1)							      EMACS(1)

NAME
       emacs - GNU project Emacs

SYNOPSIS
       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]

DESCRIPTION
       GNU  Emacs is a version of Emacs, written by the	author of the original
       (PDP-10)	Emacs, Richard Stallman.  The user functionality of GNU	 Emacs
       encompasses  everything	other  editors do, and it is easily extensible
       since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       The primary documentation of GNU	Emacs is  in  the  GNU	Emacs  Manual,
       which  you  can	read  using Info, either from Emacs or as a standalone
       program.	 Please	look there for complete	and up-to-date	documentation.
       This man	page is	updated	only when someone volunteers to	do so.

       Emacs  has  an  extensive  interactive  help facility, but the facility
       assumes that you	know how to  manipulate	 Emacs	windows	 and  buffers.
       CTRL-h or F1 enters the Help facility.  Help Tutorial (CTRL-h t)	starts
       an interactive tutorial to quickly teach	beginners the fundamentals  of
       Emacs.	Help  Apropos  (CTRL-h a) helps	you find a command with	a name
       matching	a given	pattern, Help Key (CTRL-h k)  describes	 a  given  key
       sequence, and Help Function (CTRL-h f) describes	a given	Lisp function.

       GNU Emacs's many	special	packages handle	mail reading (RMail) and send-
       ing  (Mail),  outline  editing  (Outline), compiling (Compile), running
       subshells within	Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp  read-eval-print
       loop  (Lisp-Interaction-Mode),  automated  psychotherapy	 (Doctor), and
       much more.

   Emacs Options
       The following options are of general interest:

	      file    Edit file.

	      --file file, --find-file file, --visit file
		      The same as specifying file directly as an argument.

	      +number Go to the	line specified by  number  (do	not  insert  a
		      space  between  the  "+"	sign  and  the	number).  This
		      applies only to the next file specified.

	      +line:column
		      Go to the	specified line and column.

	      --chdir directory
		      Change to	directory.

	      -q, --no-init-file
		      Do not load an init file.

	      -nl, --no-shared-memory
		      Do not use shared	memory.

	      --no-site-file
		      Do not load the site-wide	startup	file.

	      -nsl, --no-site-lisp
		      Do not add site-lisp directories to load-path.

	      --no-desktop
		      Do not load a saved desktop.

	      -Q, --quick
		      Similar to "-q --no-site-file --no-splash".  Also, avoid
		      processing X resources.

	      --no-splash
		      Do not display a splash screen during start-up.

	      --debug-init
		      Enable  Emacs Lisp debugger during the processing	of the
		      user init	file ~/.emacs.	This is	useful	for  debugging
		      problems in the init file.

	      -u user, --user user
		      Load user's init file.

	      -t file, --terminal file
		      Use  specified  file  as	the  terminal instead of using
		      stdin/stdout.  This must be the first argument specified
		      in the command line.

	      --daemon
		      Start  Emacs  as a daemon, enabling the Emacs server and
		      disconnecting from the terminal.	You can	then  use  the
		      emacsclient  command to connect to the server (see emac-
		      sclient(1)).

	      --version
		      Display Emacs version information	and exit.

	      --help  Display this help	and exit.

       The following options are Lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
       the order encountered):

	      -f function, --funcall function
		      Execute the lisp function	function.

	      -l file, --load file
		      Load the lisp code in the	file file.

	      --eval expr, --execute expr
		      Evaluate the Lisp	expression expr.

       The following options are useful	when running Emacs as a	batch editor:

	      --batch Edit  in	batch  mode.  The editor will send messages to
		      stderr.  You must	use -l and -f options to specify files
		      to execute and functions to call.

	      --script file
		      Run file as an Emacs Lisp	script.

	      --insert file
		      Insert contents of file into the current buffer.

	      --kill  Exit Emacs while in batch	mode.

	      -L dir, --directory dir
		      Add  dir	to  the	list of	directories Emacs searches for
		      Lisp files.

   Using Emacs with X
       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If  you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X	window to dis-
       play in.	 You will probably want	to start the editor  as	 a  background
       process so that you can continue	using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

	      --name name
		      Specify the name which should be assigned	to the initial
		      Emacs window.  This controls looking up X	 resources  as
		      well as the window title.

	      -T name, --title name
		      Specify the title	for the	initial	X window.

	      -r, -rv, --reverse-video
		      Display the Emacs	window in reverse video.

	      -fn font,	--font font
		      Set  the	Emacs window's font to that specified by font.
		      You   will   find	  the	various	  X   fonts   in   the
		      /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  Note that Emacs will only
		      accept fixed width fonts.	 Under the X11 Release 4 font-
		      naming  conventions,  any	font with the value "m"	or "c"
		      in the eleventh field of the font	name is	a fixed	 width
		      font.   Furthermore,  fonts  whose  name are of the form
		      widthxheight are generally fixed width, as is  the  font
		      fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

		      When  you	specify	a font,	be sure	to put a space between
		      the switch and the font name.

	      --xrm resources
		      Set additional X resources.

	      --color, --color=mode
		      Override	color  mode  for  character  terminals;	  mode
		      defaults	to  `auto',  and  can also be `never', `auto',
		      `always',	or a mode name like `ansi8'.

	      -bw pixels, --border-width pixels
		      Set the Emacs window's border width  to  the  number  of
		      pixels  specified	 by  pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on
		      each side	of the window.

	      -ib pixels, --internal-border pixels
		      Set the window's internal	border width to	the number  of
		      pixels  specified	 by  pixels.  Defaults to one pixel of
		      padding on each side of the window.

	      -g geometry, --geometry geometry
		      Set the Emacs window's width, height,  and  position  as
		      specified.   The	geometry specification is in the stan-
		      dard X format; see X(7) for more information.  The width
		      and  height  are specified in characters;	the default is
		      80 by 24.	 See the Emacs manual,	section	 "Options  for
		      Window Size and Position", for information on how	window
		      sizes interact with selecting or	deselecting  the  tool
		      bar and menu bar.

	      -lsp pixels, --line-spacing pixels
		      Additional space to put between lines.

	      -vb, --vertical-scroll-bars
		      Enable vertical scrollbars.

	      -fh, --fullheight
		      Make the first frame as high as the screen.

	      -fs, --fullscreen
		      Make the first frame fullscreen.

	      -fw, --fullwidth
		      Make the first frame as wide as the screen.

	      -mm, --maximized
		      Maximize the first frame,	like "-fw -fh".

	      -fg color, --foreground-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the text.

		      Use  the	command	 M-x list-colors-display for a list of
		      valid color names.

	      -bg color, --background-color color
		      On color displays, set the color of the  window's	 back-
		      ground.

	      -bd color, --border-color	color
		      On color displays, set the color of the window's border.

	      -cr color, --cursor-color	color
		      On color displays, set the color of  the	window's  text
		      cursor.

	      -ms color, --mouse-color color
		      On  color	 displays, set the color of the	window's mouse
		      cursor.

	      -d displayname, --display	displayname
		      Create the Emacs window on the display specified by dis-
		      playname.	  Must	be  the	 first option specified	in the
		      command line.

	      -nbi, --no-bitmap-icon
		      Do not use picture of gnu	for Emacs icon.

	      --iconic
		      Start Emacs in iconified state.

	      -nbc, --no-blinking-cursor
		      Disable blinking cursor.

	      --parent-id xid
		      Set parent window.

	      -nw, --no-window-system
		      Tell Emacs not to	create a graphical frame.  If you  use
		      this switch when invoking	Emacs from an xterm(1) window,
		      display is done in that window.

	      -D, --basic-display
		      This option disables many	display	features; use  it  for
		      debugging	Emacs.

       You can set X default values for	your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
       file (see xrdb(1)).  Use	the following format:

	      emacs.keyword:value

       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following	keywords:

	      background (class	Background)
		      For  color displays, sets	the window's background	color.

	      bitmapIcon (class	BitmapIcon)
		      If bitmapIcon's value is set  to	on,  the  window  will
		      iconify into the "kitchen	sink."

	      borderColor (class BorderColor)
		      For  color displays, sets	the color of the window's bor-
		      der.

	      borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
		      Sets the window's	border width in	pixels.

	      cursorColor (class Foreground)
		      For color	displays, sets the color of the	window's  text
		      cursor.

	      cursorBlink (class CursorBlink)
		      Specifies	whether	to make	the cursor blink.  The default
		      is on.  Use off or false to turn cursor blinking off.

	      font (class Font)
		      Sets the window's	text font.

	      foreground (class	Foreground)
		      For color	displays, sets the window's text color.

	      fullscreen (class	Fullscreen)
		      The desired fullscreen size.  The	value can  be  one  of
		      fullboth,	 maximized,  fullwidth,	 or  fullheight, which
		      correspond to the	 command-line  options	`-fs',	`-mm',
		      `-fw',  and `-fh', respectively.	Note that this applies
		      to the initial frame only.

	      geometry (class Geometry)
		      Sets the geometry	of  the	 Emacs	window	(as  described
		      above).

	      iconName (class Title)
		      Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

	      internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
		      Sets the window's	internal border	width in pixels.

	      lineSpacing (class LineSpacing)
		      Additional space ("leading") between lines, in pixels.

	      menuBar (class MenuBar)
		      Gives  frames  menu  bars	if on; don't have menu bars if
		      off.  See	the Emacs manual, sections  "Lucid  Resources"
		      and "Motif Resources", for how to	control	the appearance
		      of the menu bar if you have one.

	      minibuffer (class	Minibuffer)
		      If none, don't make a minibuffer in this frame.  It will
		      use a separate minibuffer	frame instead.

	      paneFont (class Font)
		      Font  name for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit versions
		      of Emacs.

	      pointerColor (class Foreground)
		      For color	displays, sets the color of the	window's mouse
		      cursor.

	      privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
		      If  on,  use  a private color map, in the	case where the
		      "default visual" of class	PseudoColor and	Emacs is using
		      it.

	      reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
		      If reverseVideo's	value is set to	on, the	window will be
		      displayed	in reverse video.

	      screenGamma (class ScreenGamma)
		      Gamma correction for colors,  equivalent	to  the	 frame
		      parameter	`screen-gamma'.

	      scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
		      The  scroll bar width in pixels, equivalent to the frame
		      parameter	`scroll-bar-width'.

	      selectionFont (class SelectionFont)
		      Font name	for pop-up menu	items, in non-toolkit versions
		      of  Emacs.  (For toolkit versions, see the Emacs manual,
		      sections "Lucid Resources" and "Motif Resources".)

	      selectionTimeout (class SelectionTimeout)
		      Number of	milliseconds to	wait for a selection reply.  A
		      value of 0 means wait as long as necessary.

	      synchronous (class Synchronous)
		      Run  Emacs  in synchronous mode if on.  Synchronous mode
		      is useful	for debugging X	problems.

	      title (class Title)
		      Sets the title of	the Emacs window.

	      toolBar (class ToolBar)
		      Number of	lines to reserve for the tool bar.

	      useXIM (class UseXIM)
		      Turns off	use of X input methods (XIM) if	false or  off.

	      verticalScrollBars (class	ScrollBars)
		      Gives  frames  scroll bars if on;	suppresses scroll bars
		      if off.

	      visualClass (class VisualClass)
		      Specify the "visual" that	X should use.	This  tells  X
		      how  to  handle colors.  The value should	start with one
		      of  TrueColor,  PseudoColor,  DirectColor,  StaticColor,
		      GrayScale,  and  StaticGray,  followed  by -depth, where
		      depth is the number of color planes.

MANUALS
       You can order printed copies of the GNU	Emacs  Manual  from  the  Free
       Software	Foundation, which develops GNU software.  See the online store
       at <http://shop.fsf.org/>.
       Your local administrator	might also have	copies available.  As with all
       software	 and  publications from	FSF, everyone is permitted to make and
       distribute copies of the	Emacs manual.  The Texinfo source to the  man-
       ual is also included in the Emacs source	distribution.

FILES
       /usr/local/share/info --	files for the Info documentation browser.  The
       complete	text of	the Emacs reference manual is included in a convenient
       tree  structured	 form.	Also includes the Emacs	Lisp Reference Manual,
       useful to anyone	wishing	to write programs in the Emacs Lisp  extension
       language, and the Introduction to Programming in	Emacs Lisp.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp  --	Lisp source files and compiled
       files that define most editing commands.	 Some  are  preloaded;	others
       are autoloaded from this	directory when used.

       /usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH	--  various  programs that are
       used with GNU Emacs.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc -- various files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* -- contains the documentation
       strings	for  the  Lisp	primitives and preloaded Lisp functions	of GNU
       Emacs.  They are	stored here to reduce the size of Emacs	proper.

BUGS
       There is	a mailing list,	 bug-gnu-emacs@gnu.org,	 for  reporting	 Emacs
       bugs and	fixes.	But before reporting something as a bug, please	try to
       be sure that it really is a bug,	not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.	  We  ask  you	to  read the section ``Reporting Bugs''	in the
       Emacs manual for	hints on how and when to report	bugs.	Also,  include
       the  version  number  of	 the Emacs you are running in every bug	report
       that you	send in.  Bugs tend actually to	be fixed if they can  be  iso-
       lated, so it is in your interest	to report them in such a way that they
       can be easily reproduced.

       Do not expect a personal	answer	to  a  bug  report.   The  purpose  of
       reporting  bugs	is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release,
       if possible.  For personal assistance, consult the service directory at
       <http://www.fsf.org/resources/service/>	for a list of people who offer
       it.

       Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.   For
       other Emacs lists, see <http://savannah.gnu.org/mail/?group=emacs>.

UNRESTRICTIONS
       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under
       the terms stated	in the GNU General Public License,  a  copy  of	 which
       accompanies  each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference
       manual.

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be	received packaged  with	 distributions
       of  Unix	 systems, but it is never included in the scope	of any license
       covering	those systems.	Such inclusion violates	 the  terms  on	 which
       distribution  is	 permitted.   In  fact,	the primary purpose of the GNU
       General Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching  any	 other
       restrictions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard	Stallman encourages you	to improve and extend Emacs, and urges
       that you	contribute your	extensions to the GNU library.	Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's  Not  Unix)  will	 be a complete replacement for Unix.  Everyone
       will be free to use, copy, study	and change the GNU system.

SEE ALSO
       emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(7), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

AUTHORS
       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       For detailed credits and	acknowledgments, see the GNU Emacs manual.

COPYING
       Copyright (C) 1995, 1999-2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted	to make	and distribute verbatim	copies of this
       document	provided the copyright notice and this permission  notice  are
       preserved on all	copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
       document	under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided  that  the
       entire  resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of	a per-
       mission notice identical	to this	one.

       Permission is granted to	copy and distribute translations of this docu-
       ment  into  another  language,  under the above conditions for modified
       versions, except	that this permission notice may	be stated in a	trans-
       lation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Emacs 24.5			 2007 April 13			      EMACS(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | MANUALS | FILES | BUGS | UNRESTRICTIONS | SEE ALSO | AUTHORS | COPYING

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