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DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)		     BIND9		    DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)

NAME
       dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC	zone signing tool

SYNOPSIS
       dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c	class] [-d directory] [-D] [-E engine]
		       [-e end-time] [-f output-file] [-g] [-h]	[-K directory]
		       [-k key]	[-L serial] [-l	domain]	[-i interval]
		       [-I input-format] [-j jitter] [-N soa-serial-format]
		       [-o origin] [-O output-format] [-P] [-p]	[-R]
		       [-r randomdev] [-S] [-s start-time] [-T ttl] [-t] [-u]
		       [-v level] [-X extended end-time] [-x] [-z] [-3 salt]
		       [-H iterations] [-A] {zonefile} [key...]

DESCRIPTION
       dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It	generates NSEC and RRSIG records and
       produces	a signed version of the	zone. The security status of
       delegations from	the signed zone	(that is, whether the child zones are
       secure or not) is determined by the presence or absence of a keyset
       file for	each child zone.

OPTIONS
       -a
	   Verify all generated	signatures.

       -c class
	   Specifies the DNS class of the zone.

       -C
	   Compatibility mode: Generate	a keyset-zonename file in addition to
	   dsset-zonename when signing a zone, for use by older	versions of
	   dnssec-signzone.

       -d directory
	   Look	for dsset- or keyset- files in directory.

       -D
	   Output only those record types automatically	managed	by
	   dnssec-signzone, i.e. RRSIG,	NSEC, NSEC3 and	NSEC3PARAM records. If
	   smart signing (-S) is used, DNSKEY records are also included. The
	   resulting file can be included in the original zone file with
	   $INCLUDE. This option cannot	be combined with -O raw	or serial
	   number updating.

       -E engine
	   Uses	a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for the crypto operations
	   it supports,	for instance signing with private keys from a secure
	   key store. When compiled with PKCS#11 support it defaults to
	   pkcs11; the empty name resets it to no engine.

       -g
	   Generate DS records for child zones from dsset- or keyset- file.
	   Existing DS records will be removed.

       -K directory
	   Key repository: Specify a directory to search for DNSSEC keys. If
	   not specified, defaults to the current directory.

       -k key
	   Treat specified key as a key	signing	key ignoring any key flags.
	   This	option may be specified	multiple times.

       -l domain
	   Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets. The
	   domain is appended to the name of the records.

       -s start-time
	   Specify the date and	time when the generated	RRSIG records become
	   valid. This can be either an	absolute or relative time. An absolute
	   start time is indicated by a	number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation;
	   20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A relative
	   start time is indicated by +N, which	is N seconds from the current
	   time. If no start-time is specified,	the current time minus 1 hour
	   (to allow for clock skew) is	used.

       -e end-time
	   Specify the date and	time when the generated	RRSIG records expire.
	   As with start-time, an absolute time	is indicated in	YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
	   notation. A time relative to	the start time is indicated with +N,
	   which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to the
	   current time	is indicated with now+N. If no end-time	is specified,
	   30 days from	the start time is used as a default.  end-time must be
	   later than start-time.

       -X extended end-time
	   Specify the date and	time when the generated	RRSIG records for the
	   DNSKEY RRset	will expire. This is to	be used	in cases when the
	   DNSKEY signatures need to persist longer than signatures on other
	   records; e.g., when the private component of	the KSK	is kept
	   offline and the KSK signature is to be refreshed manually.

	   As with start-time, an absolute time	is indicated in	YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
	   notation. A time relative to	the start time is indicated with +N,
	   which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to the
	   current time	is indicated with now+N. If no extended	end-time is
	   specified, the value	of end-time is used as the default. (end-time,
	   in turn, defaults to	30 days	from the start time.)  extended
	   end-time must be later than start-time.

       -f output-file
	   The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The default
	   is to append	.signed	to the input filename. If output-file is set
	   to "-", then	the signed zone	is written to the standard output,
	   with	a default output format	of "full".

       -h
	   Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
	   dnssec-signzone.

       -i interval
	   When	a previously-signed zone is passed as input, records may be
	   resigned. The interval option specifies the cycle interval as an
	   offset from the current time	(in seconds). If a RRSIG record
	   expires after the cycle interval, it	is retained. Otherwise,	it is
	   considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.

	   The default cycle interval is one quarter of	the difference between
	   the signature end and start times. So if neither end-time or
	   start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone generates signatures that
	   are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval	of 7.5 days.
	   Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are	due to expire in less
	   than	7.5 days, they would be	replaced.

       -I input-format
	   The format of the input zone	file. Possible formats are "text"
	   (default) and "raw".	This option is primarily intended to be	used
	   for dynamic signed zones so that the	dumped zone file in a non-text
	   format containing updates can be signed directly. The use of	this
	   option does not make	much sense for non-dynamic zones.

       -j jitter
	   When	signing	a zone with a fixed signature lifetime,	all RRSIG
	   records issued at the time of signing expires simultaneously. If
	   the zone is incrementally signed, i.e. a previously-signed zone is
	   passed as input to the signer, all expired signatures have to be
	   regenerated at about	the same time. The jitter option specifies a
	   jitter window that will be used to randomize	the signature expire
	   time, thus spreading	incremental signature regeneration over	time.

	   Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits validators
	   and servers by spreading out	cache expiration, i.e. if large
	   numbers of RRSIGs don't expire at the same time from	all caches
	   there will be less congestion than if all validators	need to
	   refetch at mostly the same time.

       -L serial
	   When	writing	a signed zone to 'raw' format, set the "source serial"
	   value in the	header to the specified	serial number. (This is
	   expected to be used primarily for testing purposes.)

       -n ncpus
	   Specifies the number	of threads to use. By default, one thread is
	   started for each detected CPU.

       -N soa-serial-format
	   The SOA serial number format	of the signed zone. Possible formats
	   are "keep" (default), "increment" and "unixtime".

	       "keep"
		   Do not modify the SOA serial	number.

	       "increment"
		   Increment the SOA serial number using RFC 1982 arithmetics.

	       "unixtime"
		   Set the SOA serial number to	the number of seconds since
		   epoch.

       -o origin
	   The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file	is
	   assumed to be the origin.

       -O output-format
	   The format of the output file containing the	signed zone. Possible
	   formats are "text" (default)	"full",	which is text output in	a
	   format suitable for processing by external scripts, and "raw" or
	   "raw=N", which store	the zone in a binary format for	rapid loading
	   by named.  "raw=N" specifies	the format version of the raw zone
	   file: if N is 0, the	raw file can be	read by	any version of named;
	   if N	is 1, the file can be read by release 9.9.0 or higher. The
	   default is 1.

       -p
	   Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster, but
	   less	secure,	than using real	random data. This option may be	useful
	   when	signing	large zones or when the	entropy	source is limited.

       -P
	   Disable post	sign verification tests.

	   The post sign verification test ensures that	for each algorithm in
	   use there is	at least one non revoked self signed KSK key, that all
	   revoked KSK keys are	self signed, and that all records in the zone
	   are signed by the algorithm.	This option skips these	tests.

       -Q
	   Remove signatures from keys that are	no longer active.

	   Normally, when a previously-signed zone is passed as	input to the
	   signer, and a DNSKEY	record has been	removed	and replaced with a
	   new one, signatures from the	old key	that are still within their
	   validity period are retained. This allows the zone to continue to
	   validate with cached	copies of the old DNSKEY RRset.	The -Q forces
	   dnssec-signzone to remove signatures	from keys that are no longer
	   active. This	enables	ZSK rollover using the procedure described in
	   RFC 4641, section 4.2.1.1 ("Pre-Publish Key Rollover").

       -R
	   Remove signatures from keys that are	no longer published.

	   This	option is similar to -Q, except	it forces dnssec-signzone to
	   signatures from keys	that are no longer published. This enables ZSK
	   rollover using the procedure	described in RFC 4641, section 4.2.1.2
	   ("Double Signature Zone Signing Key Rollover").

       -r randomdev
	   Specifies the source	of randomness. If the operating	system does
	   not provide a /dev/random or	equivalent device, the default source
	   of randomness is keyboard input.  randomdev specifies the name of a
	   character device or file containing random data to be used instead
	   of the default. The special value keyboard indicates	that keyboard
	   input should	be used.

       -S
	   Smart signing: Instructs dnssec-signzone to search the key
	   repository for keys that match the zone being signed, and to
	   include them	in the zone if appropriate.

	   When	a key is found,	its timing metadata is examined	to determine
	   how it should be used, according to the following rules. Each
	   successive rule takes priority over the prior ones:

		   If no timing	metadata has been set for the key, the key is
		   published in	the zone and used to sign the zone.

		   If the key's	publication date is set	and is in the past,
		   the key is published	in the zone.

		   If the key's	activation date	is set and in the past,	the
		   key is published (regardless	of publication date) and used
		   to sign the zone.

		   If the key's	revocation date	is set and in the past,	and
		   the key is published, then the key is revoked, and the
		   revoked key is used to sign the zone.

		   If either of	the key's unpublication	or deletion dates are
		   set and in the past,	the key	is NOT published or used to
		   sign	the zone, regardless of	any other metadata.

       -T ttl
	   Specifies a TTL to be used for new DNSKEY records imported into the
	   zone	from the key repository. If not	specified, the default is the
	   TTL value from the zone's SOA record. This option is	ignored	when
	   signing without -S, since DNSKEY records are	not imported from the
	   key repository in that case.	It is also ignored if there are	any
	   pre-existing	DNSKEY records at the zone apex, in which case new
	   records' TTL	values will be set to match them, or if	any of the
	   imported DNSKEY records had a default TTL value. In the event of a
	   a conflict between TTL values in imported keys, the shortest	one is
	   used.

       -t
	   Print statistics at completion.

       -u
	   Update NSEC/NSEC3 chain when	re-signing a previously	signed zone.
	   With	this option, a zone signed with	NSEC can be switched to	NSEC3,
	   or a	zone signed with NSEC3 can be switch to	NSEC or	to NSEC3 with
	   different parameters. Without this option, dnssec-signzone will
	   retain the existing chain when re-signing.

       -v level
	   Sets	the debugging level.

       -x
	   Only	sign the DNSKEY	RRset with key-signing keys, and omit
	   signatures from zone-signing	keys. (This is similar to the
	   dnssec-dnskey-kskonly yes; zone option in named.)

       -z
	   Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what	to sign. This causes
	   KSK-flagged keys to sign all	records, not just the DNSKEY RRset.
	   (This is similar to the update-check-ksk no;	zone option in named.)

       -3 salt
	   Generate an NSEC3 chain with	the given hex encoded salt. A dash
	   (salt) can be used to indicate that no salt is to be	used when
	   generating the NSEC3	chain.

       -H iterations
	   When	generating an NSEC3 chain, use this many iterations. The
	   default is 10.

       -A
	   When	generating an NSEC3 chain set the OPTOUT flag on all NSEC3
	   records and do not generate NSEC3 records for insecure delegations.

	   Using this option twice (i.e., -AA) turns the OPTOUT	flag off for
	   all records.	This is	useful when using the -u option	to modify an
	   NSEC3 chain which previously	had OPTOUT set.

       zonefile
	   The file containing the zone	to be signed.

       key
	   Specify which keys should be	used to	sign the zone. If no keys are
	   specified, then the zone will be examined for DNSKEY	records	at the
	   zone	apex. If these are found and there are matching	private	keys,
	   in the current directory, then these	will be	used for signing.

EXAMPLE
       The following command signs the example.com zone	with the DSA key
       generated by dnssec-keygen (Kexample.com.+003+17247). Because the -S
       option is not being used, the zone's keys must be in the	master file
       (db.example.com). This invocation looks for dsset files,	in the current
       directory, so that DS records can be imported from them (-g).

	   % dnssec-signzone -g	-o example.com db.example.com \
	   Kexample.com.+003+17247
	   db.example.com.signed
	   %

       In the above example, dnssec-signzone creates the file
       db.example.com.signed. This file	should be referenced in	a zone
       statement in a named.conf file.

       This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters.
       The private keys	are assumed to be in the current directory.

	   % cp	db.example.com.signed db.example.com
	   % dnssec-signzone -o	example.com db.example.com
	   db.example.com.signed
	   %

SEE ALSO
       dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9	Administrator Reference	Manual,	RFC 4033, RFC
       4641.

AUTHOR
       Internet	Systems	Consortium

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2004-2009,	2011, 2013 Internet Systems Consortium,	Inc.
       ("ISC")
       Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Internet	Software Consortium.

BIND9				 June 05, 2009		    DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | OPTIONS | EXAMPLE | SEE ALSO | AUTHOR | COPYRIGHT

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