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DEVSTAT(3)             FreeBSD Library Functions Manual             DEVSTAT(3)

NAME
     devstat, devstat_getnumdevs, devstat_getgeneration, devstat_getversion,
     devstat_checkversion, devstat_getdevs, devstat_selectdevs,
     devstat_buildmatch, devstat_compute_statistics, devstat_compute_etime --
     device statistics utility library

LIBRARY
     Device Statistics Library (libdevstat, -ldevstat)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <devstat.h>

     int
     devstat_getnumdevs(kvm_t *kd);

     long
     devstat_getgeneration(kvm_t *kd);

     int
     devstat_getversion(kvm_t *kd);

     int
     devstat_checkversion(kvm_t *kd);

     int
     devstat_getdevs(kvm_t *kd, struct statinfo *stats);

     int
     devstat_selectdevs(struct device_selection **dev_select,
         int *num_selected, int *num_selections, long *select_generation,
         long current_generation, struct devstat *devices, int numdevs,
         struct devstat_match *matches, int num_matches,
         char **dev_selections, int num_dev_selections,
         devstat_select_mode select_mode, int maxshowdevs, int perf_select);

     int
     devstat_buildmatch(char *match_str, struct devstat_match **matches,
         int *num_matches);

     int
     devstat_compute_statistics(struct devstat *current,
         struct devstat *previous, long double etime, ...);

     long double
     devstat_compute_etime(struct bintime *cur_time,
         struct bintime *prev_time);

DESCRIPTION
     The devstat library is a library of helper functions for dealing with the
     kernel devstat(9) interface, which is accessible to users via sysctl(3)
     and kvm(3).  All functions that take a kvm_t * as first argument can be
     passed NULL instead of a kvm handle as this argument, which causes the
     data to be read via sysctl(3).  Otherwise, it is read via kvm(3) using
     the supplied handle.  The devstat_checkversion() function should be
     called with each kvm handle that is going to be used (or with NULL if
     sysctl(3) is going to be used).

     The devstat_getnumdevs() function returns the number of devices regis-
     tered with the devstat subsystem in the kernel.

     The devstat_getgeneration() function returns the current generation of
     the devstat list of devices in the kernel.

     The devstat_getversion() function returns the current kernel devstat ver-
     sion.

     The devstat_checkversion() function checks the userland devstat version
     against the kernel devstat version.  If the two are identical, it returns
     zero.  Otherwise, it prints an appropriate error in devstat_errbuf and
     returns -1.

     The devstat_getdevs() function fetches the current list of devices and
     statistics into the supplied statinfo structure.  The statinfo structure
     can be found in <devstat.h>:

           struct statinfo {
                   long            cp_time[CPUSTATES];
                   long            tk_nin;
                   long            tk_nout;
                   struct devinfo  *dinfo;
                   long double     snap_time;
           };

     The devstat_getdevs() function expects the statinfo structure to be allo-
     cated, and it also expects the dinfo subelement to be allocated and
     zeroed prior to the first invocation of devstat_getdevs().  The dinfo
     subelement is used to store state between calls, and should not be modi-
     fied after the first call to devstat_getdevs().  The dinfo subelement
     contains the following elements:

           struct devinfo {
                   struct devstat  *devices;
                   u_int8_t        *mem_ptr;
                   long            generation;
                   int             numdevs;
           };

     The kern.devstat.all sysctl(8) variable contains an array of devstat
     structures, but at the head of the array is the current devstat genera-
     tion.  The reason the generation is at the head of the buffer is so that
     userland software accessing the devstat statistics information can atomi-
     cally get both the statistics information and the corresponding genera-
     tion number.  If client software were forced to get the generation number
     via a separate sysctl(8) variable (which is available for convenience),
     the list of devices could change between the time the client gets the
     generation and the time the client gets the device list.

     The mem_ptr subelement of the devinfo structure is a pointer to memory
     that is allocated, and resized if necessary, by devstat_getdevs().  The
     devices subelement of the devinfo structure is basically a pointer to the
     beginning of the array of devstat structures from the kern.devstat.all
     sysctl(8) variable (or the corresponding values read via kvm(3)).  The
     generation subelement of the devinfo structure contains the corresponding
     generation number.  The numdevs subelement of the devinfo structure con-
     tains the current number of devices registered with the kernel devstat
     subsystem.

     The devstat_selectdevs() function selects devices to display based upon a
     number of criteria:

     specified devices
             Specified devices are the first selection priority.  These are
             generally devices specified by name by the user e.g. da0, da1,
             cd0.

     match patterns
             These are pattern matching expressions generated by
             devstat_buildmatch() from user input.

     performance
             If performance mode is enabled, devices will be sorted based on
             the bytes field in the device_selection structure passed in to
             devstat_selectdevs().  The bytes value currently must be main-
             tained by the user.  In the future, this may be done for him in a
             devstat library routine.  If no devices have been selected by
             name or by pattern, the performance tracking code will select
             every device in the system, and sort them by performance.  If
             devices have been selected by name or pattern, the performance
             tracking code will honor those selections and will only sort
             among the selected devices.

     order in the devstat list
             If the selection mode is set to DS_SELECT_ADD, and if there are
             still less than maxshowdevs devices selected,
             devstat_selectdevs() will automatically select up to maxshowdevs
             devices.

     The devstat_selectdevs() function performs selections in four different
     modes:

     DS_SELECT_ADD      In ``add'' mode, devstat_selectdevs() will select any
                        unselected devices specified by name or matching pat-
                        tern.  It will also select more devices, in devstat
                        list order, until the number of selected devices is
                        equal to maxshowdevs or until all devices are
                        selected.

     DS_SELECT_ONLY     In ``only'' mode, devstat_selectdevs() will clear all
                        current selections, and will only select devices spec-
                        ified by name or by matching pattern.

     DS_SELECT_REMOVE   In ``remove'' mode, devstat_selectdevs() will remove
                        devices specified by name or by matching pattern.  It
                        will not select any additional devices.

     DS_SELECT_ADDONLY  In ``add only'' mode, devstat_selectdevs() will select
                        any unselected devices specified by name or matching
                        pattern.  In this respect it is identical to ``add''
                        mode.  It will not, however, select any devices other
                        than those specified.

     In all selection modes, devstat_selectdevs() will not select any more
     than maxshowdevs devices.  One exception to this is when you are in
     ``top'' mode and no devices have been selected.  In this case,
     devstat_selectdevs() will select every device in the system.  Client pro-
     grams must pay attention to selection order when deciding whether to pay
     attention to a particular device.  This may be the wrong behavior, and
     probably requires additional thought.

     The devstat_selectdevs() function handles allocation and resizing of the
     dev_select structure passed in by the client.  The devstat_selectdevs()
     function uses the numdevs and current_generation fields to track the cur-
     rent devstat generation and number of devices.  If num_selections is not
     the same as numdevs or if select_generation is not the same as
     current_generation, devstat_selectdevs() will resize the selection list
     as necessary, and re-initialize the selection array.

     The devstat_buildmatch() function takes a comma separated match string
     and compiles it into a devstat_match structure that is understood by
     devstat_selectdevs().  Match strings have the following format:

           device,type,if

     The devstat_buildmatch() function takes care of allocating and reallocat-
     ing the match list as necessary.  Currently known match types include:

     device type:
             da         Direct Access devices
             sa         Sequential Access devices
             printer    Printers
             proc       Processor devices
             worm       Write Once Read Multiple devices
             cd         CD devices
             scanner    Scanner devices
             optical    Optical Memory devices
             changer    Medium Changer devices
             comm       Communication devices
             array      Storage Array devices
             enclosure  Enclosure Services devices
             floppy     Floppy devices

     interface:
             IDE        Integrated Drive Electronics devices
             SCSI       Small Computer System Interface devices
             other      Any other device interface

     passthrough:
             pass       Passthrough devices

     The devstat_compute_statistics() function provides complete statistics
     calculation.  There are four arguments for which values must be supplied:
     current, previous, etime, and the terminating argument for the varargs
     list, DSM_NONE.  For most applications, the user will want to supply
     valid devstat structures for both current and previous.  In some
     instances, for instance when calculating statistics since system boot,
     the user may pass in a NULL pointer for the previous argument.  In that
     case, devstat_compute_statistics() will use the total stats in the
     current structure to calculate statistics over etime.  For each statis-
     tics to be calculated, the user should supply the proper enumerated type
     (listed below), and a variable of the indicated type.  All statistics are
     either integer values, for which a u_int64_t is used, or floating point,
     for which a long double is used.  The statistics that may be calculated
     are:

     DSM_NONE                        type: N/A

                                     This must be the last argument passed to
                                     devstat_compute_statistics().  It is an
                                     argument list terminator.

     DSM_TOTAL_BYTES                 type: u_int64_t *

                                     The total number of bytes transferred
                                     between the acquisition of previous and
                                     current.

     DSM_TOTAL_BYTES_READ

     DSM_TOTAL_BYTES_WRITE

     DSM_TOTAL_BYTES_FREE            type: u_int64_t *

                                     The total number of bytes in transactions
                                     of the specified type between the acqui-
                                     sition of previous and current.

     DSM_TOTAL_TRANSFERS             type: u_int64_t *

                                     The total number of transfers between the
                                     acquisition of previous and current.

     DSM_TOTAL_TRANSFERS_OTHER

     DSM_TOTAL_TRANSFERS_READ

     DSM_TOTAL_TRANSFERS_WRITE

     DSM_TOTAL_TRANSFERS_FREE        type: u_int64_t *

                                     The total number of transactions of the
                                     specified type between the acquisition of
                                     previous and current.

     DSM_TOTAL_BLOCKS                type: u_int64_t *

                                     The total number of blocks transferred
                                     between the acquisition of previous and
                                     current.  This number is in terms of the
                                     blocksize reported by the device.  If no
                                     blocksize has been reported (i.e., the
                                     block size is 0), a default blocksize of
                                     512 bytes will be used in the calcula-
                                     tion.

     DSM_TOTAL_BLOCKS_READ

     DSM_TOTAL_BLOCKS_WRITE

     DSM_TOTAL_BLOCKS_FREE           type: u_int64_t *

                                     The total number of blocks of the speci-
                                     fied type between the acquisition of
                                     previous and current.  This number is in
                                     terms of the blocksize reported by the
                                     device.  If no blocksize has been
                                     reported (i.e., the block size is 0), a
                                     default blocksize of 512 bytes will be
                                     used in the calculation.

     DSM_KB_PER_TRANSFER             type: long double *

                                     The average number of kilobytes per
                                     transfer between the acquisition of
                                     previous and current.

     DSM_KB_PER_TRANSFER_READ

     DSM_KB_PER_TRANSFER_WRITE

     DSM_KB_PER_TRANSFER_FREE        type: long double *

                                     The average number of kilobytes in the
                                     specified type transaction between the
                                     acquisition of previous and current.

     DSM_TRANSFERS_PER_SECOND        type: long double *

                                     The average number of transfers per sec-
                                     ond between the acquisition of previous
                                     and current.

     DSM_TRANSFERS_PER_SECOND_OTHER

     DSM_TRANSFERS_PER_SECOND_READ

     DSM_TRANSFERS_PER_SECOND_WRITE

     DSM_TRANSFERS_PER_SECOND_FREE   type: long double *

                                     The average number of transactions of the
                                     specified type per second between the
                                     acquisition of previous and current.

     DSM_MB_PER_SECOND               type: long double *

                                     The average number of megabytes trans-
                                     ferred per second between the acquisition
                                     of previous and current.

     DSM_MB_PER_SECOND_READ

     DSM_MB_PER_SECOND_WRITE

     DSM_MB_PER_SECOND_FREE          type: long double *

                                     The average number of megabytes per sec-
                                     ond in the specified type of transaction
                                     between the acquisition of previous and
                                     current.

     DSM_BLOCKS_PER_SECOND           type: long double *

                                     The average number of blocks transferred
                                     per second between the acquisition of
                                     previous and current.  This number is in
                                     terms of the blocksize reported by the
                                     device.  If no blocksize has been
                                     reported (i.e., the block size is 0), a
                                     default blocksize of 512 bytes will be
                                     used in the calculation.

     DSM_BLOCKS_PER_SECOND_READ

     DSM_BLOCKS_PER_SECOND_WRITE

     DSM_BLOCKS_PER_SECOND_FREE      type: long double *

                                     The average number of blocks per second
                                     in the specificed type of transaction
                                     between the acquisition of previous and
                                     current.  This number is in terms of the
                                     blocksize reported by the device.  If no
                                     blocksize has been reported (i.e., the
                                     block size is 0), a default blocksize of
                                     512 bytes will be used in the calcula-
                                     tion.

     DSM_MS_PER_TRANSACTION          type: long double *

                                     The average duration of transactions
                                     between the acquisition of previous and
                                     current.

     DSM_MS_PER_TRANSACTION_OTHER

     DSM_MS_PER_TRANSACTION_READ

     DSM_MS_PER_TRANSACTION_WRITE

     DSM_MS_PER_TRANSACTION_FREE     type: long double *

                                     The average duration of transactions of
                                     the specified type between the acquisi-
                                     tion of previous and current.

     DSM_BUSY_PCT                    type: long double *

                                     The percentage of time the device had one
                                     or more transactions outstanding between
                                     the acquisition of previous and current.

     DSM_QUEUE_LENGTH                type: u_int64_t *

                                     The number of not yet completed transac-
                                     tions at the time when current was
                                     acquired.

     DSM_SKIP                        type: N/A

                                     If you do not need a result from
                                     devstat_compute_statistics(), just put
                                     DSM_SKIP as first (type) parameter and
                                     NULL as second parameter.  This can be
                                     useful in scenarios where the statistics
                                     to be calculated are determined at run
                                     time.

     The devstat_compute_etime() function provides an easy way to find the
     difference in seconds between two bintime structures.  This is most com-
     monly used in conjunction with the time recorded by the devstat_getdevs()
     function (in struct statinfo) each time it fetches the current devstat
     list.

RETURN VALUES
     The devstat_getnumdevs(), devstat_getgeneration(), and
     devstat_getversion() function return the indicated sysctl variable, or -1
     if there is an error fetching the variable.

     The devstat_checkversion() function returns 0 if the kernel and userland
     devstat versions match.  If they do not match, it returns -1.

     The devstat_getdevs() and devstat_selectdevs() functions return -1 in
     case of an error, 0 if there is no error, and 1 if the device list or
     selected devices have changed.  A return value of 1 from
     devstat_getdevs() is usually a hint to re-run devstat_selectdevs()
     because the device list has changed.

     The devstat_buildmatch() function returns -1 for error, and 0 if there is
     no error.

     The devstat_compute_etime() function returns the computed elapsed time.

     The devstat_compute_statistics() function returns -1 for error, and 0 for
     success.

     If an error is returned from one of the devstat library functions, the
     reason for the error is generally printed in the global string
     devstat_errbuf which is DEVSTAT_ERRBUF_SIZE characters long.

SEE ALSO
     systat(1), kvm(3), sysctl(3), iostat(8), rpc.rstatd(8), sysctl(8),
     vmstat(8), devstat(9)

HISTORY
     The devstat statistics system first appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.  The new
     interface (the functions prefixed with devstat_) first appeared in
     FreeBSD 5.0.

AUTHORS
     Kenneth Merry <ken@FreeBSD.org>

BUGS
     There should probably be an interface to de-allocate memory allocated by
     devstat_getdevs(), devstat_selectdevs(), and devstat_buildmatch().

     The devstat_selectdevs() function should probably not select more than
     maxshowdevs devices in ``top'' mode when no devices have been selected
     previously.

     There should probably be functions to perform the statistics buffer swap-
     ping that goes on in most of the clients of this library.

     The statinfo and devinfo structures should probably be cleaned up and
     thought out a little more.

FreeBSD 6.2                     March 18, 2003                     FreeBSD 6.2

NAME | LIBRARY | SYNOPSIS | DESCRIPTION | RETURN VALUES | SEE ALSO | HISTORY | AUTHORS | BUGS

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