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CVS(1)									CVS(1)

NAME
       cvs - Concurrent	Versions System

SYNOPSIS
       cvs [ cvs_options ]
	      cvs_command [ command_options ] [	command_args ]

NOTE
       This  manpage is	a summary of some of the features of cvs but it	may no
       longer be kept up-to-date.  For more current  and  in-depth  documenta-
       tion, please consult the	Cederqvist manual (via the info	cvs command or
       otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).

DESCRIPTION
       CVS is a	version	control	system,	which allows you to keep old  versions
       of  files  (usually  source  code),  keep  a  log of who, when, and why
       changes occurred, etc., like RCS	or SCCS.  Unlike the simpler  systems,
       CVS  does  not just operate on one file at a time or one	directory at a
       time, but operates on hierarchical collections of directories  consist-
       ing  of	version	controlled files.  CVS helps to	manage releases	and to
       control the concurrent editing of source	files among multiple  authors.
       CVS  allows triggers to enable/log/control various operations and works
       well over a wide	area network.

       cvs keeps a single copy of the master sources.  This copy is called the
       source  ``repository'';	it  contains  all  the	information  to	permit
       extracting previous software releases at	any time  based	 on  either  a
       symbolic	revision tag, or a date	in the past.

ESSENTIAL COMMANDS
       cvs  provides a rich variety of commands	(cvs_command in	the Synopsis),
       each of which often has a wealth	of options, to satisfy the many	 needs
       of  source  management in distributed environments.  However, you don't
       have to master every detail to do useful	work with cvs; in  fact,  five
       commands	 are  sufficient to use	(and contribute	to) the	source reposi-
       tory.

       cvs checkout modules...
	      A	necessary preliminary for most cvs work: creates your  private
	      copy of the source for modules (named collections	of source; you
	      can also use a path relative to  the  source  repository	here).
	      You  can	work  with  this copy without interfering with others'
	      work.  At	least one subdirectory level is	always created.

       cvs update
	      Execute this command from	within your private  source  directory
	      when you wish to update your copies of source files from changes
	      that other developers have made to the source in the repository.

       cvs add file...
	      Use  this	 command  to  enroll  new files	in cvs records of your
	      working directory.  The files will be added  to  the  repository
	      the  next	 time  you run `cvs commit'.  Note: You	should use the
	      `cvs import' command to bootstrap	new sources  into  the	source
	      repository.   `cvs add' is only used for new files to an already
	      checked-out module.

       cvs remove file...
	      Use this command (after erasing any  files  listed)  to  declare
	      that  you	 wish  to  eliminate  files  from the repository.  The
	      removal does not affect others until you run `cvs	commit'.

       cvs commit file...
	      Use this command when you	wish to	``publish''  your  changes  to
	      other  developers,  by  incorporating them in the	source reposi-
	      tory.

OPTIONS
       The cvs command line can	include	cvs_options, which apply to the	 over-
       all  cvs	program; a cvs_command,	which specifies	a particular action on
       the source repository; and  command_options  and	 command_arguments  to
       fully specify what the cvs_command will do.

       Warning:	you must be careful of precisely where you place options rela-
       tive to the cvs_command.	 The same option  can  mean  different	things
       depending  on whether it	is in the cvs_options position (to the left of
       a cvs command) or in the	command_options	position (to the  right	 of  a
       cvs command).

       There  are only two situations where you	may omit cvs_command: `cvs -H'
       or `cvs --help' elicits a list of available commands, and `cvs  -v'  or
       `cvs --version' displays	version	information on cvs itself.

CVS OPTIONS
       As of release 1.6, cvs supports GNU style long options as well as short
       options.	 Only a	few long options are currently	supported,  these  are
       listed  in brackets after the short options whose functions they	dupli-
       cate.

       Use these options to control the	overall	cvs program:

       -H [ --help ]
	      Display usage information	about the specified  cvs_command  (but
	      do  not  actually	 execute the command).	If you don't specify a
	      command name, `cvs -H' displays a	summary	of  all	 the  commands
	      available.

       -Q     Causes the command to be really quiet; the command will generate
	      output only for serious problems.

       -q     Causes the command to be somewhat	quiet; informational messages,
	      such  as	reports	 of recursion through subdirectories, are sup-
	      pressed.

       -b bindir
	      Use bindir as the	directory where	RCS programs are located  (CVS
	      1.9 and older).  Overrides the setting of	the RCSBIN environment
	      variable.	 This value should be specified	as an  absolute	 path-
	      name.

       -d CVS_root_directory
	      Use  CVS_root_directory  as  the	root directory pathname	of the
	      master source repository.	 Overrides the setting of the  CVSROOT
	      environment  variable.   This  value  should  be specified as an
	      absolute pathname.

       -e editor
	      Use editor to enter revision  log	 information.	Overrides  the
	      setting  of  the CVSEDITOR, VISUAL, and EDITOR environment vari-
	      ables.

       -f     Do not read the cvs startup file (~/.cvsrc).

       -n     Do not change any	files.	Attempt	to  execute  the  cvs_command,
	      but  only	 to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any
	      existing files, or create	any new	files.

       -t     Trace program execution; display messages	showing	the  steps  of
	      cvs activity.  Particularly useful with -n to explore the	poten-
	      tial impact of an	unfamiliar command.

       -r     Makes new	working	files read-only.  Same effect as if  the  CVS-
	      READ environment variable	is set.

       -R     Turns  on	 read-only  repository mode.  This allows one to check
	      out from a read-only  repository,	 such  as  within  an  anoncvs
	      server,  or from a CDROM repository.  Same effect	as if the CVS-
	      READONLYFS environment variable is set.  Using -R	can also  con-
	      siderably	speed up checkout's over NFS.

       -v [ --version ]
	      Displays version and copyright information for cvs.

       -w     Makes  new  working  files  read-write (default).	 Overrides the
	      setting of the CVSREAD environment variable.

       -g     Forces group-write perms on working files.  This option is typi-
	      cally used when you have multiple	users sharing a	single checked
	      out source tree, allowing	them to	operate	their  shells  with  a
	      less  dangerous  umask.  To use this feature, create a directory
	      to hold the checked-out source tree, set it to a private	group,
	      and  set	up  the	 directory  such  that	files created under it
	      inherit the group	id of the directory.   This  occurs  automati-
	      cally  with  FreeBSD.  With SysV you must	typically set the SGID
	      bit on the directory.  The users who are to  share  the  checked
	      out tree must be placed in that group.  Note that	the sharing of
	      a	single checked-out source tree is very different  from	giving
	      several  users  access  to a common CVS repository.  Access to a
	      common CVS repository already maintains shared group-write perms
	      and does not require this	option.

	      To  use the option transparently,	simply place the line 'cvs -g'
	      in your ~/.cvsrc file.  Doing this is not	recommended unless you
	      firewall	all  your  source  checkouts within a private group or
	      within a private mode 0700 directory.

       -x     Encrypt all communication	between	the client and the server.  As
	      of  this writing,	this is	only implemented when using a Kerberos
	      connection.

       -z compression-level
	      When transferring	files across the network use  gzip  with  com-
	      pression	level  compression-level  to  compress and de-compress
	      data as it is transferred.  Requires the	presence  of  the  GNU
	      gzip  program  in	 the  current  search path at both ends	of the
	      link.

USAGE
       Except when requesting general help with	`cvs -H', you must  specify  a
       cvs_command  to	cvs  to	 select	a specific release control function to
       perform.	 Each cvs command accepts its own collection  of  options  and
       arguments.   However,  many  options  are available across several com-
       mands.  You can display a usage summary for each	command	by  specifying
       the -H option with the command.

CVS STARTUP FILE
       Normally,  when	CVS  starts up,	it reads the .cvsrc file from the home
       directory of the	user reading it.  This startup procedure can be	turned
       off with	the -f flag.

       The  .cvsrc  file lists CVS commands with a list	of arguments, one com-
       mand per	line.  For example, the	following line in .cvsrc:

       diff -c

       will mean that the `cvs diff' command will  always  be  passed  the  -c
       option  in addition to any other	options	that are specified in the com-
       mand line (in this case it will have the	effect	of  producing  context
       sensitive diffs for all executions of `cvs diff'	).

       Global  options	are specified using the	cvs keyword.  For example, the
       following:

       cvs -q

       will mean that all `cvs'	commands will behave as	thought	he  -q	global
       option had been supplied.

CVS COMMAND SUMMARY
       Here are	brief descriptions of all the cvs commands:

       add    Add  a  new  file	or directory to	the repository,	pending	a `cvs
	      commit' on the same file.	 Can only be done from within  sources
	      created  by  a  previous	`cvs  checkout'	 invocation.  Use `cvs
	      import' to place whole new hierarchies of	sources	under cvs con-
	      trol.   (Does  not  directly  affect repository; changes working
	      directory.)

       admin  Execute control functions	on the	source	repository.   (Changes
	      repository  directly;  uses  working  directory without changing
	      it.)

       checkout
	      Make a working directory of source files for editing.   (Creates
	      or changes working directory.)

       commit Apply to the source repository changes, additions, and deletions
	      from your	working	directory.  (Changes repository.)

       diff   Show differences between files in	working	directory  and	source
	      repository,  or  between	two  revisions	in  source repository.
	      (Does not	change either repository or working directory.)

       export Prepare copies of	a set of source	files for shipment  off	 site.
	      Differs from `cvs	checkout' in that no cvs administrative	direc-
	      tories are created (and therefore	`cvs commit'  cannot  be  exe-
	      cuted  from  a directory prepared	with `cvs export'), and	a sym-
	      bolic tag	must be	specified.  (Does not change repository;  cre-
	      ates directory similar to	working	directories).

       history
	      Show reports on cvs commands that	you or others have executed on
	      a	particular file	or directory in	the source repository.	 (Does
	      not  change  repository or working directory.)  History logs are
	      kept only	if enabled by creation of  the	`$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/his-
	      tory' file; see cvs(5).

       import Incorporate  a  set  of  updates	from  off-site into the	source
	      repository, as a ``vendor	branch''.  (Changes repository.)

       init   Initialize a repository by adding	the CVSROOT  subdirectory  and
	      some  default  control  files. You must use this command or ini-
	      tialize the repository in	some other way before you can use  it.

       log    Display log information.	(Does not change repository or working
	      directory.)

       rdiff  Prepare a	collection of  diffs  as  a  patch  file  between  two
	      releases	in  the	 repository.   (Does  not change repository or
	      working directory.)

       release
	      Cancel a `cvs checkout', abandoning any  changes.	  (Can	delete
	      working directory; no effect on repository.)

       remove Remove  files from the source repository,	pending	a `cvs commit'
	      on the  same  files.   (Does  not	 directly  affect  repository;
	      changes working directory.)

       rtag   Explicitly  specify  a  symbolic tag for particular revisions of
	      files in the source repository.  See also	`cvs  tag'.   (Changes
	      repository  directly;  does not require or affect	working	direc-
	      tory.)

       status Show current status of files: latest version, version in working
	      directory,  whether working version has been edited and, option-
	      ally, symbolic tags in the RCS file.  (Does not  change  reposi-
	      tory or working directory.)

       tag    Specify a	symbolic tag for files in the repository.  By default,
	      tags the revisions that were last	synchronized with your working
	      directory.    (Changes  repository directly; uses	working	direc-
	      tory without changing it.)

       update Bring your working directory up to date with  changes  from  the
	      repository.  Merges are performed	automatically when possible; a
	      warning is issued	if manual resolution is	required for conflict-
	      ing changes.  (Changes working directory;	does not change	repos-
	      itory.)

COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS
       This section describes the command_options that	are  available	across
       several	cvs  commands.	Not all	commands support all of	these options;
       each option is only supported for commands where	it makes sense.	  How-
       ever, when a command has	one of these options you can count on the same
       meaning for the option as in other commands.  (Other  command  options,
       which are listed	with the individual commands, may have different mean-
       ings from one cvs command to another.)  Warning:	the history command is
       an  exception;  it  supports many options that conflict even with these
       standard	options.

       -D date_spec
	      Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec  (a	single
	      argument,	 date  description  specifying a date in the past).  A
	      wide variety of date formats are supported,  in  particular  ISO
	      ("1972-09-24  20:05")  or	 Internet  ("24	Sep 1972 20:05").  The
	      date_spec	is interpreted as being	in the local timezone,	unless
	      a	  specific   timezone  is  specified.	The  specification  is
	      ``sticky'' when you use it to make a private copy	 of  a	source
	      file; that is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs records
	      the date you specified, so that  further	updates	 in  the  same
	      directory	will use the same date (unless you explicitly override
	      it; see the description of the update command).  -D is available
	      with  the	 checkout,  diff,  history,  export,  rdiff, rtag, and
	      update commands.	Examples of valid date specifications include:
			1 month	ago
			2 hours	ago
			400000 seconds ago
			last year
			last Monday
			yesterday
			a fortnight ago
			3/31/92	10:00:07 PST
			January	23, 1987 10:05pm
			22:00 GMT

       -f     When  you	specify	a particular date or tag to cvs	commands, they
	      normally ignore files that do not	contain	the tag	 (or  did  not
	      exist on the date) that you specified.  Use the -f option	if you
	      want files retrieved even	when there is no match for the tag  or
	      date.   (The most	recent version is used in this situation.)  -f
	      is available with	these commands:	checkout, export, rdiff, rtag,
	      and update.

       -k kflag
	      Alter  the  default  processing  of  keywords.  The -k option is
	      available	with the  add,	checkout,  diff,  export,  rdiff,  and
	      update  commands.	  Your	kflag specification is ``sticky'' when
	      you use it to create a private copy of a source file;  that  is,
	      when  you	 use this option with the checkout or update commands,
	      cvs associates your selected kflag with the file,	and  continues
	      to use it	with future update commands on the same	file until you
	      specify otherwise.

	      Some of the more useful kflags  are  -ko	and  -kb  (for	binary
	      files),  and -kv which is	useful for an export where you wish to
	      retain keyword information after an import at some other site.

       -l     Local; run only in current working directory, rather than	recur-
	      ring through subdirectories.   Available with the	following com-
	      mands: checkout, commit, diff, export, remove, rdiff, rtag, sta-
	      tus, tag,	and update.

       -n     Do  not  run any checkout/commit/tag/update program.  (A program
	      can be specified to run on each of these activities, in the mod-
	      ules  database;  this  option  bypasses it.)  Available with the
	      checkout,	commit,	export,	and rtag commands.  Warning:  this  is
	      not the same as the overall `cvs -n' option, which you can spec-
	      ify to the left of a cvs command!

       -P     Prune (remove) directories that are empty	after  being  updated,
	      on  checkout, or update.	Normally, an empty directory (one that
	      is void of revision-controlled files) is left alone.  Specifying
	      -P will cause these directories to be silently removed from your
	      checked-out sources.  This does not remove  the  directory  from
	      the repository, only from	your checked out copy.	Note that this
	      option is	implied	by the	-r  or	-D  options  of	 checkout  and
	      export.

       -T     Create/Update CVS/Template by copying it from the	(local)	repos-
	      itory.  This option is useful for	developers maintaining a local
	      cvs  repository but committing to	a remote repository.  By main-
	      taining CVS/Template the remote commits will still  be  able  to
	      bring  up	 the  proper  template	in  the	commit editor session.
	      Available	with the checkout and update commands.

       -p     Pipe the files retrieved from the	repository to standard output,
	      rather  than  writing  them in the current directory.  Available
	      with the checkout	and update commands.

       -r tag Use the revision specified by the	tag argument  instead  of  the
	      default  ``head''	 revision.   As	well as	arbitrary tags defined
	      with the tag or rtag command, two	special	tags are always	avail-
	      able:  `HEAD' refers to the most recent version available	in the
	      repository, and `BASE' refers to the revision you	 last  checked
	      out into the current working directory.

	      The  tag	specification  is  ``sticky'' when you use this	option
	      with `cvs	checkout' or `cvs update' to make your own copy	 of  a
	      file:  cvs  remembers  the tag and continues to use it on	future
	      update commands, until you specify otherwise.  tag can be	either
	      a	 symbolic  or  numeric	tag.   Specifying the -q global	option
	      along with the -r	command	option is often	 useful,  to  suppress
	      the  warning  messages  when  the	 RCS file does not contain the
	      specified	tag.  -r is available with the checkout, commit, diff,
	      history,	export,	 rdiff,	 rtag,	and update commands.  Warning:
	      this is not the same as the overall `cvs -r' option,  which  you
	      can specify to the left of a cvs command!

CVS COMMANDS
       Here (finally) are details on all the cvs commands and the options each
       accepts.	 The summary lines at the top of  each	command's  description
       highlight three kinds of	things:

	   Command Options and Arguments
		 Special options are described in detail below;	common command
		 options may appear only in the	summary	line.

	   Working Directory, or Repository?
		 Some cvs commands require a  working  directory  to  operate;
		 some  require	a  repository.	Also, some commands change the
		 repository, some  change  the	working	 directory,  and  some
		 change	nothing.

	   Synonyms
		 Many  commands	 have  synonyms,  which	you may	find easier to
		 remember (or type) than the principal name.

       add [-k kflag] [-m 'message'] files...
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      Synonym: new
	      Use the add command to create a new file	or  directory  in  the
	      source  repository.  The files or	directories specified with add
	      must already exist in the	current	 directory  (which  must  have
	      been  created  with  the	checkout command).  To add a whole new
	      directory	hierarchy to the source	repository (for	example, files
	      received	from  a	third-party vendor), use the `cvs import' com-
	      mand instead.

	      If the argument to `cvs add' refers to an	 immediate  sub-direc-
	      tory,  the  directory  is	 created  at  the correct place	in the
	      source repository, and the necessary  cvs	 administration	 files
	      are created in your working directory.  If the directory already
	      exists in	the source repository, `cvs  add'  still  creates  the
	      administration  files  in	 your  version of the directory.  This
	      allows you to use	`cvs add' to add  a  particular	 directory  to
	      your private sources even	if someone else	created	that directory
	      after your checkout of the sources.  You can do the following:

			example% mkdir new_directory
			example% cvs add new_directory
			example% cvs update new_directory

	      An alternate approach using `cvs update' might be:

			example% cvs update -d new_directory

	      (To add any available new	directories to your working directory,
	      it's probably simpler to use `cvs	checkout' or `cvs update -d'.)

	      The added	files are not placed in	the  source  repository	 until
	      you use `cvs commit' to make the change permanent.  Doing	a `cvs
	      add' on a	file that was removed with the	`cvs  remove'  command
	      will  resurrect the file,	if no `cvs commit' command intervened.

	      You will have the	opportunity to specify a logging  message,  as
	      usual, when you use `cvs commit' to make the new file permanent.
	      If you'd like to have another logging  message  associated  with
	      just  creation  of the file (for example,	to describe the	file's
	      purpose),	you can	specify	it with	the `-m	message' option	to the
	      add command.

	      The  `-k	kflag' option specifies	the default way	that this file
	      will be checked out.  The	`kflag'	argument is stored in the  RCS
	      file  and	 can be	changed	with `cvs admin'.  Specifying `-ko' is
	      useful for checking in binaries  that  shouldn't	have  keywords
	      expanded.

       admin [rcs-options] files...
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: rcs
	      This is the cvs interface	to assorted administrative facilities,
	      similar to rcs(1).  This command works recursively,  so  extreme
	      care should be used.

       checkout	[options] modules...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      Synonyms:	co, get
	      Make  a  working directory containing copies of the source files
	      specified	by modules.  You must execute  `cvs  checkout'	before
	      using most of the	other cvs commands, since most of them operate
	      on your working directory.

	      modules are either symbolic names	 (themselves  defined  as  the
	      module  `modules'	in the source repository; see cvs(5)) for some
	      collection of source directories and files, or paths to directo-
	      ries or files in the repository.

	      Depending	 on  the modules you specify, checkout may recursively
	      create directories and populate them with	the appropriate	source
	      files.   You  can	 then  edit  these  source  files  at any time
	      (regardless of whether other  software  developers  are  editing
	      their  own  copies  of  the sources); update them	to include new
	      changes applied by others	to the source  repository;  or	commit
	      your work	as a permanent change to the repository.

	      Note that	checkout is used to create directories.	 The top-level
	      directory	created	is always added	to the directory where	check-
	      out  is  invoked,	and usually has	the same name as the specified
	      module.  In the case of a	module alias, the  created  sub-direc-
	      tory may have a different	name, but you can be sure that it will
	      be a sub-directory, and that checkout  will  show	 the  relative
	      path  leading  to	each file as it	is extracted into your private
	      work area	(unless	you specify the	-Q global option).

	      Running `cvs checkout' on	a directory that was already built  by
	      a	 prior	checkout is also permitted, and	has the	same effect as
	      specifying the -d	option to the update command described	below.

	      The  options  permitted with `cvs	checkout' include the standard
	      command options -P, -f, -k kflag , -l, -n, -p, -r	 tag,  and  -D
	      date.

	      In  addition to those, you can use these special command options
	      with checkout:

	      Use the -A option	 to  reset  any	 sticky	 tags,	dates,	or  -k
	      options.	(If you	get a working file using one of	the -r,	-D, or
	      -k options, cvs remembers	the corresponding tag, date, or	 kflag
	      and  continues  using it on future updates; use the -A option to
	      make cvs forget these specifications, and	retrieve the  ``head''
	      version of the file).

	      The -j branch option merges the changes made between the result-
	      ing revision and the revision that it is based on	(e.g., if  the
	      tag  refers to a branch, cvs will	merge all changes made in that
	      branch into your working file).

	      With two -j options, cvs will merge in the changes  between  the
	      two respective revisions.	 This can be used to ``remove''	a cer-
	      tain delta from your working file.

	      In addition, each	-j option can contain on optional date	speci-
	      fication	which,	when  used with	branches, can limit the	chosen
	      revision to one within a specific	date.	An  optional  date  is
	      specified	by adding a colon (:) to the tag.  An example might be
	      what `cvs	import'	tells you to do	when you  have	just  imported
	      sources that have	conflicts with local changes:

			example% cvs checkout -jTAG:yesterday -jTAG module

	      Use the -N option	with `-d dir' to avoid shortening module paths
	      in your working directory.   (Normally, cvs  shortens  paths  as
	      much as possible when you	specify	an explicit target directory.)

	      Use the -c option	to copy	the module file, sorted, to the	 stan-
	      dard  output,  instead  of  creating  or	modifying any files or
	      directories in your working directory.

	      Use the -d dir option to create a	directory called dir  for  the
	      working  files,  instead	of  using the module name.  Unless you
	      also use -N, the paths created under dir will  be	 as  short  as
	      possible.

	      Use  the	-s  option  to	display	 per-module status information
	      stored with the -s option	within the modules file.

       commit [-lnR] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision]	[files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: ci
	      Use `cvs commit' when you	want to	incorporate changes from  your
	      working source files into	the general source repository.

	      If  you  don't  specify  particular  files to commit, all	of the
	      files in your working current directory are examined.  commit is
	      careful  to  change  in the repository only those	files that you
	      have really changed.  By default (or if you  explicitly  specify
	      the  -R  option),	 files in subdirectories are also examined and
	      committed	if they	have changed; you can use  the	-l  option  to
	      limit  commit  to	the current directory only.  Sometimes you may
	      want to  force  a	 file  to  be  committed  even	though	it  is
	      unchanged; this is achieved with the -f flag, which also has the
	      effect of	disabling recursion (you can turn it back on  with  -R
	      of course).

	      commit  verifies that the	selected files are up to date with the
	      current revisions	in the source repository; it will notify  you,
	      and  exit	without	committing, if any of the specified files must
	      be made current first with `cvs update'.	commit does  not  call
	      the update command for you, but rather leaves that for you to do
	      when the time is right.

	      When all is well,	an editor is invoked to	allow you to  enter  a
	      log message that will be written to one or more logging programs
	      and placed in the	source repository file.	 You can instead spec-
	      ify the log message on the command line with the -m option, thus
	      suppressing the editor invocation, or use	the -F option to spec-
	      ify that the argument file contains the log message.

	      The  -r option can be used to commit to a	particular symbolic or
	      numeric revision.	 For example, to bring all your	 files	up  to
	      the revision ``3.0'' (including those that haven't changed), you
	      might do:

			example% cvs commit -r3.0

	      cvs will only allow you to commit	to a revision that is  on  the
	      main  trunk  (a  revision	 with a	single dot).  However, you can
	      also commit to a branch revision (one that has an	even number of
	      dots) with the -r	option.	 To create a branch revision, one typ-
	      ically use the -b	option of the rtag  or	tag  commands.	 Then,
	      either  checkout	or  update can be used to base your sources on
	      the newly	created	 branch.   From	 that  point  on,  all	commit
	      changes  made within these working sources will be automatically
	      added to a branch	revision,  thereby  not	 perturbing  main-line
	      development  in  any  way.   For example,	if you had to create a
	      patch to the 1.2 version of the product,	even  though  the  2.0
	      version is already under development, you	might do:

			example% cvs rtag -b -rFCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module
			example% cvs checkout -rFCS1_2_Patch product_module
			example% cd product_module
			[[ hack	away ]]
			example% cvs commit

	      Say  you	have been working on some extremely experimental soft-
	      ware, based on whatever revision you happened to	checkout  last
	      week.   If others	in your	group would like to work on this soft-
	      ware with	you, but without disturbing main-line development, you
	      could  commit  your  change  to  a  new branch.  Others can then
	      checkout your experimental stuff and utilize the full benefit of
	      cvs conflict resolution.	The scenario might look	like:

			example% cvs tag -b EXPR1
			example% cvs update -rEXPR1
			[[ hack	away ]]
			example% cvs commit

	      Others would simply do `cvs checkout -rEXPR1 whatever_module' to
	      work with	you on the experimental	change.

       diff [-kl] [format_options] [[-r	rev1 | -D date1	| -j  rev1:date1]  [-r
       rev2 | -D date2 | -j rev2:date2]] [files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      You can compare your working files with revisions	in the	source
	      repository, with the `cvs	diff' command.	If you don't specify a
	      particular revision, your	files are compared with	the  revisions
	      they  were  based	on.  You can also use the standard cvs command
	      option -r	to specify a particular	revision to compare your files
	      with.   Finally,	if  you	 use -r	twice, you can see differences
	      between two revisions in the repository.	You can	 also  specify
	      -D  options  to  diff against a revision (on the head branch) in
	      the past,	and you	can also specify -j options to diff against  a
	      revision	relative  to  a	branch tag in the past.	 The -r	and -D
	      and -j options can be mixed together with	at  most  two  options
	      ever specified.

	      See `cvs --help diff' for	a list of supported format_options.

	      If  you  don't  specify any files, diff will display differences
	      for all those files in the current directory (and	its  subdirec-
	      tories,  unless you use the standard option -l) that differ from
	      the corresponding	revision in the	source repository (i.e.	 files
	      that  you	have changed), or that differ from the revision	speci-
	      fied.

       export [-flNnQq]	-r rev|-D date [-d dir]	[-k kflag] module...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: current directory.
	      This command is a	variant	of `cvs	checkout';  use	 it  when  you
	      want a copy of the source	for module without the cvs administra-
	      tive directories.	 For example, you might	use  `cvs  export'  to
	      prepare  source  for  shipment  off-site.	 This command requires
	      that you specify a date or tag (with -D or -r), so that you  can
	      count on reproducing the source you ship to others.

	      The  only	 non-standard  options	are `-d	dir' (write the	source
	      into directory dir)  and	`-N'  (don't  shorten  module  paths).
	      These  have the same meanings as the same	options	in `cvs	check-
	      out'.

	      The -kv option is	useful when export is used.  This  causes  any
	      keywords	to  be expanded	such that an import done at some other
	      site will	not lose  the  keyword	revision  information.	 Other
	      kflags may be used with `cvs export' and are described in	co(1).

       history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]
	      Requires:	the file `$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history'
	      Changes: nothing.
	      cvs keeps	a history file that tracks each	use of	the  checkout,
	      commit,  rtag,  update,  and release commands.  You can use `cvs
	      history' to display this information in various formats.

	      Warning: `cvs history' uses `-f',	`-l', `-n', and	`-p'  in  ways
	      that conflict with the descriptions in COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS.

	      Several  options	(shown	above as -report) control what kind of
	      report is	generated:

	     -c	 Report	on each	time commit was	 used  (i.e.,  each  time  the
		 repository was	modified).

	     -m	module
		 Report	 on a particular module.  (You can meaningfully	use -m
		 more than once	on the command line.)

	     -o	 Report	on checked-out modules.

	     -T	 Report	on all tags.

	     -x	type
		 Extract a particular set of record types X from the cvs  his-
		 tory.	 The  types are	indicated by single letters, which you
		 may specify in	combination.  Certain commands have  a	single
		 record	 type:	checkout  (type	 `O'), release (type `F'), and
		 rtag (type `T').  One of four record types may	result from an
		 update:  `W', when the	working	copy of	a file is deleted dur-
		 ing update (because it	was gone from  the  repository);  `U',
		 when a	working	file was copied	from the repository; `G', when
		 a merge was necessary and it succeeded; and 'C', when a merge
		 was  necessary	but collisions were detected (requiring	manual
		 merging).  Finally, one of three record  types	 results  from
		 commit:  `M',	when  a	file was modified; `A',	when a file is
		 first added; and `R', when a file is removed.

	     -e	 Everything  (all  record  types);  equivalent	to  specifying
		 `-xMACFROGWUT'.

	     -z	zone
		 Use time zone zone when outputting history records.  The zone
		 name LT stands	for local  time;  numeric  offsets  stand  for
		 hours	and  minutes  ahead of UTC.  For example, +0530	stands
		 for 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of (i.e. east	of) UTC.

	    The	options	shown as -flags	constrain the report without requiring
	    option arguments:

	     -a	 Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for
		 the user executing `cvs history').

	     -l	 Show last modification	only.

	     -w	 Show only the records for modifications done  from  the  same
		 working directory where `cvs history' is executing.

	    The	 options  shown	as -options args constrain the report based on
	    an argument:

	     -b	str
		 Show data back	to a  record  containing  the  string  str  in
		 either	 the  module  name,  the  file name, or	the repository
		 path.

	     -D	date
		 Show data since date.

	     -p	repository
		 Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify
		 several -p options on the same	command	line).

	     -r	rev
		 Show records referring	to revisions since the revision	or tag
		 named rev appears in individual RCS files.  Each RCS file  is
		 searched for the revision or tag.

	     -t	tag
		 Show  records	since  tag  tag	 was last added	to the history
		 file.	This differs from the -r flag above in that  it	 reads
		 only the history file,	not the	RCS files, and is much faster.

	     -u	name
		 Show records for user name.

       import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...
	      Requires:	Repository, source distribution	directory.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Use `cvs import' to incorporate an  entire  source  distribution
	      from  an outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your	source
	      repository directory.  You can use this command both for initial
	      creation	of a repository, and for wholesale updates to the mod-
	      ule form the outside source.

	      The repository argument gives a directory	name (or a path	 to  a
	      directory) under the CVS root directory for repositories;	if the
	      directory	did not	exist, import creates it.

	      When you use import for updates to source	that has been modified
	      in your source repository	(since a prior import),	it will	notify
	      you of any files that conflict in	the two	branches  of  develop-
	      ment;  use  `cvs	checkout  -j' to reconcile the differences, as
	      import instructs you to do.

	      By default, certain file names are ignored during	`cvs  import':
	      names  associated	 with CVS administration, or with other	common
	      source control systems; common names  for	 patch	files,	object
	      files,  archive  files, and editor backup	files; and other names
	      that are usually artifacts of assorted utilities.	 For an	up  to
	      date  list  of ignored file names, see the Cederqvist manual (as
	      described	in the SEE ALSO	section	of this	manpage).

	      The outside source is saved in a first-level branch, by  default
	      `1.1.1'.	 Updates are leaves of this branch; for	example, files
	      from the first imported collection of source  will  be  revision
	      `1.1.1.1',  then	files  from  the first imported	update will be
	      revision `1.1.1.2', and so on.

	      At least three arguments are required.  repository is needed  to
	      identify	the  collection	of source.  vendortag is a tag for the
	      entire branch (e.g., for `1.1.1').  You  must  also  specify  at
	      least one	releasetag to identify the files at the	leaves created
	      each time	you execute `cvs import'.

	      One of the standard cvs command options is  available:  -m  mes-
	      sage.   If  you  do  not specify a logging message with -m, your
	      editor is	invoked	(as with commit) to allow you to enter one.

	      There are	three additional special options.

	      Use `-d' to specify that each file's time	of  last  modification
	      should be	used for the checkin date and time.

	      Use  `-b	branch'	 to  specify  a	 first-level branch other than
	      `1.1.1'.

	      Use `-I name' to specify file names that should be ignored  dur-
	      ing  import.   You  can  use  this  option repeatedly.  To avoid
	      ignoring any files at all	(even those ignored by default), spec-
	      ify `-I !'.

       log [-l]	rlog-options [files...]
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Synonym: rlog
	      Display  log  information	 for  files.   Among  the  more	useful
	      options are -h to	display	only the header	(including tag defini-
	      tions,  but omitting most	of the full log); -r to	select logs on
	      particular revisions or ranges of	revisions; and	-d  to	select
	      particular  dates	or date	ranges.	 See rlog(1) for full explana-
	      tions.  This command is recursive	 by  default,  unless  the  -l
	      option is	specified.

       rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]]	modules...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Synonym: patch
	      Builds  a	 Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases,
	      that can be fed directly into the	patch program to bring an  old
	      release  up-to-date  with	 the new release.  (This is one	of the
	      few cvs commands that operates directly from the repository, and
	      doesn't  require	a prior	checkout.)  The	diff output is sent to
	      the standard output device.  You can specify (using the standard
	      -r  and  -D  options) any	combination of one or two revisions or
	      dates.  If only one revision or date  is	specified,  the	 patch
	      file  reflects differences between that revision or date and the
	      current ``head'' revisions in the	RCS file.

	      Note that	if the software	release	affected is contained in  more
	      than  one	 directory, then it may	be necessary to	specify	the -p
	      option to	the patch command when patching	the  old  sources,  so
	      that  patch  is able to find the files that are located in other
	      directories.

	      The standard option flags	-f, and	-l  are	 available  with  this
	      command.	There are also several special option flags:

	      If you use the -s	option,	no patch output	is produced.  Instead,
	      a	summary	of the changed or added	files between the two releases
	      is sent to the standard output device.  This is useful for find-
	      ing out, for example, which files	have changed between two dates
	      or revisions.

	      If  you  use  the	 -t option, a diff of the top two revisions is
	      sent to the standard output device.  This	 is  most  useful  for
	      seeing what the last change to a file was.

	      If you use the -u	option,	the patch output uses the newer	``uni-
	      diff'' format for	context	diffs.

	      You can use -c to	explicitly specify the `diff -c' form of  con-
	      text diffs (which	is the default), if you	like.

       release [-dQq] modules...
	      Requires:	Working	directory.
	      Changes: Working directory, history log.
	      This command is meant to safely cancel the effect	of `cvs	check-
	      out'.  Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary
	      to  use this command.  You can always simply delete your working
	      directory, if you	like; but you risk losing changes you may have
	      forgotten,  and  you leave no trace in the cvs history file that
	      you've abandoned your checkout.

	      Use `cvs release'	to avoid these problems.  This command	checks
	      that no un-committed changes are present;	that you are executing
	      it from immediately above, or inside, a cvs  working  directory;
	      and  that	 the repository	recorded for your files	is the same as
	      the repository defined in	the module database.

	      If all these conditions are true,	`cvs release' leaves a	record
	      of  its  execution  (attesting  to your intentionally abandoning
	      your checkout) in	the cvs	history	log.

	      You can use the -d flag to request that your working  copies  of
	      the source files be deleted if the release succeeds.

       remove [-lR] [files...]
	      Requires:	Working	directory.
	      Changes: Working directory.
	      Synonyms:	rm, delete
	      Use  this	 command to declare that you wish to remove files from
	      the source repository.  Like most	 cvs  commands,	 `cvs  remove'
	      works  on	 files	in your	working	directory, not directly	on the
	      repository.  As a	safeguard, it also  requires  that  you	 first
	      erase the	specified files	from your working directory.

	      The  files are not actually removed until	you apply your changes
	      to the repository	with commit; at	that point, the	 corresponding
	      RCS  files  in  the source repository are	moved into the `Attic'
	      directory	(also within the source	repository).

	      This command is recursive	by default, scheduling all  physically
	      removed files that it finds for removal by the next commit.  Use
	      the -l option to avoid this  recursion,  or  just	 specify  that
	      actual files that	you wish remove	to consider.

       rtag [-falnRQq] [-b] [-d] [-r tag | -D date] symbolic_tag modules...
	      Requires:	repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: rfreeze
	      You  can use this	command	to assign symbolic tags	to particular,
	      explicitly specified source versions in  the  repository.	  `cvs
	      rtag' works directly on the repository contents (and requires no
	      prior checkout).	Use `cvs tag' instead, to base	the  selection
	      of versions to tag on the	contents of your working directory.

	      In general, tags (often the symbolic names of software distribu-
	      tions) should not	be removed, but	the -d option is available  as
	      a	 means	to remove completely obsolete symbolic names if	neces-
	      sary (as might be	the case for an	Alpha release, say).

	      `cvs rtag' will not move a tag that already exists.  With	the -F
	      option,  however,	`cvs rtag' will	re-locate any instance of sym-
	      bolic_tag	that already exists on that file to the	new repository
	      versions.	  Without  the -F option, attempting to	use `cvs rtag'
	      to apply a tag that already exists on that file will produce  an
	      error message.

	      The  -b  option makes the	tag a ``branch'' tag, allowing concur-
	      rent, isolated development.  This	is most	useful for creating  a
	      patch to a previously released software distribution.

	      You  can	use  the  standard -r and -D options to	tag only those
	      files that already contain a certain tag.	 This method would  be
	      used  to	rename a tag: tag only the files identified by the old
	      tag, then	delete the old tag, leaving the	new tag	on exactly the
	      same files as the	old tag.

	      rtag executes recursively	by default, tagging all	subdirectories
	      of modules you specify in	the argument.  You  can	 restrict  its
	      operation	 to top-level directories with the standard -l option;
	      or you can explicitly request recursion with -R.

	      The modules database can specify a program to execute whenever a
	      tag  is specified; a typical use is to send electronic mail to a
	      group of interested parties.  If you want	to  bypass  that  pro-
	      gram, use	the standard -n	option.

	      Use  the	-a option to have rtag look in the `Attic' for removed
	      files that contain the specified tag.  The tag is	 removed  from
	      these  files, which makes	it convenient to re-use	a symbolic tag
	      as development continues (and files get removed from the up-com-
	      ing distribution).

       status [-lRqQ] [-v] [files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: nothing.
	      Display  a  brief	 report	 on  the  current status of files with
	      respect to the source repository,	including any ``sticky'' tags,
	      dates,  or  -k  options.	 (``Sticky'' options will restrict how
	      `cvs update' operates until you reset them; see the  description
	      of `cvs update -A...'.)

	      You can also use this command to anticipate the potential	impact
	      of a `cvs	update'	on your	working	source directory.  If  you  do
	      not  specify  any	 files	explicitly,  reports are shown for all
	      files that cvs has placed	in your	working	 directory.   You  can
	      limit  the  scope	of this	search to the current directory	itself
	      (not its subdirectories) with the	standard -l  option  flag;  or
	      you  can explicitly request recursive status reports with	the -R
	      option.

	      The -v option causes the symbolic	tags for the RCS  file	to  be
	      displayed	as well.

       tag  [-lQqR]  [-F]  [-b]	 [-d]  [-r  tag	 |  -D date] [-f] symbolic_tag
       [files...]
	      Requires:	working	directory, repository.
	      Changes: repository.
	      Synonym: freeze
	      Use  this	command	to assign symbolic tags	to the nearest reposi-
	      tory versions to your working sources.   The  tags  are  applied
	      immediately to the repository, as	with rtag.

	      One potentially surprising aspect	of the fact that cvs tag oper-
	      ates on the repository is	that you are  tagging  the  checked-in
	      revisions,  which	may differ from	locally	modified files in your
	      working directory.  If you want to avoid doing this by  mistake,
	      specify the -c option to cvs tag.	 If there are any locally mod-
	      ified files, CVS will abort with an error	 before	 it  tags  any
	      files.

	      One  use	for  tags  is  to record a ``snapshot''	of the current
	      sources when the software	freeze date of a project arrives.   As
	      bugs are fixed after the freeze date, only those changed sources
	      that are to be part of the release need be re-tagged.

	      The symbolic tags	are meant to permanently  record  which	 revi-
	      sions  of	which files were used in creating a software distribu-
	      tion.  The checkout, export and update  commands	allow  you  to
	      extract  an  exact  copy	of a tagged release at any time	in the
	      future, regardless of whether files have been changed, added, or
	      removed since the	release	was tagged.

	      You  can	use  the  standard -r and -D options to	tag only those
	      files that already contain a certain tag.	 This method would  be
	      used  to	rename a tag: tag only the files identified by the old
	      tag, then	delete the old tag, leaving the	new tag	on exactly the
	      same files as the	old tag.

	      Specifying  the  -f  flag	in addition to the -r or -D flags will
	      tag those	files named on the command line	even if	 they  do  not
	      contain the old tag or did not exist on the specified date.

	      By  default  (without a -r or -D flag) the versions to be	tagged
	      are supplied implicitly by  the  cvs  records  of	 your  working
	      files' history rather than applied explicitly.

	      If  you  use  `cvs tag -d	symbolic_tag...', the symbolic tag you
	      specify is deleted instead of being  added.   Warning:  Be  very
	      certain  of  your	 ground	 before	 you  delete a tag; doing this
	      effectively discards  some  historical  information,  which  may
	      later turn out to	have been valuable.

	      `cvs  tag' will not move a tag that already exists.  With	the -F
	      option, however, `cvs tag' will re-locate	any instance  of  sym-
	      bolic_tag	that already exists on that file to the	new repository
	      versions.	 Without the -F	option,	attempting to use `cvs tag' to
	      apply  a	tag  that  already exists on that file will produce an
	      error message.

	      The -b option makes the tag a ``branch'' tag,  allowing  concur-
	      rent,  isolated development.  This is most useful	for creating a
	      patch to a previously released software distribution.

	      Normally,	tag executes recursively through  subdirectories;  you
	      can prevent this by using	the standard -l	option,	or specify the
	      recursion	explicitly by using -R.

       update [-ACdflPpQqR] [-d] [-r tag|-D date] files...
	      Requires:	repository, working directory.
	      Changes: working directory.
	      After you've run checkout	to create your private copy of	source
	      from  the	 common	 repository,  other  developers	 will continue
	      changing the central source.  From time to time, when it is con-
	      venient in your development process, you can use the update com-
	      mand from	within your working directory to reconcile  your  work
	      with  any	revisions applied to  the source repository since your
	      last checkout or update.

	      update keeps you informed	of its progress	by printing a line for
	      each  file,  prefaced with one of	the characters `U P A R	M C ?'
	      to indicate the status of	the file:

       U file	 The file was brought up to date with respect to  the  reposi-
		 tory.	 This  is done for any file that exists	in the reposi-
		 tory but not in your source, and for files that  you  haven't
		 changed but are not the most recent versions available	in the
		 repository.

       P file	 Like U, but the CVS server sends a patch instead of an	entire
		 file.	This accomplishes the same thing as U using less band-
		 width.

       A file	 The file has been added to your private copy of the  sources,
		 and  will be added to the source repository when you run `cvs
		 commit' on the	file.  This is a reminder to you that the file
		 needs to be committed.

       R file	 The  file  has	 been  removed	from  your private copy	of the
		 sources, and will be removed from the source repository  when
		 you  run `cvs commit' on the file.  This is a reminder	to you
		 that the file needs to	be committed.

       M file	 The file is modified in  your	working	 directory.   `M'  can
		 indicate  one	of  two	 states	 for a file you're working on:
		 either	there were no modifications to the same	 file  in  the
		 repository,  so that your file	remains	as you last saw	it; or
		 there were modifications in the repository as well as in your
		 copy, but they	were merged successfully, without conflict, in
		 your working directory.

       C file	 A conflict was	detected while trying to merge your changes to
		 file with changes from	the source repository.	file (the copy
		 in your working directory) is now the result of  merging  the
		 two versions; an unmodified copy of your file is also in your
		 working directory, with the name `.#file.version', where ver-
		 sion  is  the	revision that your modified file started from.
		 (Note that some systems automatically purge files that	 begin
		 with  `.#' if they have not been accessed for a few days.  If
		 you intend to keep a copy of your original file, it is	a very
		 good idea to rename it.)

       ? file	 file is in your working directory, but	does not correspond to
		 anything in the source	repository, and	is not in the list  of
		 files	for  cvs  to  ignore  (see  the	 description of	the -I
		 option).

	    Use	the -A option to reset any sticky tags,	dates, or -k  options.
	    (If	 you  get a working copy of a file by using one	of the -r, -D,
	    or -k options, cvs remembers the corresponding tag,	date, or kflag
	    and	 continues  using  it  on future updates; use the -A option to
	    make cvs forget these specifications, and  retrieve	 the  ``head''
	    version of the file).

	    The	 -jbranch option merges	the changes made between the resulting
	    revision and the revision that it is based on (e.g.,  if  the  tag
	    refers to a	branch,	cvs will merge all changes made	in that	branch
	    into your working file).

	    With two -j	options, cvs will merge	in the changes between the two
	    respective	revisions.   This  can be used to ``remove'' a certain
	    delta from your working file.  E.g., If the	file foo.c is based on
	    revision 1.6 and I want to remove the changes made between 1.3 and
	    1.5, I might do:

		      example% cvs update -j1.5	-j1.3 foo.c   #	note the order...

	    In addition, each -j option	can contain on optional	date  specifi-
	    cation  which, when	used with branches, can	limit the chosen revi-
	    sion to one	within a specific date.	 An optional date is specified
	    by adding a	colon (:) to the tag.

		      -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier

	    Use	 the  -d  option  to  create any directories that exist	in the
	    repository if they're missing from the working  directory.	 (Nor-
	    mally, update acts only on directories and files that were already
	    enrolled in	your working directory.)  This is useful for  updating
	    directories	 that were created in the repository since the initial
	    checkout; but it has an unfortunate	side effect.  If you  deliber-
	    ately  avoided certain directories in the repository when you cre-
	    ated your working directory	(either	through	use of a  module  name
	    or	by  listing explicitly the files and directories you wanted on
	    the	command	line), then updating with -d will create those	direc-
	    tories, which may not be what you want.

	    Use	 -I name to ignore files whose names match name	(in your work-
	    ing	directory) during the update.  You can specify	-I  more  than
	    once  on  the command line to specify several files	to ignore.  By
	    default, update ignores files whose	names match certain  patterns;
	    for	 an  up	to date	list of	ignored	file names, see	the Cederqvist
	    manual (as described in the	SEE ALSO section of this manpage).

	    Use	`-I !' to avoid	ignoring any files at all.

	    Use	the `-C' option	to overwrite locally modified files with clean
	    copies  from  the  repository  (the	 modified  file	 is  saved  in
	    `.#file.revision', however).

	    The	standard cvs command options -f, -k, -l, -P, -p,  and  -r  are
	    also available with	update.

FILES
       For more	detailed information on	cvs supporting files, see cvs(5).

       Files in	home directories:

       .cvsrc The  cvs initialization file.  Lines in this file	can be used to
	      specify default options for each cvs command.  For  example  the
	      line  `diff -c' will ensure that `cvs diff' is always passed the
	      -c option	in addition to any other options passed	on the command
	      line.

       .cvswrappers
	      Specifies	 wrappers to be	used in	addition to those specified in
	      the CVSROOT/cvswrappers file in the repository.

       Files in	working	directories:

       CVS    A	directory of cvs administrative	files.	Do not delete.

       CVS/Entries
	      List and status of files in your working directory.

       CVS/Entries.Backup
	      A	backup of `CVS/Entries'.

       CVS/Entries.Static
	      Flag: do not add more entries on `cvs update'.

       CVS/Root
	      Pathname to the repository ( CVSROOT ) location at the  time  of
	      checkout.	  This file is used instead of the CVSROOT environment
	      variable if the environment variable is not set.	A warning mes-
	      sage  will be issued when	the contents of	this file and the CVS-
	      ROOT environment variable	differ.	 The file may  be  over-ridden
	      by  the presence of the CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT environment vari-
	      able.

       CVS/Repository
	      Pathname to the corresponding directory in  the  source  reposi-
	      tory.

       CVS/Tag
	      Contains	the  per-directory ``sticky'' tag or date information.
	      This file	is created/updated when	you specify -r or  -D  to  the
	      checkout or update commands, and no files	are specified.

       CVS/Checkin.prog
	      Name of program to run on	`cvs commit'.

       CVS/Update.prog
	      Name of program to run on	`cvs update'.

       Files in	source repositories:

       $CVSROOT/CVSROOT
	      Directory	of global administrative files for repository.

       CVSROOT/commitinfo,v
	      Records programs for filtering `cvs commit' requests.

       CVSROOT/cvswrappers,v
	      Records cvs wrapper commands to be used when checking files into
	      and out of the repository.  Wrappers allow the file or directory
	      to be processed on the way in and	out of CVS.  The intended uses
	      are many,	one possible use would be to reformat a	C file	before
	      the  file	 is  checked  in, so all of the	code in	the repository
	      looks the	same.

       CVSROOT/editinfo,v
	      Records  programs	 for  editing/validating  `cvs	 commit'   log
	      entries.

       CVSROOT/history
	      Log file of cvs transactions.

       CVSROOT/loginfo,v
	      Records programs for piping `cvs commit' log entries.

       CVSROOT/modules,v
	      Definitions for modules in this repository.

       CVSROOT/rcsinfo,v
	      Records pathnames	to templates used during a `cvs	commit'	opera-
	      tion.

       CVSROOT/taginfo,v
	      Records programs for validating/logging `cvs tag'	and `cvs rtag'
	      operations.

       MODULE/Attic
	      Directory	for removed source files.

       #cvs.lock
	      A	 lock directory	created	by cvs when doing sensitive changes to
	      the source repository.

       #cvs.tfl.pid
	      Temporary	lock file for repository.

       #cvs.rfl.pid
	      A	read lock.

       #cvs.wfl.pid
	      A	write lock.

ENVIRONMENT
       CVSROOT
	      Should contain the full pathname to the root of the  cvs	source
	      repository  (where  the  RCS  files are kept).  This information
	      must be available	to cvs for most	commands to execute;  if  CVS-
	      ROOT  is	not set, or if you wish	to override it for one invoca-
	      tion, you	can supply it on the command  line:  `cvs  -d  cvsroot
	      cvs_command...'  You  may	 not  need  to set CVSROOT if your cvs
	      binary has the right path	compiled in.

       CVSREAD
	      If this is set, checkout and update will try hard	 to  make  the
	      files  in	 your  working	directory read-only.  When this	is not
	      set, the default behavior	is  to	permit	modification  of  your
	      working files.

       CVSREADONLYFS
	      If  this	is  set, the -R	option is assumed, and cvs operates in
	      read-only	repository mode.

       RCSBIN Specifies	the full pathname where	to find	RCS programs, such  as
	      co(1) and	ci(1) (CVS 1.9 and older).

       CVSEDITOR
	      Specifies	 the  program to use for recording log messages	during
	      commit.  If not set, the VISUAL and EDITOR environment variables
	      are  tried  (in that order).  If neither is set, a system-depen-
	      dent default editor (e.g., vi) is	used.

       CVS_CLIENT_PORT
	      If this variable is set then cvs will use	this port  in  pserver
	      mode rather than the default port	(cvspserver 2401).

       CVS_IGNORE_REMOTE_ROOT
	      If  this	variable is set	then cvs will ignore all references to
	      remote repositories in the CVS/Root file.

       CVS_OPTIONS
	      Specifies	a set of default options for cvs.  These  options  are
	      interpreted  before  the startup file (~/.cvsrc) is read and can
	      be overridden by explicit	command	line parameters.

       CVS_RSH
	      cvs uses the contents of this variable to	determine the name  of
	      the  remote shell	command	to use when starting a cvs server.  If
	      this variable is not set then `ssh' is used.

       CVS_SERVER
	      cvs uses the contents of this variable to	determine the name  of
	      the  cvs server command.	If this	variable is not	set then `cvs'
	      is used.

       CVSWRAPPERS
	      This variable is used by the `cvswrappers' script	 to  determine
	      the  name	 of  the  wrapper  file,  in  addition to the wrappers
	      defaults contained in the	repository  (CVSROOT/cvswrappers)  and
	      the user's home directory	(~/.cvswrappers).

AUTHORS
       Dick Grune
	      Original	author	of  the	 cvs  shell  script  version posted to
	      comp.sources.unix	in the	volume6	 release  of  December,	 1986.
	      Credited with much of the	cvs conflict resolution	algorithms.

       Brian Berliner
	      Coder  and  designer  of	the cvs	program	itself in April, 1989,
	      based on the original work done by Dick.

       Jeff Polk
	      Helped Brian with	the design of the cvs module and vendor	branch
	      support  and author of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor
	      of `cvs import').

       And many	others too numerous to mention here.

SEE ALSO
       The most	comprehensive manual for CVS is	Version	Management with	CVS by
       Per Cederqvist et al.  Depending	on your	system,	you may	be able	to get
       it with the info	cvs command or it may be available  as	cvs.ps	(post-
       script),	cvs.texinfo (texinfo source), or cvs.html.

       For CVS updates,	more information on documentation, software related to
       CVS, development	of CVS,	and more, see:
		 http://cvshome.org http://www.loria.fr/~molli/cvs-index.html

       ci(1), co(1), cvs(5), cvsbug(8),	diff(1),  grep(1),  patch(1),  rcs(1),
       rcsdiff(1), rcsmerge(1),	rlog(1).

									CVS(1)

NAME | SYNOPSIS | NOTE | DESCRIPTION | ESSENTIAL COMMANDS | OPTIONS | CVS OPTIONS | USAGE | CVS STARTUP FILE | CVS COMMAND SUMMARY | COMMON COMMAND OPTIONS | CVS COMMANDS | FILES | ENVIRONMENT | AUTHORS | SEE ALSO

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